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«£ Workes of GOD. ft 

Firft, in Gcnerall, out of the words of the 
Pfalmitty Pfal.itf>6* 

Secondly, in Particular ofthe Creation, out of ^ ?r 


thervords */Moses, Genesis, C/^. i.andz 

Thirdly, of Gods a&uall Providence. ^H^ 
, L __ <is||* 

By george JValker B. of Divinity, and Paftour of S K .Jokfi ^Q^ 
EvAYigdifts Church in London. 


R O M. 1.20, 


Fortheiiwijible things $f him from the Creation of the^j ^FjgT 

world Are clearly feeze, being under flood by the things ^C 

thdt are made> even his eterndll Fewer and God head t [£ |y 

/J f/wr f A^y jre without exenfe. t! 

4 v :^ 

^5^ London,Printed by <y. A/.for ^fcu £*?&* at the fighe ofthe gilt jjf ig- 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



friends Sir Thomas TSarringtcn, Sir 

Gilbert Gerard % Sir William Majfam, and 

Sir Martin Lumley, Knights and Baronets, 

now honourable Knights of the houfe of Com- 

mons in the high (fourt of P arHdment y CjrAce 

and peace wun increale of all bkiiin^s 

tcmporall and eternal!* 

ftight WorftipfoU, 

Hat undeferved fay cur and re- 
Jpefl; which 1 have found at your 
hands , and the due refpeft which 
1 owe to your religious families t 
do oblige me tofheW fome tefii- 
3^4 won) of my thankfulnes , And be- 
tcufe 1 halve no better prefent 'at this time ', but this 
Treat ife of Gods ext email I Vorh es^compofed out of Ser- 
mons heretofore preached to mine oxvnlittle flock-, and 
in the troublefometime of my late bonds brought into 
this forme. J wufl craye pardon for my boldnejje in pre- 
fixing to offer it to your hands if ee'mg per fom of higher 

% 3 pl«* 

The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

place have defamed, and branded tbefe and the reft of 
my Sermons preached for divers yeareslaftpaft, with 
the reproachful! name of factious and [editions doct- 
rine standby their grievous tccufatiozs have caufed 
me to be [hut up as the great ttoubler of the City wherin 
Hive, and kept in fure hold leaft this my manner of 
preaching might proove danger om^anda caufe of much 
hurty and many trouble sin the fe changeable and deubt- 
full times,, From tbefe andfucb crimes andunjuU ac- 
cufations as I have in part purged and cleared my f elf e 
already in alegaUway j fo by pur help and favour I 
hope ere long to be openly acquitted andjuftifisd before 
the world. If you JbaH be pleafed to caft a favour able 
eye upon theje my poore labour es^and to take a <view of 
them. 1 doubt not but the precious matter being Gods 
pure yard, will abundantly recompence the failing of 
the cvmpofer, andthe defers of bis sbH and workman* 
Wherforc humbly cravingyour kind acceptance of this 
fmaH token of love,and fender acknowledgement of du- 
ty andfervicc) anddefring to become more indebted to 
you, by your favourable rejp?£l fbewed thereunto $ 1 
commendyour worthy pcrfons and religious familiesto 
the grace and blefiing of the Almighty who fcin<vifible 
majefty^ruen bis di*vine power and God-head is clear- 
ly feene from the Creadon of the world[wbich is in this 
Treatife plainly defcribed) and under flood by the things 

+r*/it0/J Yours in all Chriltim duty and fervicc 

CfCftfW* Om IC i Walks*. 


The externall Works 

of GOD in generally 

Vsaiu, 135. 6. 

Wbtffoelpcr the lordpkaftd that did he in Hearten 
and in Earth, in theft* and all deepe places. 

%g T3^J> &5fr<Sr fef H E external outward workes of God 
which follow in the next place after 
his internall workes, are indeed nothing 
but his a&uall execution of his etcrnall 
counfell, purpofe and decree. For the 
unfolding of which workes in general], 
and laying open of the nature, ufeand 
feverall kindes of them, I have made 
choife of this Text. From the wordes and circumftances 
whereof, we may eafily gather all points of inftru&ion necef- 
fary to be knowne concerning the generall nature, ufe and 
kindes of them. 


OftbtExternaH IVorkes ofGod 4 

Firft, here the words of the Pialmift (hew that he fpeakcs of 
Gods outward workes, becaufe he limits them to places ani 
times,to Heaven, Earth,Sea and all deep places. 

Secondly, he fpeakcs, of them all in general! none excepted, 
fo the Hebrew word ( *7? ) which fignihes ail in generali what- 
foever,doth plainly the w,and alfo the perfect enumeration of all 
places which are in the world, and wherin any outward fenfible 
and viliblc work can be done, to wit: the Heaven, the Earth, the 
Seas and all deepe places. 

Thirdly, he (heweth that God is the author of thefe works,as 
he is Jehovah, that one eternall God in whom there are. three 
perfons,Father,Son and HolyGhoft,for he faith ^'J n)!T fefo- 
vab the Lord doth or hath done. 

Fourthly, he (heweth that the Lord doth all thefe workes 
of himfelre according to his owne will and pleafure, and 
none of them all by compullion, unwittingly and unwil- 
lingly, but even as hee pleafed , and after the counfell of his 
will and pleafure f 2H "tiW 13 whatfoever the Lord plea- 

Fifthly, he intimates that all thefe workes of God come 
neceffirily, infallibly, inevitably and irrefiftably to pafle, and 
that none of them all can fails which God hath beene pleafed 
to doe, but fo come to paffe as he pleafeth in every refpeft, 
even in the fame time and place. This hee intimates in 
that he faith every thing whatfoever the Lord pleafed, he 
hath done. 

Sixtly, he (heweth that thefe outward workes tend to make 
God knowne, and are of ufe to bring us to the knowledge of 
the true God, and in and by them God is knowne aright and his 
greatneffe alfo. This is manifeft by the dependance of this ver. 
on the former. For having f aid, I know that the Lord is great 
ttndthat our Lord is ahove all gods, he brings in this text as an 
argument and proofe faying, whatfoever the Lord pleafed that he 
hath done, which is in effY_4 all one as if he had faid, I know this 
by his doing of all his outward works, for whatfoever the Lord 
pleafed that he hath dune, 

,. Seventhly and laftly, he (lie wes the feverall kinds of Gods out- 
ward workes that they are not only creation but alfo actuall 


Of the External! Workes of God* 

providence which concludes in rxHiegoyeinment oftluanxerki, 
the fall ofmaivnd the left juration of nwn-kind liy thfc redemp- 
tion of the v/oi id. 

Workes of creation he cxprtflab, vtrf.y. and wcrkes of his 
aetuali provide, co, as ordering, governing and living of his 
yeople by C hi i{>, which was hgnhed in tbe deliverance from 
£gjfti he reckons up in the reft of the Pialme both before and 
after niy text, So then it is that this text confdeied 
with the circumftanccs thereof lervcs abundantly, for the ope- 
ning of "the nature, ufe and kind of Gods outward works. 
. In the unfolding whereof, 1 irft let us note the order, cc- 
bctence and fcope of it. Secondly, let us takes view of the 
u ordes and ftft out the true fence of them. Thirdly let us obv 
iervc out of them by way of doer nne, a perfect . defefijbtion oH 
Ccds outward workes in general!, and lallly apply forfomeufe 
the doctrine toourfllves. 

The order and coherence is this, Firft the. Prophet in tha 
3. firft vcrfes, exhorts all to praife the Lord and to laud his 
name, more fpccially the Lords fjrvants who are continuall 
jrofrffofs in his Church. Secondly in the 3, 4, 5. zcrfes he 
s lane rcafons diawne from the Attributes of Cod and the 
c> /deration of his nature, to wit, becaufe the Lord.' is good 
and his name pie: fant, and becaufe of his owne fr;ee .grace he 
la:h cboCn J/>\ic/, that is, his elect and faith full Church to be 
hisowne peculiar people, and becaufe the Lord is. grcatand 
is a god tifave a'l gods. 1 n teilifymg and arrirrning the Lords 
goodmlTe and being above all gods, he brings for procfe his 
cwne knowledge and experience. I know (faith he) that 
the Lord is, vcrfc. 1 1 ur.dly he doth proove Gcd. to be 
11 :ch a'one, even fo good, gracious and great by his outward 
woi'kcs, ajid fturwoarih that by them he knov e$C-od to'befo, 
for he faith here in this text, Whatfoevcr the Lord f leafed tljat he 
hath done, in Heaven and in d.rth, in the Sea ahd all detpe 
places. So that it isplaine by the order, dependance and fcope 
of the text, 'I hat here r JD avid cxtolls Cods outward workes in 
/:enerall,as things proceeding from his owne good pieafere, and 
fcnir.p cd | ^o'.-.ehim to be good and gracicus, and to make us 
know hi in to great and glorious a Codas he is. 

A In 

Of the External Workes ofGoi. 

In. the fecond place, for the wordes themfrlves, they arc 
plaine and eafie to be underftood at the firft hearing without 
any laborious interpretation. They run thus in the Hebrew, 
±A!l which the Lord pie. if eth he hath done, in Heaven, Sarth, Sea 
mi aft deepe places. This word (all) Lhewes that hefpeakes 
not of fome particular workes, but of all in that kind. The 
word fchwah is the proper name of God confidered in the 
unity of his effence with all his eff-ntiall Attributes, and every 
one of the ^.Ptrfons is called by this name, as they are of the 
fam: cflince and all one God. The enumeration of all the 
notable places in the world wherein thefe workes are done 
difcovers the workes which he here fpeakes ofK to be out- 
ward workes which doe not abide in Gods effbnee and there 
onely fubfift as his eternall counfdl, decrees and inward 
operations do, but are done in time and place and have their 
fubfiftance in and among the creatures, fuch as are creating, 
ruling, ordering, upholding of all things, and alfo redeeming 
and reftoring of all man-kinde. The word \jleafetlf\ limits 
the gcnerall note or particle {all) unto all workes which in 
themfelves are good, or die ferve for good uie, and fo are 
pleafing to the Lord for the ufe fake. Hee doth not fay that 
the Lord doth all things which are done, but all things which 
he pieafetb, that is, he doth not make men finnefall and 
wicked, neither doth he worke rebellion in men, which is 
difpleafing unto him, but he doth whatfoever is pleafing, that 
is, all things which are agreeable to his nature. And what- 
foever is according to his will and good pleafure, that he doth, 
none can hinder it. This is the true fenfe and meaning of 
the wordes. Now from the text thus opened and the 
circumftances obferved, wee may gather a perfect de- 
fcription of them in generall {Viewing the nature and ufe of 

The defcription of Gods outward Workes. 

The outward workes of God in generall, are all things what- 
foever the Lord God Jehovah, that one infinite and eternall 
God, g.Perfons, Father, Son and HolyGhoft doth according 
to his eternall purpofe, and after the counfdl and good pleafure 


Of the ExtxrnallWorkesofGod. 

cf his will, work, and bring to pafTe, not within, but with- 
out him felfe in all the world and urcn ail creatures there- 
in, and that certainely and irrefifkbly in due time and 
place to the communicating and making of himfelf known 
to men and Angels in his infinite and eternail nature and 
in his goodncfle, grace, glory, power and all other eflen- 
tiallpropertier/or the filvation and eternail bleflednesof his e- 

This dcicription truely gathered from this Text, and 
the fcope and order cf it and discovering plamely the na- 
ture and ufe of Cods outwaid workes in generall, I will 
proove in every part and branch orderly and will conclude with 
ibme application. 

The firft thing in it is the generall matter of Gods ex- 
ternal! workes, they *rc things dene . that is, not onely ad- 
ions working and operations, fiich as Creation, Red:m pri- 
on and the like; bu: slip things or wcrks made, cff.fted 
and done by thefe aclior s, as Heaven, Earth, Angels and 
other things erected. I or all thefe are things done and 
wrought by Cod. This Branch is plainly cxprefled in this 
word of my Text, HJ; (hath done) or doth or hath made, 
for the Hebrew word fignifies all thefe. And that Gods 
outward works cenfift in doing and are things not fpoken 
or promifed but done and wrought, Divers teltimonies of 
Scripture doe {"hew, ¥ fxl. 44. 1. David cals them workes 
which he hah dene. And lfa. 28. 21. The Trophet faith, 
that the Lord do th his work?, his Jiran^e trorke. And not to 
ftar.d in repeating many Scriptures in a point fo plaine; 
This in one word is fufficient that the two Hebrew words, 
^fc£? & l 'Vr which are tifed in the Scriptures to fig- 
nific Gods outward works are both derived of verbs which (ig- 
nite doing. 

Thefecond branch in this defcription comprehends in it 
the Authour of thefe works, to wit, the Lord Cod Jehovah, 
that one infinite, etermll God and three Peifons, Father, 
Sonne and Holy Ghofl: : This Branch cloth diftingutfh 
thefe workes. Yirft, from the workes of creatures which 
are proper to them. Secondly, from the perfonall operati- 

A 2 ons 

Of the External Workes of God. 

ons of Goi as the etermll begetting of the Sonne which 
is proper to the Father and is his worke onely. That God 
considered in the unity of his effencc as he comprehends all 
the three Perfons, is the Authour of th:fe workes, and 
that they are common to the Father, Son and Holy Ghoft 
and every one of theai hath an hand -in every work of this 
kind ; though one more immediately than another : The 
word Jehovah here ufed in the Text doth plainly (hew, where 
it is fiid, Whatfoever Jehovah pleafed or was willing to do 
that hs hath done : which word is lb proper to God , and 
iignifies One God, that it alio agrees to every perfon in that 
one God. And this is alfo confirmed by divers other tefti- 
monies of Gods word, which (hew that in divers of thefe 
outward actions or workes, the Father workes by the 
Sonne and the Sonne by the Father with and by the Spirit. 
T he fir ft great work of this kind, even the work of Crea- 
tion, which fometimes is attributed to the Father as more 
peculiar to him, becaufe terminator in^Patrc^ as the Scho jle- 
men fpeak, that is, it is bounded and termined in the Fa- 
ther, and he is princifmm & fummxs terminus creationis, the 
firft beginning and utinoft bound of creation, £om whom 
it firft proceeded, even this is attributed to the Sonne and 
Spirit alfo, as being common to all the Perfons, as T(al 9 
33.6. Hy the Word of the Lord (that is the Sonne) Were the 
Heavens made and all the ho ft of them hj the Spirit of hi* 
month. To which adde, Job 33. 4. The Spirit of god made 
me, & John 1.3,10. & Qolof.\.\6. where it is faid, that by 
the eternall word the Sonne all things were made both in 
Heaven and Earth, vifible ani invifble, and without him was 
made nothing of all that Vcas made. So like wife in that out- 
ward worke of Judgement executed on So dome and Cjomor- 
rah, <y0z.i9.24. Jehovah is fiid to raine downe from Jeho- 
vah out of Heaven fire axd' brim ft one, that is Jehova'o the Son 
from Jehovah the Father, who are both one and the fame 
God Jehovah-, yea that thefe externall workes of God are 
not divided fome to one Perfon and fome to another in 
the Trinity, but are common to all the Perfons and proceed 
from that one common edence, according to that frying of 


Of the Exter nail Workes of God, 

the School-men, opera Trtmtatis ad extra funt indlvifi. OiXC 
Saviour fheweth mod plainly, lob.5. 19,22. where he fiith, 
that as the Sonne cannot worke of himfelfe alone without 
the Father, but he mud have and fee the Father working with 
him, i'o the Father doth not judge any, that is by his owne 
proper acl of judgement, but hath committed all judgement 
totheSonne,thathemay have a hand in all judgements toge- 
ther with himfelfe, and lohn 16.13,14. fpeaking of that fpe- 
ciall illumination of mens hearts and inward teaching which 
feemes mod proper to the Spirit, he faith it is not of him- 
felfe alone, but it is what He hath heard and received from 
the Father and the Sonne. And therefore the fecond 
Branch is mamfeft that the doer of the outward workes 
of God is Jehovah our God , and all the three Perfons in 

The third Branch comprehends in it the outward moving 
caufe of all thefe outward workes : namely, Gods owne 
will and pleafure, for he is faid to do them according to 
his eternall purpofe, and after the^counfell of his owne will. 
This is expreffed in the defcription and in the words of the 
Text fStfJ ""'*???. ^? Whatfoever the Lord pleafed , that is, 
whatfoever is according to the Lords will and pleafure that 
he hath done, and this is teftificd in other Scriptures, as 
Pfa/.iif.z. where it is faid, that the Lord doth whatfoever 
fleafeth him, and I fa. 46. 1©. where the Lord faith I will 
do all my pleafure, and All which places fhew 
that firft the Lord hath a mind and pleafure to doe fuch 
things, and therupon he doth them. Alfo, Ephefj.u. It 
is faid he doth worke all things after the counfell of his 
will. And A8s 2.25. & 4.28T the worke of our Redemp- 
tion by Chrift, and all that he did and fifered is faid to be 
done by the determinate counfell of 'Cod. Therfore this Branch is 
manifefi-, namely, That Gods will and pleafure is the only in- 
ward mooving caufe of alibis outward works, and that they 
are nothing but the execution of his eternall will and de- 

The fourth Branch by which thefe outward Works are fpe- 
cially diftingyifhed from his inward operation, comprehends 

A 3 in 

g Of the External! Workes of Gad. 

in it the fubjecT wherein thefc workes do fubfift and the 
circumftance of time and place wherein they are done. 
£or thefe workes are not done within God himfelfe, nei- 
ther doe they fubfift in his Effence, as his inward operati- 
ons do, but they are, Extra 1)ei ejfentiam, without Gods ef- 
fence, they are done in all the world, and upon the crea- 
tures, fome in Heaven and fome in Earth, others in the 
Sea and all deepe places fas my Text faith) and they have 
their circumftances of time and place,, as God hath appoin- 
ted from all eternity. The Creation was in the firft be- 
ginning of time in the firft fix dayes of the world, Gen. i. 
The Redemption wrought by Chrift in the midft of yeares 
betweene the Law and the Gofpell, Hab.%.2. and upon the 
mountaine where Hierufalcm ftood, Jfi, 25.6,7. The great 
execution (hall be at the end of the world in the laft day 
of "Judgement, and the works of Gods governement and a- 
ctuall providence as they are divers, fo they are done at di- 
vers times, and in divers places of the world , as experi- 
ence teacheth, on the very day which the Lord appointed 
did the flood come upon the old world, Cjen.y.n. In the 
feme day which God had fore-told was ijfrael delivered out 
of zAi.jrypt, Exod.21.4j. And howfoever the words of the 
Apoftle, ^#.17.18. intimate that in God (and not with- 
out him) We live, moove and have our being, yet we arc 
not thus to underftand that thefe things are, and that we 
fubfift in Gods Effence, and that we are fo in God as his 
inward operations and eternall decrees are: But that we all 
are compaffed about with Gods prefence and effentiall pow- 
er, which are every where, and by him as by the chiefe ef- 
ficient caufe and authour of life, motion and being are fu- 
ftained and upheld in life, being and motion continually. 
For to be in God, that is^ to fubfift in his effence, doth 
neceffarily imply coeternity and confubftantiality with God. 
guicquid eft in Deo c Dem eft, nothing can be within his 
Effence, but it muft be coeternall with God and of the 
fame Subftance with him. Hee who denies this muft 
needes deny God to be immutable and moft fimple, free 
from all compofitiono Therfore this Branch alfo is moft 


Of the ExternaQWorkes of God, 

raamfeft and doth containe in it nothing but folid 

The fifth Branch containes 'in it the manner of Gods 
outward works, to wit ; that in refpect of God himfelfe, 
they are done with fuch power as cannot be refitted, and 
in refpect of the event, they are certaine, infallible and 
cannot faile. This is trucly collected from the Text : For 
it is faid that all JVhatfoever the Lord yleafeth hee doth, or 
hath done, which fhewes that not one jot of his will and 
pleafure failes but comes to parte. If his will or pleafurc 
could be relifted or any thing prevented which he willeth 
to workc, furely the Diveil who is fo cunning, watchful! 
and malitious would in fome things have defeated God, 
or this either by himfelfe or fome of his inftruments : -But 
this Text arfirmes the contrary, that whatfoeyer the Lord 
pleafed he hath done in all the world. Therfore in refpefr. 
of God they are all unreliable, and in reflect of the event 
infallible. And this David tcftifieth, Pfal. 1 15. 5. faying, 
The Lord doth whatfoever pltafeth him. And Ifa.^6. 10. my 
connfeU [h*ll ftand, and I will performs all my pleafure, yea 
becaufe thefe are voluntary workes of God and are willed 
and decreed in his fecret counfell from all eternity (as I 
have noted before) therefore they muft needs be unreliilabie,for 
Who can rejifi his will 3 R om.9.19. 

The (ixth Branch containes the principall ufe and effects 
of Lods outward workes \ namely, the making of himfelfe 
knowne in his nature and effentiall attributes and {o com- 
municating himfelfe to his elect. That Gods externall 
workes doe all f:rve for this ufe and doe worke this effect 
we may gather from the dependance and inference of this 
Text. For the Pfalmift having profefled that he knows the 
Lord to be great and that he is the onely true God above 
all gods , that is, who hath all the ertentiall properties of 
the true God, he proves it by and from his workes, and 
fheweth that by meanes of them he kno.vcth it. And o- 
ther Scriptures and experience confirms the fune, Pfal.19. 
I. It is f-nd, that the heavens declare the glory of god , and 
the firmament fieweth his handj works , day unto daj uttereth 

A 4 " speech^ 

l0 Of the External Workes of God. 

fpeecby and night unto nigfo fheweth knowledge and Rom. 1.20, 
The vifible things of Cjod are feene from the creation of the 
world, clearly being under food by the things which were made : 
Even his divine Tower and god- head. So the works of Gods 
actual providence in governing and upholding the world, 
and in mooving the Heavens and the ilarres in order, doe 
fhew his infinite wifdonne and fuperceleftia 1 glory, Pfal.S. 
1. His overthrowing of his enemies and the perlecutors of 
his C hurch,as in the Hood of Noah, and in the drowning of 
Pharaoh and his hoft do fhew his power. His giving of 
Chnft his Son for aRedeemer aboundantly teftifieth his infinite 
goodnefTe and bounty ;his punifhing our fins inChrift to the full, 
Siews his infinite Juftice, and his pardoning of beleevers by 
Chrifts fatisfaction, freely given and communicated to them, 
fhewes his infinite mercy and free grace, as the Scriptures 
often teftifie, and our own confeiences within us do wit- 
neffe and our daily fenfe and experience do proove. And 
in our Redemption and application of it we fee difcovered 
the Trinity of Terfons in one God. And while wee in 
thefe things, as in a glaffe behold the glory of God with 
open face ( the vaile of ignorance being remooved) we are 
changed into the fame Image from glory to glory , and fo 
come to have communion with God, and the fruition of him, 
2 CV.3.18. 

The feventh and laft Branch fets before us the utmoft end 
of all Gods outward works, to wit the eternall bletfedneife 
of the elect , by the communion , viiion and fruition of 
God in all his glorious attributes, as wiiedome, power, 
goodnefle, mercy, juftice, and the reft. The Text it felfe 
intimates this Truth to us ; faying, that all thefe workes of 
God proceed from his good will and plea lire. For the 
good pleafure and will of God confifts chiefly and princi- 
pally in willing that his elect ("Kail be brought to perfect 
communion of himfelfe and of his glory for their eternall 
happineffc. And what God willeth according to his owne 
good pleafure, and doth becaufe he is pleafed lb to do, it muft 
needs aime at the bleiTedneffe of his elect by the fight and frui- 
tion of him and his glory. Now ther fore all Gods outward 


Of the Ext email Works of God. \\ 

workes proceeding from Gods pleafurc muft needs tend to 
this end, and this is confirmed, i^w.8.28. & 1 £^.3.21,22, 
23. where we re:d that all things worke together for good 
to them that love Cjod *;nd are the called according to hisfurpofe^ 
and that all things are tie elelis, the world, life and death, 
things yrefcr.t^ and things to ccme, and they are £hrisls and Qhrij} 
\s gods, alfo Ccl.1.16. all things vifible and invifible were 
created as by Chrift (o for him, that they might ierve him 
for tie fahaticn of his elect, and for this end and purpofe 
Angells, principalities and powers are laid to be madefub- 
ject, to Chrift, 1 Pfr.3.22. And their office and minitlery 
and the great winders which Cod doth by them are faidta 
be for them, n ho flail b e hcircs cffalvation, Heb. 1 . 1 4. To theie 
teft imonies many renfons might be added, I will onely call 
to mind that which I have elfe where abundantly declared and 
prooved, to wit, that for this end the w r orld is upheld by 
Chrift, and for his fake and through his mediation everfmce 
mans fall, and for this end the wicked live, even the barbarous 
andfavage nations, cither that they may ierve forfomeufeto 
Gcds people, or for the elects fake w bom God w r ill raifeup 
out of them, or that God may fhew his jufiice and power on 
them being fitted for deftruclion, to the greater glory of his 
elect, even the judgements of God on the wicked, and their 
damnation fervc for this end, toincreafe the bleiTednefle of the 

The doctrine of this defcription ferves for toftirre us up in Vfe j 
imitation of God our Creator, not to content our felveswith 
faying, purpofing and promifing, or with making a fhew of 
doing good workes, but to-be real!, true, conftant and faith- 
full in performance of them. For fo doth God, whatsoever 
he promifeth or purpofeth or is pleafcd to doe, that he doth 
in He:ven and Earth. Sluggards who delight in idlenefle 
doing nothing, and Hypocrites who fay and promife and 
n ake great fhew of doing, but are barren ofthefruitesofgood 
workes, as they are moft unlike to God and conttary tohim, 
fo they are hatcfuil and obhominable in ileiqlit cfGcd, and 
they onely are accepted of Cod who arc active Chriltians, 
alrrayes doutt^ good and Abounding in the Wo? kc of the Lcrd y their 



Of the External! Works of God. 


labour Hull not be in vame, but every one ffi ill receive re- 
ward according to his workes which are evidences of his 
communion with Chrift, and of his faith, julHficatibn and 
fanctifcation; wherefore feeing God is alwayes reaching forth 
bis mighty hand to worke in Heaven, in Earth, in the Sea and 
all deep places for our profif: let us be alwayes doing 'and ftudy- 
trig to "do good forhis glory. 

Secondly it ferves to move and dired: us in and through the 
outward workes of God to fee and behold the infinite, eter- 
nall and omnipotent God, and his divine power and God- 
headland in the unity of Gods eifcnee, the facred Trinity 
of perfons, becaufeall the perfons have a hand in every worke, 
and that one-God who is three perfons is tfre author and wor- 
ker of every divine outward workers this doctrine teacheth. 
It is a common cuftome among men when they fee and be- 
hold the handy worke of any perfon, to remember the per- 
fon, to bee put in minde of him by the worke, efpecially 
if he have knowne the perfon before , and beare the love 
and affecTion to him of a friend and a beloved one. So let 
it be with us, ib often as we fee and behold the vifible out- 
ward workes of God, let us in them behold the f ice of God, 
and remember his glorious attributes. Let us in the great 
workes of Creation behold the wifedome and power of God 
the Creator, in the worke of Redemption the mercy, bounty 
and love of God, in our Sandification, the love and the ho. 
linefle of God, and in them all let us behold the three glo- 
rious Terfons in that one God who worketh all things after 
the counfell of his owne will. The Father by his eternall 
Word and Spirit creating all things. The Sonne fent forth 
by the Father in our nature, and fan&iried by the Spirit, re- 
deeming us and paying our ranfome. The Holy Ghoft fhed 
on us by God the Father through the Sonne Chrift in our 
regeneration. And all three confpiring together to purge, 
fancTifie and juftifie us, and to make us eternally bleffed in 
our communion with them, and in our fruition of God in 
srace and glory. And let us take heed and beware of idle and 
vaine fpeculation of Gods great workes which (hew his 
glory and proclaims his glorious Attributes, Wifiome, 


Of the External Works of God. 13 

Power and Goodncfle, left by fuch idle negligence Wee 
become guilty of taking the name of the Lord our God in 

Thirdly from this defcription wc may eafily gather and con- ZJf e 2, 
elude, that finncfull actions as they are evill and (innefull are 
not Gods workes ; for God is pleafcd with thofe things which 
he doth, and his workes are according to his pleaiiire, but 
God is not pleated with finnemll aclions and evill workes, he 
hath no pkaiure in iniquity, c P(al.^ ,4. If any aske, How then 
can it be done if he will not and be not pleafed ? I anfvver, 
That in them there is to be confidered, 1. A mturall motion 
or action proceeding from fome created power, and lo from 
God the Creator, and this is good and of God and according.' 
to his will as it willeth things properly. 2. There is a cor- 
ruption, perverfeneife and crookedneff- of the action, this is 
of the Divell and mans corruption : this God hatcth ; but be- 
caufe actions thus corrupted and ftay ned make way for God 
and give him occafion to fhew his wifedome and power in 
ouer-ruling them and difpofing them by his hand to a good 
end and his juftice in punirhing them ; therefore God is plea- 
fcd to continue that naturall power to the wicked which" 
they pervert and abufe, and to over- rule fuch wicked workes 
and to raife light out of that darkenefle. And therefore let us 
not impute any evill and fulfill workes to God, as they, are 
evill andfinfull, nor wickedly imagine-that he is the author of 
fin.His hand is never in any finfull work,otherwife then to over- 
rule, order and diipoie the finfulneffe and evill thereof to. £bme> 
good end and purpofe. 

Fourthly we are hereby admonifhed not to impute any worke yr e ^ 
done in the world to fortune or chance, as worldly Epicures 
do, but to afcribe all workes and every thing which comes 
to prfle to the certaine will, purpofe and determinate counfell 
of C -od. It is true : tbat in refpect of fecond caufes and pur- 
poles of men, many things come -to patfe accidentally and 
;>y chance, no man purpofing or intending any fuch thing, 
:>ut in refpect of God they are certaine and infallible, the/ 
all happen according to his will, and without it not an 
haire can fall from our heads nor a Sparrow full to the 


nf the External! WorhofGod. 
14 ~^ — 

a- " ^T^TTrnotion is of him , and the abufe 

C f\ l^r and motio:fwhiclv is from' the Dwell and 

or the P^'fJ^uingly permitted, and doth over-rule 

SftKSS - te S&i5 M P-idcnce to a good 

an i Tl therefore h all cafualties and accidents let 

end. An ^V™f { iive S and reft content and bee pa- 

i*s£s&. "**■ ^ — not but by bis willand 

, , r S let us re Joyce in all the great workes which we fee 
Vfe$. , u "£ i_ wor V and hoioar them as meanes tending to 
our fa a ion If we be Cods faithfull people, and with care 
\ Science walke before him according to his word, and 
S JSSSS hemput us in mindfor our comfort, that our 
G^ in whom we truft doth not lie idle , nor (lumber orfleep, 
S by a mighty hand and ; ftretched out arme hath done 
n A-fr ereTt things, and is continually doing and wor- 
t for Is to bring us at length out of all troubles and dan- 
SSdSSd eftablilh us for ever in eternall reft.glory 

a 1neSt'ing which in order followeth after the defcrip- 
tion of Gods outward workes in general 1, is the unfolding and 
j rZ«* handling of the feverall forts and kindes of them. And 
JSfc A rkglt dividing of them into heads, and the re- 
to of all the particulars unto their proper and naturall 
uu « amaine ground of light, and a fure way tothedi- 
£a\andlbg and S undemanding of them I will therefore 
J before I proceed any farther) labour to divide then, angh 
Ltoiheir naturall heads according to the rules of reafonani 
truth and lb will proceed to that which is the hrft in time 
and by the courfe and order of nature, namely thecre,tionor 
the world and all things in it. The learned though they all ac- 
knowledge every kind of Gods outward workes and doe not 
E in ihe kindes and numbers or them : yet they are :at va- 
riance about the truedivilion of them into their firftandpnn- 

d Some divide the works of God into the works of Creation 
,nd the woks of Redemption. But this is no perfeA divifion, 
tTetwo m mtersofk knot contain all the outward works 

Of the Ext * wall IVorkes of God. 1 5 

of God, for over and be(ides them there arc works of preferva- 
tion and of judgement and revenge. 

Others divide all Gods outward workes into the works of 
nature and the workes of grace. The woikes of nature they 
divide into two fortes, i. The workes which concern: the 
firft beginning of nature, that is, the workes of creation, 
2. The workes, which concetnc the pref:rvat;on, Which 
they call the works of Gods providence. The works of 
grace they hold to be the works of Redemption and refu- 
tation of man-kind , by which God brings fapernattofall 
bleflings to men: But this diviiion failesin divers reipevfts. 
Firft, it makes a difference betweene works of nature and 
works of grace, wheras indeed creation and prekrvation, 
which they account works of nature, are in fbnie fenfci 
works of grace. For God of his owne fee grace c*e ted 
man in his own Image: And now and evtff iinc^ the firft 
fin of Adam, which brought death and deftruehVn into the 
world, all works of preservation by which God prefervcth 
men in being and life, are works of free grace , and the 
preferYing of his Elect unto his heavenly Kingdome is a 
worke of fupernaturall grace in Chriit. Secondly, they 
erre in diftinguifhing between the works of Gods provi- 
dence, and the works of Redemption and reft auration,wher- 
as Redemption and reftauration are principall works of Gods 
providence, by which God provides for his eied in Chriff, 
iueh things as neither eye hath feen,nor eare heard, neither ha\ e 
entred into the heart of man, i C or ' 2 '9- 

A third fort there are who divide all Gods outward 
works into thefe two he^ds only; namely, the works of 
Creation, and the works of actuall providence. This I take to 
be the beft and mod perfecT diviiion. Firlf, becaufe under 
thefe heads are all Gods outward works contained, and there 
is not any one which may not be reduced under one of thefe 
two. For whatfoever God doth, or hath done, or can doe 
for the giving of the firft being to all things may be redu- 
ced to Creation. And whatfoe\er God doth, or can do for 
the ordering, preferving and difpofing of things created, 
and of their being and wel-being, may be brought under 


i $ Of the External! IVorkes of God, 


the works of his a&uall providence. Secondly^ there is a 
perfect diftin&ion and difference between the works of 
creation and the works of actual! providence : So far as 
mans fiibHance differs from mans mifery and mans feli- 
city, fo farre doth every proper worke of Creation differ 
from the works of Gods a: luall providence in their objects. 
And although God in the creating of things in order did ihcw. 
his providence for man, in that he firft made a place of habita- 
tion for him, and all things which may ferve for his ufe, as 
plants,trees, fruits, light and other neceffiries before he created 
him, yet this breeds no oufuiion between the works of creati- 
on and the works of prefervation, for two things may go to- 
gether in time andplace,and may be in the fame fubjed (as we 
fee, ienfe and underftanding, hearing 3nd feeing in one man at 
the fame time,and heat and light in fire) and yet they may be 
different in themfelvs. 

This order therforel do purpofe to follow hereafter by Gods 
affiftance in proiecuting the body of Divinity. Firft, I will be- 
gin with the Creation ,and will labour to unfold the nature of 
it in general!. And then I will proceed to the handling of all 
thefpeciall works therof,every one diftinftly by it felfin parti- 

Secondly, I will paffe from thence to the works of Gods a<fl- 
uall providence, under which comes the government and pre- 
fervation of the world,and of al things created,and the ordering 
and difpofing of every thing to the proper end of it. More cfpc- 
daily, the fall of man into {in, mifery, and guilt of damnation. 
And the Redemption of man from mifery and his Reftauration 
to grace and glory by the application and fruition of Redemp- 
tion, and by true fpirituall union and communion with Chrift 
the Redeemer,and with God the Father in him by the inhabi- 
tation of the Holy Ghoft. 

Thus much for the generall Doclrin of Gods outward works 
laid down in this Text,and for the divition of them in their fe- 
yerall heads and kinds, unto which all the particular outward 
Wprks may be reduced. 






Moses in the firft and fecond 

Chapters of Genesis, plainly 

opened and expounded in feyerall 

Sermons preached in London. 

Whereunto is added a fhort TreauTe 

of Gods a&uall Providence, in ruling, 

ordering, and governing the world 

and all things therein. 

By GJf. Batchclour of Divinity and Pa- 

ftour of S c . lohn Evangelijl. 

L O N T> N, 

Printed for John 'Bmlet at thefignc of the gilt Cup, neare S c . 
Auftirts-v&Q \\\?ahU Church-yard," 1641, 





Gen. i. i. In the beginning God created the 
Heaven and the Earth. 

N this Chapter the hirtoric of the Creation 
is moft plainely and fuccin&Iy written by 
^Mofcs , and the workes of the fix dayes arc 
diftinclly laid dovvne according to the or- 
der wherein God created and made all crea- 
tures in heaven and earth. 
j£ In the fecond Chapter, fome things which 
were but more briefely and generally laid 
downein the firfl Chapter , to wit the creation of plants,herbes, 
and trees , and of birds and beafts, and efpecially of man and wo- 
man, and the creation of the garden of Eden , with other circum- 
ftances; are more plainely and folly related. And therefore I 
have made choice of thofe two Chapters , the words whereof doe 
give us ground and occafion to handle the doclrire of the crea- 
tion , and to difcufle of all points therein needfull to be knowne 
for the glory of God, and our own profit and comforts. 

B In 

Of the Creation of the World. 

In the whole hiftory, comprehended in thefe two Chapters, the 
Spirit of God offers to our consideration two things. Fid} the 
creation as it is a worke of God, together with the feverall parts 
and degrees of it. Secondly 5 the creatures produced by that work, 
even the whole world , and all things therein contained ; that is , 
the heavens and the earth,all the hoft of them. 
Creation. Creation is here defcribed ; Firft , generally according to the 
common nature of ir,asit concernes all creatures, and is the ma- 
king of them all. Secondly, it is diftinguifhed and defcribed par- 
ticularly according to the feverall parts and branches thereof, a<* 
it concernes feverall kindes of things created. 

Firff, Creation is defcribed generally by the name, the Author! 
or, caufe,and by, tke time and forme ofit,throughout this whole 

Secondly, it is diftinguifhed into two branches or degrees. The 
firft is fimple or abibluteand immediate creation, which is a ma- 
king of fomething out of nothing. The other is fecondary crea- 
tion, that h 9 a making of perfect things out of an imperfect mat- 
ter which was before created of nothing, and was of it lelfeanoft 
unfit for any fucfr fubftantiall forme and being as was raifed out 
j Simple or abfolute creation, which is a making of things out 

of nothing,isJaid downe in the firft verfe: And that ishere'diitin- 
guifoed intocwo particular branches , according to the number 
of the things created; the Heaven and the €mb. 

The firff is , the creation of the higheft heavens, and all the holt 
of them , as the fpirit of God by UWofis expounds hirrifdfo: more 
pIaineIy,C/v*p. 2. 1. This was amoft perfect creating and making 
of things per fe6t in nature, formc,and being, btit-of: nothing, and 
I hat in an in riant. 

The fecond is , the creating of the earth , that is, a rude imper- 
fect made, and confufed Chaos or deep,which was without forme 
and void, and fit for no fubftantiall forme or perfect being as yet ; 
neither could fubfift, but by the fpirit fupernaturally fufteimng it. 
For fo the word, Sank, is expounded in the next verfe, even to be 
that rude maffe and deep,which he made ofnothing,that it might 
be the common matter of all the inferiour vifible world , and of 
the creatures therein conteined. 


Oft k Creation tfthe World. 5 

The fecond maine branch of creation, which I call fecondary , or 2 
mediate creation , and whicfi is a making of thing? perfect out of 
an imperfect matter created of nothing* is laid dovvne hiftorical- 
ly throughout thefe twtt Chapters,where the creation of the leve 1 - 
rall kinder of creatures in the fix dayes is defcribed particularly. 
.And this hath alio two particular branches. 

The firit is the creating of things out of the firft rude conrufed 
matter, which was without forme and void,and full of darknefTe: 
luch was the creating of the foure elements : 1 . Fire>called light. 
2. The Aire , called the firmament. 3. The Waters, or the Seas. 
4. The Earth or drye land. 

The fecond is , the creating of things perfect out of the fecond 
matter which was beforehand formed,anddifpofed into the forme 
and fubftance of elements ; fuch was the creation of the Sunne , 
Moone , and Starres in the heavens; and of the foules in the aire, 
and fifties in the fea,and hearts on earth,which were all created of 
the fecond matter, that is 3 of the matter of the elements brought 
into forme. 

Tliere is befides thefe branches of creation , another particular 
creation,mixt of fimpleand fecondary creation,namely,the crea- 
tion of man ; who,in refpecl: of his body,was made of the duft of 
the earth by fecondary or mediate creation ; and in refpeel of his 
foule was created by God, as the Angels were,immediatly of no- 
thing,by a fimple,aD(bluteand«ww^'4^creation.This isalfb de- 
fcribed , Firft generally in this Chapter, verfe 2d, 27. and alfo di- 
ftintftly, and particularly, Cap. 2.7. 

And as this hiftory doth defcribe the a& or worke of creation, Creatures 
both generally, and particularly in all the branches thereof: fo 
alfo all the Creatures or kindes of things created. 

The Creatures are here diiTinguifhed aftording to the time 
and order of their creation. Some of them were created in the . 
firrt beginning of rirhe,in the firit moment wherein time firft be- 
gan, to, wit, the higher! heaven with the inhabitants thereof, the 
Angch ; and the'earth, that is, the rude mafic or firit common 
matter ot the infer-iour world , and ail the creatures therein. 
Some of them were-created in the progrefle of time , or in rime? 
diffinct , even in f\x feverall dayes? to wit , all the reft of tne 
creatures-- and- rhey are dirtingutn^cP6^ f t^ time and order of 

B 2 . their 

Ofdx Creation ingmrd. 


their creation. Some were created the firft day, fome the fecond, 
and the reft feveralfy in the reft i>£ che fix dayes , and th^y are de- 
fcribed by their leverall names and natures as ftiali appeare here- 
after, when they come to be handled d*i ftm<5Hy. 

C HA P. L 

Of the C'HMtw in genera.ll. What the Hcbrft* wor-dfignifieth, Of the 
Author , Time , Ob]db , and Forme \.ef the Creation. *A 'defcripti* 
on of it: demon fir at ed in all the farts. The ^Manner of Creation y 
in foure things. Angels had no hani in the Creation. Fonre ufes of 
the Toint. 

. .■ 
He firft thing now to be ftoodupon, is the creation Jia'gener 
ralJ , as it is defcribed in the general! nature of ir, by the 
qame,the Author or caufes,and the time when it firft began, and 
when it was done, and that chiefely in this firft verfe. ' 

Firft , Creation is here fet forth by the name of it in thisyvord 
&n> created. Secondly,by the Author or fole efficient cau foiof it 
D^ri 7&>God. Thirdly, by the time when God began the creation, 
yWEfcTU> in the beginningjand wherein he perfected that worke, 
in fix dayes. Fourthly , by the forme and manner of it, verf. 3 . 
Godfaidy dnditveaiAone. 

*hzu* tCi F * r ^ ' C ^ e WP.m J^3> created, \Ht b" e "ghtly underftoodac- 
x # cording to the true and proper fignification ofit in thisplace,may 
give great Jight to the matter in hand. I will therefore firft di- 
itinaui lli it according to the feverall Significations in which it is 
ufedin the Scriptures, and will fhewin what fenfe ie is here to be 
taken, and then will come neere to the matter. Firft , it figniSes 
properly, that extraqpdinary miraculous, worke of God by which 
he gives a fubftance, and fubitantiall being to things which before 
were not,and doth make them eir her of nothing ,pr of fome mat- 
. ter which hath in ijfelfe no naturall fitneflfe oi' drl ppiition to re- 
ceive £ich a forme ,.ortobe turned into f)xh aifobftince'thus in it 
n[$d,'Z)ettt. 4. 32. in thefe vyords, ftomtlye day ifatCj od created map* 
Atlififa/. 1 4%. 5 . He c^mmanded^ s and they were. created. 
s. Secondly, by a metaphofe,^i5?word fignifres theextraordina- 

ry wprJ^qfCodaiwhi^-are very like unto the creation > becaufe 


OftheCrebttm ingeneratt. 

they are done by a fupernaturall power rand fuddenly brought 
forth a? it were out of nothing, when there was no meaner, or 
naturail difpofitron ^oing before'. Thus the act of regeneration 
(in which the wickedcorrupt heart of man, which by nature is un- 
fit for any holinefle, and moft prone to wickedner7e,is changed in 
a moment by the Spirit of God , and becomes a cleane creature 
and a new manjts called creating, P fat. 5 1 .1 2. Thus are all great and 
miraculous works of God cailed creating : When hee raiieth up 
wonderful! ftrength out ofweakenefle , and by them who are as 
nothingjdoth overthrow mighty gyants and ft rOng armies ;this is 
called creating^ Exod 34. 1 0. When God of a ftubborne , (tiff-nec- 
ked nation, and of a people fcattered,defpifed,and counted worfe 
than nothing , taifeth up and ma ket ha moft holy peop/e and glo- 
rious Church,as he will doe in the laft cbnverhon or the Jewe^this 
is called commonly in the Prophets by the name of 'Creation h as 
iyW. 102. 18. and I fa, 42. 7. and 65. 18. And when the lord in 
his juft wrath doth raiie up evill , and deft mil ion to the wicked 
out ofgood things, which naturally rurne to good ; this h calfed 
creating,. Jfd.^. 7. and fo every raying up of things : wirhr>u: 
meaner, as ?fd\ ro4- 30; When -God fuddenly beyond meaneccr 
expectation , by the fupernaturaii power of'his 'Spirit reneweth 
the face of the earth, it is called "cf'eWtng: 

« $ut in thispiace the word is to be taken in the. proper' fenfe, for 
making thing* either of nothing , or of matreFmade of R8rro(^ 
and<>fit Jblftan^fii rsid without narurall difjboiVticn for receiving 
any fuch forme as that which God doth give unco it. The word 
thus expounded fheweth what creatioins.even a making of things 
out of nothing , or of rude matter undifpdfed for fuch a forme 
and being r as God in aniflftant frameth out of ir. And fo ic differs 
from all other kinfe of 'making and producing things'; as' from 
naturail generation of living creatures , and of clowds , raine', 
thunder, and thereft, which are made by an Ordinary power out 
of matter fittedrifor zht forme of things produced: arjd from all 
artiriciall niaHng of things , as rjotrfe, and -other thino<made by 
bt of matter fitted and prepared. 


and canfe 

ie fecond thing by which creation^ ;^dfcrjtie(rf,.^rFi^titn(if ; Aucfior of 
fe of it,expreflfed in rhe word bra^QoU^^ftjcfi 1 v\6r3fj$ creation. 

ana cauie or it,e,xpreiw<3 m rne word DjiTjfc^yoa • wnicn vvorqis 
no; here ufed metaphorically, to tignine Angels, IfaTfe GddsVana 

B $ men 

Of the Author andTtme of Creation. 

men who are minifters and vicegerents under God > as it is fbme- 
times ufed in Scripture ; but it is here taken in the fenfe, which is 
moil common and frequent in the originall , that is for the true 
God, and is,one of his facred Names. And it is a word of the plu- 
rall number, and in many places is joyned with verbes of the plu- 
rall number ; and that for this end, to teach us, that though God 9 
whole name this is, bee but one in nature and eflence; yet in that 
unity of effence , and in that oneeternall Jehovah, there is a plu- 
ralitie,thai is, a Trinity of Perfons.This word therefore dotb here 
plainely intimate unto us, that Creation is an action of the whole 
Trinity , and that it is the joint worke of all the three Peffons , 
even of God the Father , God the Sonne, and God the Holy 
Ghoft.; and this fhewes, that neither Angels, nor falfe Gods , but 
Jehovah the true God : is the Author of the Creation^ as appeares, 
T The third thing by which the Creation is de/cribed, is the time 

of it , both the hrit time in vvnich God began to create , and did 
create, the highef V heaven , and the rudemafle , the earth; and alfo 
the progreffe of time in which God created ail vifible things in 
order , arid finished the whole frame of the vi&ble world : This rs 
exprefled in the word rWNia » in the beginning, and in other 
parts of the Chapter which mention the particular dayes in which 
every thing was made. For this word though fbmetimes it Signi- 
fies Eternity ? and intimates unto us the eternall being of the Son 
of God,together with the Father from all eternity,and before all 
worlds, as Trov. 8. 22. where eternall Wifdome faith , The Lord 
pojfejfed me in the beginning of hi* way before his works of old: and John 
x . X . Jn t]oe beginning was the Word : yet molt commonly and fre- 
quently in the Scriptures, being, Jaid dovvne absolutely, as in this 
place , it Signifies either the firrl moment , and beginning of all 
time , as in this vcrfe; or elfe the firft fix dayes of the creation,or 
any one of them , in which dayes God made & finifhed the whole 
■ frame of heaven and earth, and all the ho ft of them, as I fa. 46.1 o. 
where Godi^&idto decjareand foretell the end of all things from 
he beginning , that is,from'tnefix dayies of the creation , in which 

Of the Tune of Creation. 7 

marred man,and brought him under death. The time of the crea- 
tion^ here I take it in generall, is not onely the firtt moment of 
time,as in this verfe it fignifies , but alfo the fix dayes mentioned 
dittin&ly in the reft of the Chapter. For the higheft heaven , and 
the rude matter, the earth, were created in the firrt moment of 
time, and all other things in the fpace of fix dayes, as the hifforie 
moil pJaineJy teacheth. 

Some,be(ides that which I have obferved from this word , doe 
gather alib,that the time and moneth of the yeare in which God 
created the World, was tht feventh moneth, which wee call Sep- 
tember. The ground of their conjecture is a Cabalirticall conceit 
of fome Jewim Rabbins : to wit, becaufe the letters of the word 
VYpna > which fignifleth in September , are the fame with the let- 
ters of the wordnrt0M3 , which fignifies here in the beginning ; 
and therefore, as the letters of the one word , if they be tranfpo- 
fed make up the other word , fo both words agree in one time ; 
and this beginning was in the moneth September. But their 
ground is deceitfull: Firit,becaufe September,which is tfte feventh 
moneth,is called in the pure Scripture Hebrew Qijnfc*^ King.%.1. 
and vytfn is a word of the corrupt Rabbinicall Hebrew tongue, 
and therefore Gods Spirit alluded not to it. Secondly , the word 
rPTtffcVU hath the letter (a) in it more than the word Wtfri2^ 
and fo they doe not perfectly agree. Thirdly , the Rabbins and 
Cabalifts doe not agree among them/elves in this conceit : For- 
fome of them have another conceit, that the letters of this word 
are the fame with the two words TEJfcH JYO, the firft or chiefs 
houfe, that is, the SanfUiary. Others that it harh the fame letters 
which make up the words \£?t; jyH3 , that is, the Covenant of fire, 
to (new the purity of the burnt offerings made by fire; And many 
other fuch conceits they have concerning this word; which to 
repeat were Jofle of time. 

I am not ignorant that fome learned men , and judicious di- 
vines doe hold this opinion of the worlds creation m Autumnc 
and September , but- for other reafons ; especially becaufe Au- 
tumne is the time when all fruits come to perfection , and there- 
fore Gods creating of all things perfect was in that time of the 
yeare. But this is no good reafon 5 for many creatures have their 
perfection and glory "in the Spring-time , as hearbs , flowers, and 


-- " ^' " »' -.. " — '^ ....... . . I . . — I. — — ■ ■ . ... I . . , . , 

&^ Of the QfyeH ami Forme ofCr eation. 

fuch Jike. And birds and beafts , doe chiere'y breed in the Sprino , 
and the Spring revives the things of the earth , and makes them 
frefn and greene And the caufe why many fruits come not to 
perfection till Autumne , is the corruption of the earth , and the 
curie laid on it for mans finne. In the creation things when they , 
firft began were perfeil 5 and fo would they be in the Spring and 
all the yeare, if man had not brought a curfe upon them. There- 
fore I leave fuch curious pornts^as not needful! to be determined; 
or if I incline to any opinion concerning the time of the yeare , 
it is that the world was creatodin the Spring, when the day and 
night are equall and borh of one length in all the world ', that is , 
in the moneth arai&Abib; whichis part of Mai^h,^1 pare <vf 
Aprill. For this, Cod feernes to teach, ExoL i * . 2. where hee in- 
joipes the Ifraelites to account that for the Ml moneth of* the 
yeare , contrary to the cuttome and account of the Egyptians, 
which they had before followed. 
Objeft. The fourth thing by which the creation is deferibed , h theOb- 
jeft or effects , that is, the things created, even the Heavens and 
the -Etfr^andall things in them.F or it is faid,^^ created the heave* 
and the earth. 
Forme. The fifth thing is the Forme and manner of the creation>to wit, 
by. faying, Let it be done, and it wot done ; this appeares,verf! ft 6, 9. 
which implies alfo the matter and the end. Now here a queftion 
What may bee moved concerning this word of God ; whether it was 
word it Koyos rav^im , a word fpoken and uttered with a found, like that 
was. which God fpake from Mount Sinah in giving the Law ,• or Afyx 
%Mvtq<> the inbred facultie of reafon and nnderrtanding ; or *°yc< 
ivfiJfiiTos, an inwarckhought of God caufed by outward objects; 
or whether it was *'°y<-< 0^/0^ and ^/^j^the iubftantiall andeter- 
j nail Word, the Sonne of God. Firft , it cannot be a word fpoken 
and uttered with a found ; for that requires aire as the medium of 
it,and there was none when God faid , Let there be light j there 
2 was no eare to heare . nor any: ufe of fiich words. Secondly , it 
cannot be any inward thought of God* now beginning to thinke 
of the creation and being of thingsjfor thispurpofe was in God^s 
J all thoughts are, from ail eternity. Neither is this word , the Son 
of God, now fpoken that is begotten, and not till now, as fome 
hereticks dreamed 5 and this faying of God Khz begetting of the 

Son ; 


Defcriptionof the Qtutmu 

Son. For, the Son is God, the creatour coequall andcoetcrnallo 
the Father \ and that God which laid , Let there be light ; and, Let 
therebea firm*me;.t ,C'c Wherefore the true meaning of that 
fpeech , is this : Thar , as God the father. Son and Holy Cjho/r , had 
decreed and purpofed, from all eternity , to create ail things out 
of nothing ; fo in the beginning, in the firft moment of time, the 
Father , by his eternal! -Word the Son and by his Spirit , not 2.$ in- 
itrumcnts> bur ch iefe a genrs with himielfe, did actually put his de- 
cree in execution , and that lb quickly a-sa word can bee fpoken 
vvith the tongue, which hatrj before been conceived in the heart; 
and that all was done at Gois beck and command , moll eafiiy, 
without any toiie qr. labour j and that , as the word ipoken is the 
revealing of mans wijl;, fo the creation wa? the declaring of Gods 
eternall will andpurppie 5 by the open execution ofic 5 and , in a 
word, that God by his Wifedome, Will, Goodnefle,and Power, 
which are his atnibutes , by which , as by a /peaking word, hee is 
madeknowne to men, did create and make all things, and,for an 
end, not in vaine, for his word is never in vaine. Now from theie 
things laid down plainl y.m the words of thi* firft verfe 5 and in the 
veries following, wee may gather this delcription of creation in 
generall, viz. 

That it is , the firft outward ait or worke, of God Almighty, A large . 
the Father, Sonne and Holy Ghoft, performed in the firft beginning defmptf- 
of time,. by which, hee immediatly brought all things out of no- °[] ° n# rc " 
thing, according to his eternall purpofe, and gave the firft being 
to the world , and every creature therein , when as they were not; 
and that by his owne infinite goodnefie, wifedome, power, and 
will , actually working , and like a powerful! Word and com- 
mandement } bringingall things to paffe out of meere nothing, or 
that which was as nothing made of nothing , without any initru- 
ments,toiIe 3 labour,akeration or delay, for the revelation of him- 
ielfe , and for the communion of his goodnefle and glory. 

This defcription truely gathered from this text and this hifto- Taken ' in ~ 

rie, is in whole, and in every part confirmed by other tertimonies ™§ a ™' 
of Gods holy infaJ'ibte Word. vc d. 

Firft , creation Mm outward act or workj becaufe it is not with- j # 
in God himfeife , bu' bi| making of things, and giving to them a opitsad 
being , different from his own eflence. -, extra. 

C Secondly 

^ — - — — -a 

xo Of the Author of the Creation. 

Secondly, it is Godsfirfi outward a£t,becaufe it was the giving 
of the fir it being to all kindes of creatures ; in which, and upon 
which, hee exercifeth all other outward works : thefe two points 
are manifeit and need no further proofe. 

But as for the third point , the Author or firft caufe , God the 
Father; Sonne and Holy Ghofl : wee havemanifeft proofe of it in 
Scripture > able to fatisfieany rcafonable mind. Firft, that the 
Lord Jehovah, the only true God (nor Angels) is alone the Crea- 
tourof all things. Holy Job teltifieth, faying^ that hee alone 
fpreadeth out the heavens , and treadeth upon the waves of the Sea, 
Job 9. 8. And 7/^.44. 24. I j faith Jehovah , am the Lord that 
makeih all things > that flretcheth forth the heavens alone , that fpreadeth 
abroad tie earth by myfelfe. Secondly , that all the three Peribns are 
equal! in this worke ; and as they all are one God , fo are one 
Creatour of all things-fit is manifeff ,y^ 3 5. 10. Where the Crea- 
tour of all things, is called in the plural! number 1TPJ7, my makers, 
that is, more Perfons than one , even three Peribns in one God : 
and W fal. 1 49.2, Let Ifiael re Joyce VVVXin them that made him : and 
Ecclef 1 2.1 . Remember thy Creators "jit^a.: and //rf.54.5. ^ ^ orc ^ 
thy makers is thine husbands,the Lord of hoftesis his name. For the 
Father in particular, there is no doubt, all corlfeflehimto be the 
Creatour, and fo the Scriptures teftifie,7V<n\8. 22, 23. and Heb. 
1.2,3. For the Son alfo we have plaine texts,that by htm all things 
were made, and nothing without htm: John 1 3 .1 o-and J oh. 4* 17, I 9- 
1 Cor. 8. 6. Col. 1.16. Heb. 1.10. And as the Spirit isone God 
with the Father ,-and the Sonne , Co his hand wrought with them 
in the Creation, as appeares,*/^* 1 • 2 * Where it is ikid;thefpirit of 
God moved upon the face of the waters, that is , cherifhed the rude 
mafle, as the Hen doth her egges by fitting on them , and fo gave 
forming vertue to them; fo the Hebrew word fignifieth ; and Job 
26. 13. God is f aid by his fpirit >to have garnijhed the heavens: and Job 
33.4. The fp'trit of Cjod hath made me , faith Slihu : and Pial. 33.6. 
By the Word of the Lord, (that is y the Sonne) were the heavens made , 
find all the hofl of them by the breath of his month \ that is , his fpirit. 

Fourthly, for the time of the Creation,weneed not ftand much 
wpon proofe of it. Thfs Text fneweth,that it began in the begin- 
ning or firft moment of time : And in fix dayes , it was perfected 
andfully finiflied,asthereftofthe Chapter mewcth : Ic was of 


Of the Objett and BffeSl of Creation. 1 1 

old that God founded the earth , and made the heavens , as the 
Pfalmift teftifietii , Tfa/. 102. 25. that is, in the firfl beginning 
of times. And reafon tells us, that time being a circumffance, ana 
infeparab'e companion of creatures vifible » mull ofneceflity be- 
gin together with their being. Yet one thing is worthy to be no- 
ted in the time ; namely, That, whereas God was able in the firlt 
moment, to create all things as he did the higher! heavens,and the 
rude maffe, which is called the earth in my Text, and which was 
the common matter of all thevihbie world : yet he did diflribute 
and divide the creation into divers a£b, which are diftinguifned 
one from another by the effect that is, the creatures mace ; and 
by the feverall times and d^yes^lfo wherein they were perfor- 
med. Which point wee will iniift upon , as it well deferves, when 
we come to the feverall aits , performed particularly in feveralt 
dayes of the Creation. 

The fifth point in the defcription, is the generall objett , and ef- 
fect of creation, to wit.all things and the firlt being of them:For> 
here the objett , and effett , concurre and are altogether the fame. 
The world and all things therein, and the firlt matter of which 
they were made , as they are the onely things about which the 
a6t of creation is exercifed ; Co they are the object of creation: 
And as they are things made by the creation , ib they are effe&s 
of it. Now this generall objett and effett , as it is truly gathered 
from the enumeration of all the kindes of things created, which 
are numbred in this Chapter and the next, and is plainely expref* 
fed in the defcription : fo it is abundantly teftiHed in all the Scrip* 
tures; as I ft. 44.24. and C^JT- J • * ^. and Exod. 20. 1 1 . where al! 
things in heaven and earth , viable and invifible , are laid to bee 
made, created and formed by God : Yea , the firff rude matter 
it felfe, out of which the inferior world was made ,is here in my 
Text faid,to be created by God. And this is confirmed by reafon, 
drawn from the nature of God, and his Name Jehovah. For God* 
as this Name lignifieth , is an abfolute effence of himfelfe , and 
the firft being of all , and the Author of all being : Therefore, 
every thing which is y or hath being, mult needs be of him, and be 
his creature. 

The fixth point in the deferiptionjis the matter out ofwhich y God 
.created all things; under which, we comprehend two things :Firft, 

C 2 the 

u Of the Matter out tf^bicb God created all things. 

m* » ■ » - ■ ■ » — — 

the matter improperly fa called , or Terminum a quo , from 
whence God brought the fir ft being of all things immediately : 
And that was either negative, even nothing , or their not being at 
ail ,- or pofinvc, their being in Gods eternall purpofeonely. This 
was the hrft matter which God had to worke upon in the firft. 
immediate ael: of creation* Secondly > the matter properly fo cal- 
led, that is either the rude mafle made of nothing , which was 
without forme, and void-, or the foure Elements^which had in them 
no forme or being of the things created , and ib were as nothing 
in refpedt of that'being which God gave to every particular thing 
which he made of them. For proofe of this, we have a plain te- 
Heb.i 1.3. ftimonie, Heb.i r .3. where the Apoftle faith ; By faith wemderfca-vd 
©pencd. that the worlds were framed by the word of Cjod : So that the things 
which are feen, were not made of things which doe appeare. Here it is 
plaine that hee fpeakes, i.Of creation in generall 3 in that hee 
faith, The worlds were framed, 2. In that he denies the vifible world 
to be made of any natural] things, which doe appeare to any fenle; 
hereby hee fhewfcs, that their firit matter was made of nothing; 
and if they had no matter before the creation, much lefle had in- 
visible {pints' any matter. 3. In that heema-kes this a matter of 
faith to bee beleeved, not to bee knowne by reafon ; hereby hee 
fhevveth, that there was a creation of their nrft being out of no- 
thing : for reafon without 'faith y can apprehend a making of 
things of matter fitted and' prepared. ; 4-In that hee doth not fay 
fimply, that they were not; made of any thing ; but faith, rather, 
ihey were not mad? of things which doe appeare j hereby hee inti- 
mates, that they had a being in Gods purpofe and-fecret ; cbuhiell 
before. Reafon aifo gathered from the prefent Text doth prove, 
that no creature in the world was made of matter uncreated , or 
of matter co-etetnall with God : for here it is faid,that God firit 
made the rude matteiyvhich was without forme,whichbe needed 
not to have done, if there had been any eternall matter uncrea- 

Secondly , this matter could not iubfift but by the Spirit of 
God, exercihng his creating power upon it , as the fecond Verie 
iheweth : Therefore all things were made of nothing; fome im- 
mediately , as the higheft heavens , and the firft matter, called 
:h. and the forme of every thing ; and fome ofamatcer,either 


The manner of the Creation 

chat firft without forme, or elfe unfit for fuch a being , as God 
made out of it. 

The feventh thing in the defcription is the forme and manner of 7. 
the creation in general], and that confiffs in foure particulars, Manner of 

1 . Firft, that God in the creation had no moving canfes to move f rc « i0ft 
him thereunto, but his ovvne will , goodnefle , wifedome , and ^J? 
power ; and by them , and according to them hee created every 
thing* Firft, tnat God created all things by the free liberty of 
his owne will, and according to his owne goodpleafurc 5 ana was 
not by any neceflity compelled thereunto , it appeares plainly, 
P/£/.ii5.$.and 13 5. 6. where it is faid, that God hath done all 
th ings whatfoevcr pleafed him : and whatfoever p leafed him he hath done 
in heaven, earth, fea, and all deep places : and is faid, 
that God hath cteated all things , and through his will and pleafnre 
they are created. Secondly , that God created all things by his 
goodnefle , and according to his good pleafiire , as the places laft 
cited doe mew ; fo alio the gooanefle , which at the firft crea- 
tion did appearein every thing created, proves it molt fcndbly : 
Fcvas it is faid of Light, that it was good, Verfe 4. and fo likevvife 
of every other thing, that it was good; fo of all in generall, which 
God had made, that they werc^vsry good. Now all goodnefle in 
the creature comes from the goodnefle of the Creatour,and is an 
image and madow of it : Therefore certainly God by, and accor- 
ding to his goodnefle created all things. Thirdly, that God crea- 
ted all things by his wifedome, and according to it,the Scriptures 
aboundantly teftifie, P/2r/.i 04.24. where 1>avid faith, Lord, ho?* 
manifold are thy worses, tn wifedome haft thou made them all ! and PfaL 
1 56.5. The Lord by his excellent wifedome made the heavens : and 
Trov.3.1 p. The Lord by wifedome founded the earth. And this is im- 
plied, Trov.^ij. where Wifedome faith , When God prepared the 
heavens, I was there. Fourthly, that God created all things by his 
mighty power and ftrength,the Prophet Jeremy teftifieth, Jcrem* 
32.17. faying, O Lord Cjod> behold thou haft made the heavens , and 
the earth by thy great power and ftrctched out arme* And Saint Tan/ 
affirmes, that Gods ctemall power is feenfrom the creation of the world .20. 
m the things which are made. Therefore the firit particular concern- 
ing the inward moving caufes concurring witnGod,ismamfeft, 

C 3 to 

14 The manner of the Creation. 

to vvic , That God by his will, goodnefle, wifedome, and power 
created all things. 

2. The fecond particular, by which the forme and manner is 
fet forth, is this, That God created all things himfelfe, without any 
inftruments at all , by his povverrull word and commandement. 
This isexpreffed in the Text, which faith. t^n^N* that is, God, 
the three perfons did but fay of every thmg, Let it be, and it was 
ib. And in the fecond Chapter LMofes makes this manifeft, Ver. 
4, 5,(5. where he profeffeth, that God ufed no fubordinate means, 
no not fo much as raine , or moiftening vapour , or the hand of 
man in the creating of plants in the earth. And Ifa.40.1 2,1 3 . the 
Prophet afcribes to God alone the framing and ftretching out of 
the heavens and rhe earth, without the cmnfell, direction, or mi- 
niftery of any other therein. For howfbever the creation was ac- 
cording to Gods eternal! counfeil , and in the creation of man, 
God is brought in to fay, C ome * ^ et m m<*kc man> as if hee did con- 
sult with others betides nimfelfe ; yet this is not to be underfiood 
erf Gods con fui ting with any other, but of the consulting of God 
with himfelfe, even the Father with the Son and the Spirit, who 
were peribns of the fame eflence with himfelfe , and were the 
fame God, after whofe image man was made , and had the fame 
hand in the creating of him. For fo the words (Let us make man m 
vur owne image) doe neceffarily imply. Yea, as they all are CD ^nVfrfc 
the Son, as well as the Father , and the Spirit as well as the Son, 
and all are included in that name ; fo it was the joynt and equall 
counfeil, and the purpofe and faying of them all, C ome J et u* ma k$ 
man : fo that the Son and the Spirit are Isoi^yoi j'oynt Creators 
and Workers with theFather,not his inftruments^and rhe power- 
None out ..£jjj wor d of the creation comes equally from all three* But as for 
wrought Angels or other inferiour creatures, it is again ft all reafon , yea 
in rhe againft all piety and Gods glory to imagine or dreame, that they 
creation, are instruments ufed by God in the crearion. Firft, all being is 
Argu- ^>f him, who is Jehovah, the author of all being : Now creation h 
ments# 'the giving of being, and God on el y is Jehovah ; therefore crea- 
* tion is ondy ofhirn. Secondly,in every tfjfng which was created, 
there was fomething made ofnothing^ven the fubftantiaU form; 
cand the matter was difpofed in an inilant or moment. Now this 


1 " " ~ ' " — ■ ■ ■ - ' '■ ■ !■■ ■! - ' '■ 

Tlx maimer of the Creation. 15 

cannot be but by an infinite power , and is an action of infinite 
vertue ; therefore no created inftrument could concurre in any 
a£t of creation. Thirdly, if God could create Angels, the firft 3. 
and chiefeft of his creatures,of nothing, when there was none but 
himlelfe, nor any to be his initrument,much more could he with- 
out inftruments create inferiour creatures. Laftly, God proves 4. 
himfelfe to be the true God, and none befides him, by the ac~t. of 
creation, Ifa.4 3 . which proofe were defective, if any creature had 
wrought with him in any part of the creation. Thus the fecond 
particular is manifest. 

3. The third particular, wherein the forme and manner doth 
confilt, is this, That God created all things without any toile 9 labour, 
change , or alteration in himfelfe at all* Hee was not changed from 
reft to labour and motion , nor from idlenefle to bufinetfe , nor 
from ftrength to faintnefle or wearinefle , nor from perfect to 
more perfect, neither was any good added to him by the creati- 
on. For (as Saint James faith) though every good and perfitt gtft is 
from above , and Cometh downe from Cjod the Father of lights 3 yet with 
him there is no vartableneffe , or fiadow of change, Jam. 1 . 1 7, And 
/y^.40.20. Hasl thou not knowne (faith the Propnet) hast thou not 
heard, that the ever tatting Cjod, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the 
earth faint eth not, neither is weary ? there is no fearching of his wifdome, 
hegivethpowertothefawt,&c. Yea, it were againlt all reafon to 
thinke,that God could be weary or faint in the creation, in which 
he gave not onely all llrength, but alio being to all things. And 
feeing in the creation -God did nothing but what hee wiikd and 
purpofed fo to doe, and then to doe when he purpofed , and as he 
nad willed to doe ; and feeing hee was infinite , and all furficient, 
and molt blefled in himlelfe from all eternity ; if creation could 
not adde any perfection to him, or any glory ; it onely revealed 
his glory upon others, and communicated his goodnefle to them, 
without change in himlelfe , or addition to his efience. If any 
object and fay,that God by creation became Lord and Pofieflour 
of all creatures , which, being good , were pleafant to him ; and 
therefore fbmething was added to him, even Lordfhip, Domini- 
on, and Delight : I anfwer, that God in himfelfe , and before his 
owne eyes, had all things actually prefent to him from all eter- 
nity, and as fole Lord did poflefTe them, before they had any be- 

C 4 ing 

\6 The manner of the Creation. / 

— — ^ ^— — — — ^^_, . , 

ing in themfelves ; and therefore the addition in the creation was 
not to him, but to the things created, to which hee gave being : 
and when hee created things in time , according to his eternal! 
purpofe, he received nothing to himfelfe, but gave to ail thino% 
their being and their goodnefle. 

4. The fourth particular , wherein the forme and manner of 
creation doth confift, is this, That things were created, and 
brought into perfect being without any delay at all , even in a mo- 
ment of time ; and that" creation is not a fucceflive forming of 
things by alteration and change , which requires fome tra<5t of 
time, but a making of them perfect in a moment , and bringing 
of them at once into perfect bein^. This is intimated in this 
Chapter, where wee reade, that Gods creating was but this , Hee 
faidy Let things be, and they were , that is, hee made them in a mo- 
ment, as it were by a word, and fo quickly and readily as a word 
is fpoken. To which adde the teftimony of1>avid 3 Pfal.^^.^.Cjod 
[fake, and the etrthwas made : he commanded , and it flood f aft. And 
Tfal.i+S.s. wherehee faith of the heavens, and of the Heaven of 
heavens, and the Sun, Moon, and Starres, that Cjod commanded t and 
they were created. And indeed this is manifest by reafbn drawne 
from the nature of creation, which is a making of things out of 
nothing, and giving a forme and being which was not > even in 
things which were made of matter before created ; as wee fee in 
the toure Elements,and in things brought out of them, there was 
fbmething, even the fubttantiall forme of them, made immedi- 
ately of nothing : now between the being of ibmething and no- 
thing, there is no medium , or intermiddle ftate ; therefore every 
thing created, was created in an infiant , though many in a day, 
and divers kinds, one after another , and not altogether in the 
feme moment. 
8, The eight andlaft thing in the defcription is the end of the 
ereation,to wit, Gods revealing himfelfe, and communicating his 
glory throughout all ages of the world,and for ever. This is con- 
firmed divers waies in holy Scripture : FiHt,by testimonies, which 
affirmc, that for God and his glory all things were made, that is, 
for the revelation and communion of God and his glory, /V0.1 d.4. 
^^d hath made all things for himfilfe , even the wicked for the day of 
wrath* And ^43.7* I have called him for myghry. And Ver 21 . 


Of the end of Creation. \j 

This people have I formed for my felfe 9 they {ball (hew forth my praife. 
And %om. 1 1 . 3 6. For of him , and by him, and to him are all things. 
Secondly, by teftimonies, which {hew, that in the event creation 
doth turne to Gods glory , for the revealing of him to the com- 
fort of his Saints, as Tfal.S.i .and 19.1 ,2. where it is faid , that 
the beholding of the creation makes Gods T^ame excellent. And 
the Heavens declare the glory of God , and the Firmament fhewcth his 
handy-worke. For certainly, that which in time proves to bee the 
end, that God propounded as an end before all times : for hee is 
infinite in wifdome and providence. Thirdly, the holy men of 
God, moved by Gods Spirit, exhort all people to praife God for 
his workes of creation ; and pray that they may apply them to 
that end> as Pptbi-qtiio. Let all thy workes praife thee,0 Lord. And, 
Pfal.i 48. 5 . Let them .praife the IS^ame of the Lord : for hee comman- 
ded, and they were created. 

Thus much for the confirmation of the defcription, and every 
point of doctrine therein contained : I come to the ufe. 

Firft.this dodtrine ferves for direction and inftruclion divers Ufa* 
waies ; in that it (newes God to bee the author of creation , and By cr ci« 
creation to be his outward worke , and all things to be made by turcs a- 
him: Hereby firft it leads us in 2 ready way to come to the f c ° 
knowledge of <3ods wifdome, power, goodnefle , and fucfe like q™ 
excellent attributes, even by directing us to behold God in them, 
and to difcerne his eternall power and Godhead ; that hee is not 
like the Idols, and falie gods of the Heathen, but a God of eter- 
nity, before all things, and all times ; becaufe hee is the Creatour 
of them all : And that whatfoever excellency is in any creature, it 
is in God above all meafure. And therefore when wee fee the 
mighty mafle of the world , Jet us thinke how great is hee which 
made this of nothing. When we fee the glory of the Sun, Moon, 
and Starres,and of the whole Heavens,let us thinke how glorious 
is hee who made this glory. When wee difcerne the goodnefle, 
fweetnefTe, power, and vertue which is in things created ; let us 
conceive , that all thefeare without meafure in God , and in all 
excellency. Secondly, by this confideration it teacheth us, that And his 
God onely is the true Lord and PofTefTour of-heaven and earth, love- 
worthy to be honoured, ferved,and worfhipped of all, and to be ™gnty 
fought unto by praier ; and that all thankes are to bee given to ovcraUt 


18 Brrm doui thiCreation confuted. 

him for all good things ; that hee harh right and power to dif- 
pofe all things at his pleafure , to whom hee will, and that wee 
ought not to murmure at his difpofing ,- neither hath any man 
right to any thing but by his gift, and his permiilion. 
life 2. Secondiy, this Doctrine ferves for confutation, i.OfPhilofo- 
Cor.furs- phers, who held that the World was not created in time, but was 
tion of fix f rom eternity ; or that it was created of a matter which was un- 
reus of created, and had a being before the creation , even without be- 
ginning, i .Of thole doting Jewes and others, who held that the 
inferiour vifible world was created by the minifterie of Angels. 
^.OfHeretikes, who denied God the Father of Chrift, preached 
in the Gofpel, to be the Creatour of the WorJd T and feigned an- 
other God Creatour, inferiour to him.- 43>fhhe Papifts, who 
teach that there be other Creatoursbelides God; even that every 
Mafle-Prieft can create of Bread and Wine the true bodie and 
bloud of the Lord Chrift our Creatour and Redeemer : yea, that 
fame body, which is already, which was made of a woman borne, 
and crucified , and is glorified at Gods right hand in heaven : a 
ft range contradiction, and horrible blafphemy , which God ab- 
horres as a thing impoflible : For nothing can be made that wihich 
it is already, nor receive that being which it hath before-hand. 
5 .Of Atheiftsand Mockers, who deny God, and fcofte at the Jail 
refurreclion, and at the ending of this World in the laft day, all 
which are manifeftly proved by the creation. Laftly,of all Ido- 
laters, who Vfteem and worm ip that for God tlidr Creatour, 
which is but the image of a creature, and in nature and forme far 
inferiour to the leaft creature formed by God. 
U'fe 3. Thirdly, it ferves for reprehenfion and juft reproofe, Firft of 
Rcproofe them, who tninke that God can be worfhipped and pleafed by 
to two mens giving of out ward things to him immediately for his owne 
forts. u (e j as gold, filver, meat, drinke, clothes, and curious ornaments: 
all which God rejeeleth as things unufefull for him ; upon this 
very ground, and for this reafon , becaufe hee created the whole 
World, and all things therein are his owne already, Pfal. 5 o. and 
e^f.17.25. Secondly of them, who fret and grudge, and too 
much repine and grieve for the overthrow and definition of 
Kingdomes, Countries, Nations, Cities, Men, or Beafts, which 
God at his pleafure ; and in his juftice doth deftroy for mens fins, 


Of tfa Creature ingmeraU. ip 

and over-turne withail their glory arid being. Who is he, that in 
fuch a cafe dare mutter, agahitt God r\For hee may doe wiih Jib 
owne what he pleafeth : it; they offend himjie may deflroy them* 
and magnifie his jr.'.* ice, and giprifie his power in their deltrudti- 
on \ and he can repairs them at his p;eafure. 

laitly, here is rim -all that trufiin God, Jove and ferve him, Ufi 4* 
plentiful! matter of comfort againft poverty, and all calamities, Comfort 
and per/ecutin t > enemies. No pover-y ought to pinch or vexe fof . t , ho 
them ; for Go 1 their portion is more worth then ail the world : *° y " 
all riches, and or her things are but the vvorke of his hands, and he - 
can give trkm when hee will, and will give what hee in his wife- 
dome^knowes to be neceflary and profitable. AJ1 ftrength is of 
him, and he can weaken all enemies in a moment ; f© that ifne 
Be for us , none can if and again (t us : hee can raiie fvveet out of 

Thus much for creation in general]. 

- i j , 1 1 i | ) M , 

CHA P. 1 I. 

Of the creature tngeneralL Thames of the creature ex founded, tofhew 
their nature. Injtruciiohs concerning the creatures* Five Ufes made 

BEfore I palTe wtliQ fpecialj a&s or branches of Creation , I 
hold it fit to iniift upon the creature in general!, which com- 
prehends under it every ipeciajl kind of thing created by any ad: 
of creation. This Hiltory -of the Creation , thcugh nor in any 
one word , yet in one ientence doth exprefle the creature in ge- 
neral], thatis,the whole &ame and collet ion of ali ? things crea- 
ted Chapt.2.1. in thefe Words, Thw&e'rethe heavens and the earth 
fimjhed, and all the hoijofthcm>6t! all their furniture, that is,what- 
foever is in them rightly ordered and difpofed , dike an Army 
well juarfliaJJed * ib the Hejbrew word &W docfi properly GgiW- 
fie. Andotiier Scriptures, botji in the Old and NewrTelfamenr, 
doe nftentimes in one word propound to us the general I confide'* 
ration of all joyntJy together. I will therefore firft fpeake of the 
creature in general;, as it comprehends in it xln heavens, and the 


20 Names of the Creatures expounded. 

earth ,and all things in them/and that in fuch words andphrafes. 
as Gods Spirit in this and other Scriptures is pleafed to ufe for 
our infhu&ion, and for the heip and illumination of our vveake 
underftandings. And in this general! description, I will firft con- 
rider the words and phrafes , by which the creature in generall is 
called, and will fhew what they doe import in their Signification. 
Secondly, I will from thence and other Scriptures note fiich in- 
ftru&ions, as may direct us to the knowledge of the creature in 
general!. And laftly, will make fome ufe and application fit and 
Names of The firft name,by which the creature in generall is csilkd in the 
rhecrea- Old Teftament, is the Hebrew word^D > which Signifies znmh 
cures, verfality, or perfect comprehenfion of all things : By this name , the 
* whole universality of things created,is called, Pro.i 6.4. where it 
is iaid , that the Lord hath made all things for himfelfe ; not fo 
much as the wicked man is excepted who is made for the day of 
evill. Alfo, //d.44.24. the Lord faith, I am Jehovah that maketh 
dl things, hj ?1U)y : Anfwerable to this are the Greeke words, 
to navy and to oXov, the Greeke Philofophers, to fignifie 
ihc whole univerfall world, or the univerfality of all things ; and 
roc TtoLVTx* which is commonly ufed in the New Teftament, where 
there is mention made of the creation, and the creature in gene- 
ral!, as John 1.3. By him were all things made. And Rom.i 1 .ult. Of 
him, and by him, and for him are all things. And Colof.i . 1 6. and %e- 
vel.4.11. But yet, as the ApoStle, 1 Cor. 1 5.27. Speaking of Gods 
putting all things in fubje&ion under Chrift, faith, that hee muft 
be excepted, who. hath put all things under him ; fo here, though the 
words ^D and -ndnct doe fignifie an univerfality, and comprehen- 
sion ©fall things^ yet it ismanifeft by the word joyned with 
them, that -God the Creatour, who is faid to make and create 
them, is excepted, and all other things befides him are included. 
%. Another name,by which the Spirit calls the univerfality of crea- 

tures, is the preeke word «/<2Vac, which anfwers to the Hebrew 
word CZnoVp ; and is alwaies ufed by Septuagints,in their tran- 
flation of the Old Teftament, to exprefle it. By this name the 
creature in generall is called, Heb*i .2. and 11.3. where it is faid, 
that God by his Son made the worlds, and that the worlds were fa- 
wedbjthtypordofGod. And in the Syriack and Hchrew tranfla- 
L. tions, 

Names ofde Creatures expounded. 2 1 

tions, the words arc Kc'ry and nr07y : and according to their 
originall and true notation, they all doe ngnifre not onely an eter- 
nall duration And continuance rtom the rutt moment. and beginning 
of time, to the iahYcnd thereof throughout ?Jl apes, znd the eter- 
nal! duration of things in the world to.come ,*but aKonllthc things 
which are measured by this protraction and duration of times, and of 
time beyond all times, even.ari things under : heaven , and all 
things above the heavens, as Atagels, and^^fled Spirits, and all 
thin^ which ilia'I be upheld and kept in being after the end of the 
world : For the.Hebrew word tD^o?p hgnihes times or tbings,the 
beginning and end whereof are hidand unknown to mortal] men 
ofmort time , by reaibn of the Jong continuance of them ; and 
the Greekeword ockSvocc, being" compounded of ate and <£v> figni- 
ries a feryetuall bein^ar.d deration, or whatfoever is alwaies, ancJ m 
all times \ 'and it is u'fed in Gofpe! tofignrfie, not only this world, 
wherein we live in this mortalHife ; but alfo the world to come, 
both the Kingdome of glory, and alfo the iiate of all things after 
death ; asappeares cJ&Us.i 2.32. and Heb.6.5. 

The third name, by which the creature in ; general! is called, i^ 3, 
the Greek word h.oV/uoc, which u commonly trarriTared the world; 
and doth fitly fignifie that well ordered, decent 3 beautifull, and comely 
fame of heave-,: and earth, with all the goodly furniture , and well 
ordered noft of creatures-therein contained. 'For it is a -word, 
which in Greeke doth property lignite ibeauty , dtcency ; and 
comely ornament 5 and'by it the Greeks commoijly --doe call the- 
whole frame of the world, becaufeof the beauty, and comely or- 
der of the creatures therein : and by this name the creature in 
general 1 , and the univeriality of things created is called,- CMatth. 
ifi?4- 'K?*».i.2o. anc ^ Epbef.i.q* wherethe Spirit of God fpeaks 
of the creation and foundation of the world : And left we fhould 
thinke, that by this word K&jty&'is meant onely theinferiour'and 
vifible world, the hoiy Apoftles,when they fpeake of it,adde the 
word tsts, and call it rxrs tS ko'c/u*, as appcares, 1 Cortn. 1.20. 
and Ephef.2.2. to ("hew that there - is another world, even the in- 
visible, called alio by this name : And John 1 .3. -the Evangelic ha- 
ving affirmed, that all things were made by the '-eternal! word, 
doth in the io.Verfe fhew,that this ttocwx,^ things, \\\\s koodoo, 
the world. I am not ignorant that this word is ufed alfo in a more 


li 2fymes> of the Creatures expounded. 

Uriel: fcnfcand that it figniries fomctimes the habitable world, 
or circle of rhe earth inhabited by men , as Lflfatth.^. 8. and John 
i .9. Sometime? men inhabiting the earth , as %om. 5.1 2. By one 
man fin entrcd into the world. Sometimes rhe elect , who are the 
chiefe ones of the world, and of mankind, as John 5.1 (land 2 Cor. 
5.1 9. and 1 John 2.2. Sometimes for the carnalljunregenerate,and 
reprobate multitude of -mankind, as John 14-17- whom the world 
'. cannot receive*: And 1 J. 9. 1 pray not for the world. Sometimes earth- 
ly things, as Gal.4. 3. oppofed to fpirituall ; and fometimes hnfull 
and corrupt things oppofed to holy and heavenly , as (falat.6.14. 
But the mo(i full and proper fenfe is that which I have firft na- 
med, and in that fen/e it is ufed in all places, which fpeake oftthe 
creating and founding of the world;and iignifiesthe whole frame 
1 of heavenand earth, with the furniture of them. . j - 
4» The fourth name . by which the creature in generall is called, is 
the Greeke word rfl<r[icc> or x.7#Vic> which properly fignifies that 
which is created, and made of nothing , by the a£t of creation ; by 
this name the creature in generall is called , as it comprehends 
every thing created either in heaven? or earth, or in the fea , or under 
the earth 7 Revel. 5.1 3. And by this name riffff/Cj the whole world 
is called, CMar.11.19. where our Saviour faith, There frail be fitch 
affiiUion as was not from the beginning of the creature which God crea- 
ted, that is, of the world, Koo-fis, as the word is rendered by the 
Evangelic Matphew,* Chap .2 4. 2 1 . 
Inftructi- Now from theie feverall names ufed by the Spirit of God in 
ons con- Scripture, to fet forth the creatures in generall, that is , the uni- 
rhca-ef- verfality of things created, we may obierve divers things for our 
tares. inftru&ion. 

1 . Fir/1, that whatfoever hath any being in heaven, or in earth, 
either in, this world j or in the world to come , even all things 
which can be conceived to have a true being , befides God him- 
felfe, are created of God, have a beginning , and were made out 
of nothing at the firft : Th,is 3 as it k laid downe in my Text , fo it 
appeares plainly by all the foure names before cited , and is con- 
firmed by the Scriptures produced , to fliew the true fenfe of 
Them, to wit, I fa. 44. 24. John i.^.CV.i.itf.and %cvel.q.n.Knd 
belides thele, wee have many other, as Exod.20.11. Tfal.146.6. 
and Pfal.14.%. in which .places the heavens, and the heaven of hea- 

InJlruBims from the Names of the Creatures 

vens, the Angels, and all the hofts of God, the Sun, Moon, Stars, 
the Aire, and the Meteors,the Earth, the Sea, and ?M things m 
them are laid to be made, and created by God : to which we may 
adde, 5.2nd 17.24. //<?£. 1. 10. 

2. Thefecond thing which I obferve from thefe names of the 
creature in general! is, That the World was made in perfect 
beauty, fit to flouri ih perpetually ;and every Creature, as it was 
created of God, was good, perfect 3 and beautifull in his kind, free 
from all difcord, difbrder, and corruption. This is gathered from 
the names a/avac-j and Koirftcc by which the World is called ; the 
one of which fighiftes beauty, ornament,and decencic, free from 
all deformity, difcord, and diforder ; and the other a perpetuall 
being, or a perpetuall flouriming in being and perfection. And 
the laft words of this Chapter connrme this fully, to wit, God 
beheld all things which he had made, and lo they were exceeding 
good. The words alio of God himfelre, Job 3 8. from the $.Verfe, 
where he fets forth his manner of creating all things in a mofi ex- 
cellent order , by laying the foundations of the earth fure , by 
meafuringk as it were by line , by fliutting in the deeps within 
bounds, bV bringing forth the lights of heaven rejoycing, and the 
Angels fudging joyfully, and by making all things to flourim. 
Reafon a)fo grounded on the Word of God doth prove this 
plainly : For that which was made in perfeft wifedome , and in 
the framing whereof Gods eternall wifedome had anhand, mu(t 
needs bee mod beautifull, decent, and flourishing : For if Gods 
wifdome in Betake/ and ^Mw^m'adethem fo excellent in work- 
ing curious and glorious workes for the Tabernacle, much more 
excellent is it in God himielre. Now the Scriptures plainly te- 
itihe, that God founded the world in wifdome, Prov.^.i 9. that in wif- 
dome hee hath made all-things; ^^104.24-. and that wifdome 
had an hand in ordering all things, Pm>.8. Therefore the creati- 
on of the World was in perfect beauty and corrrelineffe. 

3. The third tiling which we learne from thefe names is; That 
the deformity of the world, the enmity of creatures, the corrup- 
tion of man, and theconfufion of things created, were not in the 
world, nor in the creatures thereof at the firit ; neither are they 
Gods handy-workc, nor things by him created : for the world h 
kwr/uoe i a beautifull frame : And the Scriptures call the worlds 


"& - — — - . — — ■ — ' ■ - : T~r. : ; ■ — — - 

24 Inftruciionsfrom th names of the Creatures. 

cLi&v&Qy things of being,' and continuance , not things deformed, 
corrupt, and peufhjng. . This alio the Scriptures foevv^C^vz^.that 
the -eauh was cur fed for mans fake, and mans imne came fromhim- 
felfe,andthe Serpent : And ( D eut. 2 %, 2 3. and Lev it. 2 6. God him- 
(cife in the Law profefleth, that for difobedience and fin of rebel- 
lious people hee doth make their heaven over them as braffe, and 
theireart h as iron: Ancj £W f 7.2 9. it is laid, that God made man 
upright bin ihey ■■have fright <?itf- many inventions. 

I might- here alfo obferve from the name ko^oc, that the 
world was alio made in a beautifull and pleafant feafon, even 
the pleafant time of the Spring in all probability j but I love 
not ro- build; opinions on fuch vveake foundations. 

And from the word cii&v'ots, which f gnif es long lofting ages , I 
might -ob.ierve the .ages ofche world, and difcuife the que.ftion. a- 
bout the ages and years from the creation \ but they may more 
feafonably be touched -hereafter, when we come to fpeake.of the 
particular branches -of the creation. 
■fife i. ^ Now I come to the Life of zHqIq confiderations : Firft , they 
The world fgi-\<£ ,to make the thoughts and conceits of Atheitts and carnall 
not ecer- philofophers hazefull to. us ; to wit, that che world is eternal!, and 
had no beginning, neither mall have end. For here wee fee, that 
all things univerially were created of nothing , and are creatures 
formed by God- It is a point of faith above all mturall reafon to 
underhand, that, th^ worlds were: -i^ade of nothing, as t he A poftle 
&e yves, Nek 1 J . 3 < And that was it which made Ax'iftotle^nd o- 
ther witty and learned Philofophers,ied by reafon, doubt of the 
creation of the world/ Bdide, when they obferved the inability 
of the heavens, and heavenly hoft, and their beautifull order and 
incorruptible being, this did further them in this conceipt , and 
made them thinke there mould be no qnd of it. But Gods Word 
teacheth the contrary, and fheweth, that all things; were created 
and made out of nothing, except only Godhimfetfe ; and though 
they were made perfect and: good , fit to. flouriih for ever , . and 
lome of thjem^aveitJU a great remnant :of that glory, and perfe- 
ction, as the heavens, >vhich change little in majay ages ; yet by 
mans /in they are; corrupted and made changeable , and Co much' 
more,by how much moreneere they come to man : And this the 
Philofophers felt and perceived ^ infomuch that many of them did 


Gods eternity admirable. 2 J 

acknowledge the creation, and the end of the world ; and even 
tAriftetlehimfclfe, though he could not conceive that the world 
fliouldbe made of nothing by the courfe of nature, yet nee did 
acknowledge God the Father Maker and Preserver of it ; and fe 
likewife dial I all be confounded, who are not fettled in this truth : 
Therefore let us looke up to God,and beleeve his Word,and hate 
all blind conceipts of worldly wile men ; and lee and behold in 
the moll rational! and wife naturall men , denying this truth of 
the worlds creation, that rhe wifdome of the world is fooltjhnejfe, 
and the imaginations of the fleOi enmity againd God. 

Secondly, this confederation of creation and beginning of all fife i. 
the world, ierves to make us more admire Gods eternity, and to Admire 
ravidi us with the confederation of it. If there could be a man Gods e- 
found on earth , who had lived eve/ fince the time of Chrid , or le * nit 7- 
fince the daies of Adam or T^pah, wee would highly edeem him, 
and feeke to him from the uttermoft parts of the earth , as the 
Qjueen of Sheba did to iSV*;^*. But behold, all this world is but 
of fhort continuance, created of God not many thoufands of 
yearesago* God is before it, even from all eternity. And this 
world fhall peridi, but he endureth forever, Pfil.ioz. And there- 
fore if wee wonder at the long lading heavens, andthefurely 
founded earth ; how much more ought we to admire the eterni- 
tie of God, the ancient of daies, before all daies and times,and with- 
out beginning or end ! 

Thirdly, though this world be beautifull by reafon of fome re- ^ ? 
liques of perfection and beauty remaining from the creation ; yet q v rlovV 
feeing it had a beginning, and is corrupted by fin, and had ens to- noc c h e ' 
wards an end, Jet us not fet our hearts on it,orany worldly thing;' world, 
but looke up to God, and have our hope and our affeclions firmly now drgc- 
fet on him , whofe beauties of holinefle fhall not fade as the fa- ncrate « 
fhion of this world doth ; but his glory endureth forever. 

Fourthly, we may here fee,that the world was created for ns,& life 4. 
for our ufe, not for any need which God had of it ; for God was Not God, 
infinitely bleded in himfelfe without it , from all eternity : and fcuc , vv f 
certainly, in that God did not create it, and time with k, many ^ e c r ij # lc 
thoufands of yeares before he did, this is a drong evidence, that 
God is ail-furncknt in himfelfe, and hath for himfelfe no need of 
any creature. 

D Ladly, 

26 SeVerall branches of Creation tn generall 

Ufi 5. Laftly, it ferves to make us hate fin, as the Divels poyfon,and 
Hate fin : turne from it, and be affraid to communicate with it, as wee doe 
Motives. vv i t h things created by God ; becaufe it is not of Gods forming, 
but is the corruption of mans nature poyfoned and defaced : and 
all enmity, which is among the creatures , vexing and destroying 
one another, came in by fin ; and all the pieafure which men take 
therein, is corrupt, finfalland againft pure nature : Wherefore ler 
m afcribealJ deformity, diibrder, and difcord in the world to 
mans fin, as the proper caufe thereof. 

Qf Creation immediate, and mediate. The Hebrew words expounded. 
Sundry Dottrines propofed , and made ufefttll. Some que ft tons dip 
c tiffed : i. Of the time of the pare, wherein the world was created. 
2. Of the number of the yeares fince this was. Of the highefi hea- 
vens : 5 .points propofed. 

THe creation and creature in generall being defcribed out of 
thefe words , and the reft of the hiftory of the creation in 
this and the next Chapter,I proceed to the feverali parts and ipeci- 
all branches of the creation, which I will unfold in that order in 
which they are here laid downe, and will defcribe the feverali 
kinds of creatures,which God created together with the (tateand 
condition wherein God created them. 

The worke of creation coniidered in generall, comprehends in 
it two lpeciall branches, as I have noted before. 

The firit is fimple,abfolute, and immediate creation, which is a 
giving of the firft being to things (imply and abfolutely out of no- 
thing, when there is no matter at all to worke upon. 

The fecond is a mediate and Secondary creation, which is a gi- 
ving of the firrl being to things out of a rude, unfit, and nndiipo- 
iedmatter j and that initantly, without any precedent altering, 
or difpofing of the matter of which they are made. 

Each of thefe confiffs of two fubordinate branches : Fir/t, abso- 
lute creation is either a making of things perfect out of nothing, 
or a making of things imperfect out of nothing. Both thefe parts 
or branches are here laid downe in this firft verlerOf them there- 
fore I purpofe to fpeake out of thefe words; and for the better 


The y^ords y ln the beginning^x^wt^. 27 

performance thereof, I will fife the words particularly in the firft 
place, and lb will come to the Dodrines. 

And for the gencrail meaning of the words, I have thus far laid 
it open, That the firft word T\iW&*\2>BercJhith, fignifies the time The words 
of the creation. The word fc^a, Bara, Signifies properly creating expoun- 
of things out of nothing, or out of a rude matter fit for nothing, dcd - 
and uncapable of any efTentiall forme. The word Slohim, inti- 
mates the Trinity of perfons in the unity of erTence. The word 
Heaven, is to be taken for the Heaven of heavens, or the higheft 
heavens. And by the Sartk, is meant the rude matter, out of 
which God framed the whole inferiour vifible world. I now 
come to fift the words more particularly, lb as that they may give 
light to this firft fpeciall branch of creation, and to the two par- 
ticular parts thereof. 

The firft word T\Wi*!M,BtreJhrth, which is here tranflated in the j J 
beginning, may admit a threefold expofit ion : Firft., if we take the 
word nvWijas lbmetimes it fignines in Scripture, for the chiere 
or principall ; or for the firft fruits, which were the firft and chie- 
fefi of every thing ; then this word may fignifie either as the He- 
brew Rabbins expound it, Berejhith, in or for the chiefe, that is, for 
Iiraels fake, who were the chiefe of the Nations, and choice peo- 
ple of God, God created the heavens and the earth, and in them 
God laid the foundation of all things created : Or elfe Berejhith, 
in the firft fruits, that is, in Chrift, who is the chiefe and the firft 
fruits of all ; and for the elects fake in him, God created the hea- 
vens and the earth, as fome Chriftians have expounded it. But if 
we take the word Rejhirh y as it is commonly taken in the Scrip- 
ture, for the firft beginning of a thing; or the firft part of the be- 
ing of it ; or the firft part and moment of time , wherein a thing 
comes to have being ; then may this word (Berejhith) fignifie 
the firft part of time, wherein things created came to have 
being ; or the firft part of creation : and this rmy bee the 
meaning, that in the firft part of time , or in the firft part of 
the creation, Godcreated the heavens and the earth;and the crea- 
tion of them was the firft a& of creation. This, as it is the expo- The bc- 
fition molt commonly held, and generally received j fo I take it ginning 
to be the belt and fitteft,and that which the Spirit of God chiefly j£ r j mc 
intended in this place : for though it is true, that God created all m e e ^ nt , 

D 2 .things 

28 The Tfrord Berefhich expounded. 

things in Chrift,and for his lake, and his elects fake efpecially : 
yet here it ftands with more reafon, 2nd is more agreeable to the 
icope of the p'ace, to thinke, that, the &rft part of time, or of the 
jirgum.i. creation is meant : For fir it, it is manifeft (as (hall appeare here- 
after) that here Lftfofes.doth not fpeake generally of the creation 
of all particulars, which are after named in the Chapter: Neither 
doth he by the heaven & the earth undcrftand the whole wor!d,Sc 
all the particulars therein contained; but by HeavenM here meant 
the higher! heaven ; and by Eanh, is meant the rude made, out of 
which God framed the infetiour viable world. Now they onely 
were not created for Chrifts fake, but all other things alio ;and 
they onely were created in the frit part or moment of time, and 
In the firlt beginning of the. creation .-therefore it /rands with 
better reafon to expound theie words \in the beginning) for the 
firft beginning oftime,ov the firft part of the creation , which is 
the fubj'ecl of this holy Hiftory ; then to understand it of Chrift, 
that in him, and for him, the heavens and rude earth was created, 
and for his elects fake, for whoie ufe ail other creatures alio Were 
* • Secondly, the Scriptures themfelves doe in other places, Which 
handle the fame matter, expound this word for the firft beginning 
of time, or the fir ft part and moment of creation, as TfalA 02.26. 
where 'David, fpeaking of the firft foundation of theheavens : and 
rhe earth, faith, They were founded of old, that isin the firft time ;' 
for fo the word CDU $h fignifieth, which hee there ufe: h in ftead 
of this word Berejhith ; and which is tranflated by the Apoit!eKar s 
«'£X«C> * n f b e beginning, Heb.i.i o. and therefore it is manifeft,that 
here this word notes unto us the time when this firft acl of crea- 
tion was performed, namely, the beginning or firft part of time. 
Some, who held that the higheft heavens 'and the firft rude 
matfe of the earth were created from all eternity, and had their 
being long before the firft beginning of time ; doe here take this 
word Bercfbfth to fignifie from all eternity, and doe thinke that 
fo it may be tranflated ; from eternity God created the heavens 
and earth. And to this ptirpofe they bring an example, where the 
words (in the beginning) fignifie from all eternity, to wit, Joh.i.i. 
where it i$ fiaid, In the beginning wm th JVord, that is> from all 


In the begimungsreatedJElohim/xpounded. 29 

But this expedition may eafily be confuted by other Scriptures; 
for £^^.20.1 i.God himfelfearTirmeth,that in fix daieshemade 
heaven and earth, and all other creatures : and therefore the hea- 
vens were not created from all eternity , but in the beginning, in 
the firft day of the creation. As for the words of the fcvangelift, 
they may eahJy be anfwered ; for indeed they doe not properly 
fignifie eternity, but the firft moment of time, in which God began 
to givt being to his creatures. And yet take the/e words (in the be* 
gtnning) joyntly together with other words, which immediately 
follow in the fame fentence,and they neceflarily imply and prove 
that the Word was eternall 3 and from all eternity 3 coetema]l with 
God the Father : For hee who was already, and had a being with 
God, and was God, and made all things in the beginning, mull 
needs be from all eternity, and before the firft moment or time, 
in which he was not made nor created ; but was,that is, had a- be* 
ing already, yea was coeternall to the Father : Therefore thefc 
words (in the beginning) as the Evangelfft ufeth them, doe fignifie 
eternity ; but in that he faith, The JVordwas, that is, had already a 
being with God in the beginning, when hee began to give being 
to all other things, this proves by neceflary coniequence,that the 
Word was eternall : and therefore the common expofition ftands 
fure, that here the word (Berefhith) fignifies the beginning, or firft 
part of time. 

The fecond word of this Text, that is, Bara,created 9 fignifies II. 
the giving of firft being to all things , either fimply out of no- 
thing, or out of matter undifpofed for the forme introduced (as I 
have noted before.) And by a Metaphor , it fignifies great and 
mighty workes, which refemble the creation ; but here it fignifies 
abfolute creation,or giving the firft being to the higheft heavens, 
and to the rude mafle or matter of the viiible world,out of meere 
nothing ; for they were created of no matter before exifting (as 
all doe hold,) and of their creation onely this Verfe fpeakes. 

That the third word (Slohim) being of the plurall number, fig- II I- 
nifies three perfons in one God the Creatour ; and that the 
creation was the worke of all the three performs in the Trinity, I 
have before fhewed. Here let mee adde further a Cabalifticall 
proofe, gathered from the Hebrew word fcVtt, which fignifiesthe 
a<5t of creation ; and confifts of three Hebrew letters , which are 

D 3 the 

jo What meant by HeaVen>and Eartb,<&c. 

the firft letters of the three Hebrew words 3&* p and rn% which 
fignifie the Father, the Son, and the Spirit : And therefore if the 
Cabaliiilicall art be. of any credit, this a6t of creating is the work 
of all the three perfons, thfc Father, the Son, and the holy Spirit, 
one and the fame God 
jy . y t The two Jaft words,tD'QW and ^*1M, the heaven andthe earth, do 
here fignifie (as I have noted before) the higheft heaven, and the 
earth which was without forme and void, that is, the rude maffe 
and common matter of the vifible world. Some learned men do 
by heaven and earth underftand the whole world , in the fame 
fenfe as the words are, Chapt.2.1 .By heaven 9 they conceive the 
higher! heaven, the vifible ftarry heaven, and the whole firma- 
ment of the aire to be meant : by earthy the lower! globe of the 
earth, which hath the fea intermingled with it ; and by creating, 
they underif and the whole worke of creation in general!, and 
not that firft fpeciall act , by which God made the higheft hea- 
vens, and the rude maffe and matter of the vifible world onely. 
The main reafon which they have to prove this, is drawn from the 
Hebrew Articles ritf, which is joyned with crow, and jj, which 
is prefixed before the word y^to, earth. The firft of which Arti- 
cles confifts of the firft and laft letter of the Hebrew Alphabet, 
and fo implies an univerfall comprehension of ail things , which 
were created both tliQ firft and the laft. The other, to wit., n, is 
of plaine demonftration, and fheweth that this heaven and earth, 
as they now ftand, are faid to be created here in thefe words. But 
this exposition is plainly overthrown by the Text it Mfe, and the 
reafon an fwe red without any difficulty : Firft^the act of creation 
ipoken of and intended in this Verfe, is that which was perfor- 
med in the beginning, that is, in the firft moment of time, fo the 
Text affirmes : but the whole world, and all creatures in heaven 
and earth were not made in the firft moment of time, nor in the 
firft day , but in fixe daies ; therefore the whole world is not meant 
in thefe words, nor all creatures in heaven and earth. Secondly., 
if the Article flNbe of generall comprehenfion , then each of 
thefe words mould fignifie the whole world; for it is added to 
each of them, and fo the other word mould be fuperfluous in this 
place. Thirdly, we may f^kly grant, that thefe words are of ge- 
nerall comprehenfion, and yet we need not expound them of any 


What meant by Heaven jind Earth j&c. ji 

other heaven then the higheit heaven , nor of any other earth 
then the firlt rude mafTe, out of which the whole vi/ible world 
was made, which was without forme \ and void&s it is teitifled in the 
next words, Verfe 2. For this heaven did comprehend in k zhc 
higheit heaven, and all the holt and inhabitants of it, the Angels, 
actually. And this earth or rude maffe did potentially compre- 
hend in it the whole vihble world , which afterwards in the fixe 
daies was actually formed out of it rand therefore I take this to 
be the belt expoiition, to under/land by the heaven , the highe/t 
heaven onely where the Angels and bletfed Saints have their dwel- 
ling, together with the ho(t thereof: And by the earth to under- 
ltand (as the next Verfe lheweth) the rude made, out of which 
God after formed the whole vilible and mutable world , confi- 
fting of the Ifarry heavens, and of the aire, water, and earth with 
all things in them. As for them who here by heaven and earth 
underftand the whole world , actually formed and made ; and 
them, who understand the common feed and rude matter of the* 
heavens, both higheit and invifible , and alfo the vifible heavens, 
and the inferiour world ; they exclude out of this hiltory of the 
creation, the diilindt and fpeciall narration of the creation of the 
higheit heavens, and of the glorious holt thereof, the Angels and 
fhper-celeftiall Spirits, contrary to that which UMofes himielfe 
plainly teachetfi, Chapt.2.1. where repeating fummarily the 
whole creation in generall, which he had before distinctly related, 
and in all the parts thereof defcribed in the frit Chapter, he faith, 
Thus were the heavens and, the earth finijhed, and all the hofi of them, 
that is, the Angels among the reft 3 for they are called the hea- 
venly holt, Luke 2.13. 

From the words thus expounded, we may gather an excellent 
defcription of the frit fpeciall act of creation , which is called 
iimple and abfoluto creation, and of the two particular branches 
thereof, to wit, 

That it is that act of creation, whereby God in the frit begin- 
ning did create, and give the frit being out of nothing to the 
higheit heavens, and to the earth, that is, the flrft rude mafTe and 
matter of the vifib-c world. 

The parts of this act are two:Thefirft is that act of fimple ere- 
jUon,by which God created out of nothing, and gave a molt per- 

D 4 m 

yi Gods omnipotencie^ifdome^c. 

feci glorious being to the higheft heaven, and to all things therein 
contained. The fecond is that act of fimple creation , c by which 
God gave the fir ft imperfect being to that rude earth, themaffe, 
which was the common matter, out of which nee formed the 
whole inferiour, viiible, and mutable world. _. 

In this description of the firft act of fimple creation , and of 
each branch thereof, wee may observe foure things : The firft is 
the matter both general! and fpecialljaid downe in the word Ba- 
ra> created. Secondly, the author of it, God the Father, Sonne,and 
holy Ghoft, Elohim, three perfbns in one God. Thirdly,the time 
and order of k 3 in the beginnings Berejbith ; it was the firft acl, 
performed in the frft moment of time. The fourth is the obje<f t 
or effect, to wit, the things created, the heaven and the earth / The 
heaven is the object and effect of the firft particular branch ; the 
earth is the effect of the fecond. Thefe foure things considered 
both joyntly together , and Severally by themfelves, doe afford 
unto us divers profitable inftruclions, and divers queftionstobe 
difcuffed, worthy of our confideration. 

Firft, the matter and fubftance of this act, is a (imple and abfo- 
lute producing of reall and fubftantiall thing? out of nothing; yea 
creatures, which of all others were moft perfect and glorious, to 
wit, the higheft heavens, and the glorious Angels thee! email" Spi- 
rits, which were made and placed there, to ftand in the fight and 
preicncf of God. Now this offers to our consideration an excel- 
lent meditation of Gods infinite power and omniporencieSmew- 
mg it feifemoft cleerly in this firft a£t of creation ; for in that 
God, contrary to rhe courfe of ail sxtiher the moft cunning Arti- 
ficers, did immediately and absolutely of himfelfe, and bv him- 
ielfe alone create , and make out of nothing in the firft begin- 
ning, the moft perfe6> creatures of all, even the higheft heavens, 
and the glorious Angels and eternall Spirits ; and fo the firft ad 
of creation was the moft perfect and complete ad of all. This 
JjQUjl* teachethus, that God is of himfelfe infinite, omnipotent, and all 
t on ^ u ^ cnt * n power and in wifdome, able to doe all things, and to 
God is performe and bring to pafte by his owne mighty hand,inftantiy, 
feen to be without any help, counfell, or advice of any other,t{ie greateft, 
infinitely a nd moft perfedt ,and glorious workes which can be done,named, 
wife,and or jmjpjngj ' m heaven and earth. Wee find by experience and 
P° wwfu "' * * F reafon, 

manifefted in the Creation. r> 

reafbn, that all Artificers, before they have in and ofthcmfelves 
skill and power fufficient to bring. to paffe the workes which be- 
long to their art, doc firft practife by the direction ot others in 
/mailer matters ; and by tiieand practice grow more skilfulKand 
Co proceed to greater and more perfect workes : and becaufe the 
moft cunning and exeuihte workmen in the world are limited in 
their power'and skill to one thing at once, neither can their 
minds intend, nor their under lianclings conceive, nor their hands 
perfcrme all things at once , which are required for the perfor- 
mance of a perfect worke ; therefore in every fiich worke they 
proceed by time, leafore, and decrees : firftj laying a foundation 
of matter ; fecondly, forming ana framing of every feverall part; 
thirdly, fitly composing of ail parts together in one,and fo bring- 
ing the worke to con/iimmation and perfection. And fo God 
mult have done in the creation , if hee had not been infinite in 
power, and all- fufficient : If his wiidome and power had been li- 
mited, he mull have begun with fmaller workes, and afcended 
by degrees ; and in every worke hee mult frit have either bor- 
rowed matter from others , or made it himfelfe for to worke 
upon. Secondly, he mull have fitted the matter, to receive a fit 
forme. Thirdly, he muit have introduced the forme into every 
part, and have compofed all together into one perfect creature : 
But we fee all was contrary ; he performed the greater!- and moll 
perfect worke at the firft, even the moft glorious heavens,and the 
eternali Spirits, which are durab!e,and abide for ever ; therein he 
iet up his glorious throne, and made an habitation for his blefted 
Saints and Angels. He mewed that he was all-Juiiicicnt in him- 
felfe for the greateli worke, becaufe he did.performe it of him- 
felfe> before there was any ;but himfelfe, and no creature made to 
help him. He did not by degrees get his skill , but at the rii-ft 
fhewed the belt worke , and performed it in an inftant : And 
therefore in this firft act of creation, we may fee, as jn a cleere 
glafle,the infinite wifdomeand omnipotencie of God. This truth 
is alio ftrongly confirmed by firme proofes from other Scrip- 
tures^* J<^37.-3- clihn 3 that wife unreproved friend of God, 
full of the Spirit, doth from this very ground, namely, the wen- 
derrull creation. of the heavens and other things , conclude the 
omnipotencie and infinite wiidome of Cod , that he is ShtdeUi, 


34 Gods otnnipotencie, wifdome y &c. 

the Almighty, All-fufficient, that he is excellent in power and 
judgement, and that we oannot find him out by reafon of his in- 
eomprehenfible wifdome and power. Soalfo Job 3 8.1. and 40.2. 
God himfelfedoth from the creation of the heavens,and the An- 
gels full of glory, andfhouting for joy, and from his making and 
ordering of all things moft wifely prove, that hee himfelfe the 
Creatour is Almighty, one who cannot be inftru&ed nor repro- 
ved, and againft whom none can contend. And Job him felfe,jfo£ 
42.2. upon the fame ground and consideration is moved to con- 
fefle, that he knovves God to be able to doe every thing, and that 
he is infinite in wifdome and knowledge ; that no thought can be 
withholden from him, and that the things of God are too vvon- 
derfull for him to know. The Prophet David alfo, TfaL 8.l,2* 
from the confideration of Gods glory , which he hath fet above 
the vifible heavens, in the higheft heavens ; and from the excel- 
lent nature of the Angels, weighed with himfelfe, doth break out 
into an admiration of Gods excellent greatnefle , thereby made 
l<nowne ; and wonders that hee, fo mighty a one, fliould regard 
pooreman at all; who,though the chiefeofvifiblecreatures,is but 
a worme, and as nothing before God i Lord, faith he, how excellent 
is thy^ame in all the world, who haflfet thy glory above the heavens \ 
When I confider the heavens, the worke of thy fingers, I fay, Lord, what 
is man, that thou art mindfull ofhim^or the fon of man that thou vifitefh 
him ? And Pfal.i 9.1 . The heavens (faith he) declare the glory ofCjfod, 
that is, the glorious attributes of his omnipotencie and infinite 
wifdome. And moft fully and plainly doth the Apoltle TauL 
fpeak to this purpofe in a few words, faying, that the 
invifible things of (jod, even his et email power and Cj odlxad from the 
Creation are c leer ly fee n, being Under flood by the things which are made, 
ttfe T. The confideration of which truth ferves firft to incite us,and al- 
Look up fo direct us, to make a right and profitable ufe of Gods firft a6t of 
to the creation,, by putting us in mind , that it is not enough for us in 
oinnipo- rea( jj n g t h e hifiory of it, to think of it only asof fome great work, 
the Cr«a- ^^ t0 cor,terit our felves with the bare and naked under Handing 
sour. and remembrance of the glorious heavens and Angels , thereby 
created and made ; but that we all ought,by meditating upon the 
excellency and abfbfute perfection of that firft worke above the 
reft which followed, to be lifted up unto that further meditation 


mamfefted in the Creation. *c 

of the omnipotencie and infinite wifdome of God , and of his 
power and ability to doe all things, and to bring into perfeft be- 
ing any moit excellent worke at his pIeafure,whenfoever he will ; 
And hereby to be ftirredup and encouraged to rejoyce more a- To re- 
boundantly in the Lord our Creatour, to reft more confidently on J°y c ? and 
him, when we have committed our felves to his protection, and [ c . n 
he hath received us under the fhadow of his wings and to hope 
for all b'effings which he hath promifed ; and for the performance 
of all his promifes indue time and feafon, without hinderance or 
refiftance of any power. As all created things were made for 
fome end, and whatfbever is not fit to ferve for fome fpeciallend 
is a meer vanity ; fo the knowledge of things, without the know- 
Jedge of the end and uie of them, is a vaine notion fwimming in 
the braine rand therefore the maine thing which we ought to 
drive at in feeking the profitable knowledge of things,istoknow 
and underftand the fpeciall ufe of them. Now Gods creating of 
the higheft heavens, and thehoft of them in glorious perfection 
by himfelfe alone, in the firft aft of creation in the beginning, 
doth ferve moft properly, naturally, and necerTarily to {hew the 
infinite wifdome and omnipotencie of God the Creatour (as is 
before provedj that we feeing therein thefe divine attributes of 
God as in a glafTe,may rejoyce in him, and reft fecurely on his 
promifes, knowing that he will performe and fulfill his word,and 
none can refift him : Wherefore let us ftudy to make this right 
ufe, that our knowledge may be found and faving , and may 
bring us on to falvation. 

Secondly, this may juftly fmite our hearts, and make us afna- %r e 2# 
med of our owne dulnefie and negligence in this point, in that we Bewaile 
all, or the molt part of us have fo often read, heard, remembred, thz con- 
and underftood in reading and hearing the Word of God , this crary neg- 
great worke of creating the heavens and heavenly hoft, and have 1, 8 ence ' 
beleeved it, and fpoken of it, and fo have parted it over , without 
feeing, beholding,and considering in it the wifdome, power, and 
glory of God. Alas, there be few amongft us, who have taken 
care to look fo farre into the end and ufe of thefe things of God ; 
and that is the caufe, that fcience abounds without confcience,and 
much knowledge goeth alone without any found or fincere pra- 
6tik. O let us be throughly ailiamed of our negligence in the 


36 The three Perfons in Trinity pequall ? coeternall fire. 

times part, which is too much indeed ; and Jet us labour to re- 
deem the time hereafter by double diligence, ftudying to fee 
Gods glory ix* thofe great workes • and feeing, to admire his 
wifdome, and to adore his heavenly Majerty. 
■fife i . Thirdly, Gods truth in this doctrine beleeved and embraced, is 
Checks ^ a ftrong Antidote againft all AtheifHcall thoughts, which poflefle 
all Athei- the hearts of divers dull andcarnall people, wfib cannot conceive 
thou Ht t ^ orou g f ' I *y > nor fid'Y beieeve, but often doubt of Gods omni- 
of Gods S potencie and ability, to create in a moment out of meere nothing 
power, mod perfect and glorious creatures, fuch as are Angels and blef- 
fed fpirits, and the heaven of heavens. Such doubts are the caufe 
that they cannot beleeve in God,reft on his power- and be confi- 
dent in him in cafes of extremity, when the whole world feems 
to be againft them , and all outward helps faile. If they did but 
difcerne the power of God,by the firft fimple a£fcofcreation,they 
might know and beleeve, that hee out of nothing can raifemore 
help then they can defire or ftand in need of in their greateft ex- 
'Dott.i. Secondly, in that here in the firft act of creation, performed in 
The three the firft beginning of all things, and in the firft moment of time, 
perfons*- God the Creatour is defcribed by the name Slohim, which fignifies 
are equa a p] ura ji t y f perfons in the unity of eflence (as I have before pro- 
ved) and this act isafcribed to all the three perfons equally in one 
and the fame word : Hence we may gather a necefTary doctrine 
concerning the confab ftantiality, equality, and eternity of all the 
three perfons in the faered Trinity ,to wit,That the three perfons, 
the Father, the Soa,and the holy Ghoft are all co-eternall , and 
without beginning, all equall among themfelves, and confab ftan- 
tiall, of the fame undivided nature and fabftance, three perfons di- 
ftinct: in one infinite eternall Jehovah, For plaine reafon tells us, 
that whatfbever had no being given to it, in or after the firft be- 
ginning of creatures, but was, and had a being already in the firft 
beginning, and before any thing was made, yea, was the authour 
ani maker of the firft worke of all ,• that murt needs be of abfo- 
lute eternity, every way eternal!, without any beginning or end 
at all. Now fuch are all the three perfons in the blefled Trinity, 
they all by this word {Elohim) are fihewed to be equall in the firft 
act: of creation \ and fo to be before the firft beginning of all 


Comfort againft feare ofAfoflack. 37 

things as the authcur and caufe before the worke and effect, they 
all ate declat ed to be one and the feme lingular God and undivi- 
ded elfencc t and therefore this Doc'trine doth hence truly ari.e. 
I need not he.e a^aine tfand upon further proofe of it ; for that I 
have done aboundandy aiready,in expounding the Doc'trine of the 

Onely zhc consideration of this truth may ferve firit to con- life 1. 
\ ince-all Hetetickes of horrible errour and blaiphemy, who deny Againft 
either the Creatour of the world ro be the true God -or the Son, A ntitrini- 
and the Spirit to be ecruaJf, co-etetnall, and of the famefublfance tancs * 
with the Father ; as the Arians and others did. Behold here the 
blafphemons fictions of thefemen cut off before they fhoot forth, 
and'rootedup before they were fowne, by this fir/tact of crea- 
tion as k is- here described by the Spirit of God : and therefore 
let us hate and abhorre all iuch dreames and fkUcns, as mod 
monltrous and unnatural], damned in Godsiooke, from thefirrt. 
words of the hirtory of the firft creation. 

Secondly, let us even from this furtheft ground I fetch the all>- life 1. 
iurriciencre of' our Msdraf cm* and Redeemer Chrift, and the tffrn^ Truftin 
cacie'and rejection' of his'' full iatisfaciicn, that we may reit'ori Chrirt,& 
him confidently withcut fcruple, feare,' or doubting. A.saifo the ^ eho ^ 
infinite power of the Spirit, that we may reft in his ftrenqth for * >in " 
perfeverance. If the'Son Chritr.or rhe Spirit were inferiour Goes, 
and of an inferiour nature, not infirike nor 1 co-eternal) with the 
Father, men miifti have feme colour of diffidence : and Uy'mt 
caufe to doubt oV iiifrrcient iati.sfaetion, redemption, and rtedfafi 
perseverance. But here we fee the contrary, thsrr the : Son'is7/\? T 
Word, by whom aUrfoxgs were Msfefa; and the S< n and Spirit one "th£ j0 m ' 
fameGod and Creato-jr with the.F^tner- and the Siktt as he is in 
the regenerate, is greater every way then he that H in the world, 
1 John 4. therefore Jet us ccrmbrc our ieives in the alMutficiencie 
of Chrilt for full. redemption r and of the Spirit for i-ancVficarion 
and perieverance. 

Thirdly, in that here the firftaift ofcreat ion. even the creation ihc time, 
of thehighefi hcavemwith the boil of them , and of the com- inthtbt- 
mon matter of the vihble world out of nothir^, is faid to be per- #*»*£• 
formed in the beginning, .that is, in the firft part or moment of 

time : 

58 : The TborU Vtewtfrom eternity. 

time. Hence fome profitable Doctrines arife,and here fome quc- 
ftions offer themielves to be difcufled. 
^Dollr. Firft, we here are taught, That the whole world, and all- thing* 
The therein, even the higheft and moil durable heavens, and the firir 
worldjind matter of the vifible world had a beginning, and were not from 
had*" be- all eternity, as fome Heathen Philofophers imagined. ThisDo- 
ginnwg* &rine> zs it is plainly affirmed in this Text, which alone is proofe 
futiicient ; fo other Scriptures doe aboundantly prove and-con- 
firme it : John i 7-^4- our Saviour faith, that God the Father lo- 
ved him before the foundation of the world. Ephefi .4. the Apoftle, 
faith, that God hath chofen us in Chrift before the foundation of the 
world : And 1 Pet.i .20. it is faid , that Chrift was ordained before 
the foundation of the world : And Trov.%^ 3. the VViidome of God 
faith , I was fit up from everlafling , before the earth was, or ever the 
heavens were prepared. Thefe and fuch other Scriptures, which 
mention things before the firlt beginning and foundation of the 
world, doe moft evidently {hew, that neither the world, nor any 
part thereof was from eternity ; but with time, and in time be- 
gan. And if this be not fnrftcient to fatisfle Atheifts, who refute 
to beleeve God or his Word , naturall reafbn it fdfc is able to 
prove it againft them , by their owne Principles which they 
Reafi . Firft,jthey acknowledge, that whatfoever is corruptible or mu- 
table by nature, mutt needs have a beginning,and cannot be eter- 
nall : Now it is manifeft, that thQ whole world , and all things 
therein, are by nature corruptible, and changeable 5 and whatfoe- 
ver therein is conftant,unchangeable and incorruptible , it is fo 9 
not by any naturall power in it fdfe, but of the free grace of 
God in Chrift. The Angels, the moft glorious creatures, and the 
fpiritsand foules of men, which are created of nothing, they are 
changeable by nature, asappearesby the fall of the Divell , and 
mans fall and corruption : and therefore it is faid, that hce charged 
his Angels with folly, to wit, them that did fall ; and to the reit 
which ftand he added light, even fupernaturall ligfit of -his fanc"ti- 
fying Spirit, Job. 5. And although the wifeft of the Heathen Phi- 
lofophers did gather from the conftant courfe of the vifible hea- 
vens and the ftarres, that the hearers. were incorruptible and un- 
changeable ; 

The Tborld TkM not from eternity. j$> 

changeable ;yet experience hath taught the contrary, and it is 
found by long obiervation of Artronotners, that there are many 
fixed ttarres, and ft range comets or blazing ftarres , generated in 
the heavens farre above the Moon, which appeare tor a time, and 
after doe vaniih away, as the late blazing ftarre, m zAnno 161 S. 
was found to be by certaine demonstration. But for the inferiour 
Elements under heaven,and the creatures therein ; every eye fee* 
them to be in daily change and alteration , and to have no con- 
ftanciein them : Therefore the world is not from all eternity. 

Secondly, that which is eternall, hath nocaufe fubfifting be- Reafi. 
fore it ; nor any fuperiour to over-rule, order, and difpofe ir , but 
is abfolute of it fdfe : And that which hath luch a preceding and 
iiiperiour caufe, authour, and difpofer,mutt needs have and receive 
a beginning from another. Now iuch is the world, and all things 
therein ; the world, and the whole courfe of it is over-ruled and 
difpofed by God, as every eye may fee : For whereas it is the na- 
ture of Summer to be hot, when the Sunne> which is the fountain 
and caufe of light and heat, is molt prefent with us ; God, at his 
pleafure, for the hns of men, doth turne our Summers heats into 
cold Winter ftormes, and doth drown our Harvefts with immo- 
derate raine, in the midit of the dry fcorching dog-daies, as we 
have found of late yeares :Sohee makes fruicfuU lands barren, Pfal.107. 
when they are belt tilled ; and the barren wildernefie hee turnes 
into a fruitfull field, and the defart into fpring* of water. Alfb 
daily experience doth teach us v that things which naturally ferve 
for health are fometimes turned to poylbn; that which enrich- 
eth one, doth impoverish another rand that which hurteth one, 
doth help another. All which ihew , that God over-rules the 
world , and that all things are under his hand , and he is the fu- 
preme caufe and difpofer ofall : Yea,if we obferve all parts of the 
world, we fluil fee, that the earth and the fea are ruled much by 
the heavens.andthe heavens are moved by fome fuperiour power : 
Therefore the world is not eterflall > without caufe or begin- 

Thefe and luch arguments and experiments convinced the 
Heathen Phiiofophers and Poets , and forced them to confefle, 
that the world was not eternall ; but made, in the beginning of 
time, as appeares in Hermes > Trtfmegifios, Tjtbagcras, Plato, Or- 


Tlie Wm-ld not to be IdVed^and Tbhy. 

life I. 
Lore not 
the world, 
being Co 

f beits, Sophocles yHomer, and others. And even zArislot/e himfelfe, 
though he affirmed ft iffely the worlds eternity, anddidoppofe 
the fictions of T/ato and others , concerning die making of the 
vvorid ofa matter which was before exifting, and without begin- 
ning ; yet at length he was forced to con fede , and doth in divers 
of his bookes, that God is the authour and preferverof the whole 
univerfall world/as appeares/^.^ mnndo^ ' hb.iM gsver.& corr, 

Thisadmonifneth u;,not to fee our hearts on the world, nor 
content cur fbules with fiich things as are therein ; but tolooke 
up higher to a better portion, if we defire full fatisfacHon , and 
true contentment and felicity indeed. He that builds on a foun- 
dation, which of itfelfemay faiie,and needs a fupporter it i'dfe, 
he can never dwell faf.ely and (ecurely, but in continual! feare, 
that his heufe will fall on his head ; neither can he ileep in peace, 
till he hath laid a deeper and furer foundation under that. Now 
here we fee diQ world is a moveable foundation, it was not from 
eternity, but had a beginning ; and the being of it hangs on an 
higher cauie, even God : And therefore let us not fet our hearts 
on the world, nor make it our portion ; but looke up to God,and 
fet our affections on him, and feeke to him to be our portion : for 
he onely can fill our foules, and he is, and hath been, and fhall be 
forever the fame ; and in him is no variablenefle,nor fhadow of 

Secondly, this truth ferves to armeus againft all temptations! 
of Sathan, and all cunning fbphiftications of Atheifts, which tend 
to make our faith in this point of the worlds beginning ; and to 
make us thinke, that the vvorid hath been from all eternity, we 
have here a fare foundation from Gods infallible Word, and 
ftrong reafbns alfb to confirme our hearts in this doftrine : and 
therefore let no cavills of oppofers trouble our hearts : Yea, that 
we may more ckerly fee , and more firmly beleeve this truth 
without doubting, I will briefly mew the weakneffe of the beft 
arguments, which are brought ro the contrary ; and ib will re- 
move thofe clouds and mifls out of the way, which feem to eclipie 
the truth. 

The mo ft weighty Objections are gathered from Scrip- 
ture termes and phrafes: as for example , from the name which 
the Scripture giveth to the vvorid, and the ages thereof, to wit, 


Ufi 2. 
Arme a- 
gainft A- 

As in 

fome Ob- 

The Uw^Everlafting, bow taten in Scripture. 41 

a/<2V<xc, which comes of ecu and(5V, and fignifies a being alwaies : 
For fb the world is called, Heb.i 1.3. Alfo 2 TVw.i.p.and 7#m.2. 
the times of the world are called x£oW cci&vi&v, everlaflwgtimes^ 
as the Greek words fignifie. 

The word didviov,everlafting, is two vvaies taken in Scripture, - , 
and in humane writings alfo : Firft, it fignifies an etemallbewg, n * w * 
without beginning or end, even a being before and after all 
times ; and fa God onely is called didviog, everlafting y 1 Ttm.6. 
1 6. and the Spirit is called didviev, eternally Heb.9.14. 

Secondly, this word fignifies a being in all times , from the firft 
beginning to the iaft end of time, but no more , not before nor 
after ; and thus the world, and the ages thereof are called ever- 
lofting, txicdvix. The places objected prove this fenfe ; becaufe in 
them the Apoftle fheweth,that thefe everlaiting times had fome- 
thing going before them , and were but times which have a be^ 
ginning and end: And therefore thefe objected places make much 
for this cfo<ftrine, and not againftir. 

The Objections of Arittotle are drawne, 1 .from incorruptibi- Qbyft % %* 
Jity , which he imagined to be in the heavens : 2.from this, that 
the world was not generated nor made of any pre-exiftent mat- 
ter, neither could be brought into being, by any naturall genera- 
tion : 3. from the eternity of motion, which he thought to prove 
by this, That no motion can be found in nature,but hath another 
motion going before it. 

All thefe may edS\\y be anfwered : for firft, the heavens are w- ^^5 
ruptihle by nature, ana the vifible heavens fhall perifh : and that 
thehigheft heavens are incorruptible , it is not by power of their 
nature, but of the will of God, preferving them. 

Secondly, though the world was not made of matter pre-ex- 
iftent, nor by naturall generation ; yet it may have a beginning 
fupematurall, being created miraculoufly of nothing by Gods om- 
nipotent hand, as all miraculous things are done , which never- 
thelefie are not eternall, nor endure for ever. 

Thirdly, though in naturall things we find no motion , which 
hath not another motion going before it • yet it is not fb,in the 
creation, which was a worke farre above the courfe of nature : fo 
that thefe Objections are of no force to difprove this dodtrine. Ali 
that e/frittotte with his fubtle wit could deviie, was nothing buc 

E thisj 

— — ^-= — ■ I • 

41 Tune had a beginning. 

this, That the world was not made by the courfe of nature , nei- 
ther did come into being by naturall generation, nor was framed 
out of an eternall maile of matter , as T/atoatid other Philofo- 
phers dreamed. Alfo that there was no time before the world* 
neither mall there be any time, wherein the world fhall not be ; 
and that the world is as durable, and lafteth as long as all times ; 
all which we grant without feare ,• and yet it doth not follow 
that the world is eternal! : For that is properly eternall, which ne- 
ver had beginning, neither in time , nor with time , nor before 
time ; but as for time it ielfe, it hath a beginning and an end, as I 
fhall mew in the next place: Therefore let us hate and abhorre 
all Athei&caJl dreamesofthe worlds eternity. 
Dottr.z* The fecond thing which I obferve from this word Berejhith, in 
Time had the beginning (which Mgnifieth in this place the firrl being or mo- 
a begin- ment of time) is this^That time it feJfe is but an adjunct,- or cir- 
n,n S # cum flance of things created, and had a beginning, and fhall have 
an end with the mutable and moveable world. For proofe of this 
we need feek no further but to the fifth Verfe,where it isfaid,7ltf 
evening and the morning were the firfl day, that is, time was produced 
by the Word of God, even thq firft day together with the things 
therein created ; and fo it followes of all the daies of the firfl: 
weeke , they are iaid to be made with the workes created in 

And indeed in reafon it mufl needs be fo ; becaufe time is no- 
thing elie but the continuance of things created, and the meafere 
of the motions which are in the created world, a day is the mea- 
sure of the Suns courfe from Eait to Welt , and round about to 
the Eaft againe : An houre is the time in which the Sun runs the 
fbureand twentieth part of his dayes motion : A weeke is the 
fpace of /even daies , and a yeare the time while the Sungoeth 
his courfe through the twelve Signes of the Zodiack ; and the 
whoje time of the world confiff s of yeares moneths, and daies. 
Now all thefe had a beginning, and have an end ) yea, there was 
Ho day till light and darknefle were made and diftinguifhed ; no 
moneth nor yeare till the Sunne and the Moon were fct in their 
courfe : therefore time hada beginhing,and is not eternall. There 
' were fbme things before all times and ages of the world, 2 Tim. 
1.9. Tim .2, 


No time before the Creation* 45 


Firft, this ferves to admonifh us , to call off all vaine thoughts Ufi 1 . 
and imaginations of time going before the creation of the 
world. It is the folly of many , w hen they reade of the worlds 
creation but fo many thouland yeares ago, to dreame of time be- 
fore creation,and to queftion what God did in that time? A witty 
old man did once anfwer this queftion (as Saint wf*ftm faith) ra- 
ther tauntingly then folidly, viz,* That (jodin thofe times was ma- 
king an hell for fitch curious inqttifitors : But the true anfwer is, there 
was no time nor any thing to be done in time; but God was only 
in himfelfe moil blefled by contemplation of bimfelfe in abfolute 
eternity, in which there is, neither before nor after, no beginning 
nor end : For where there was no day nor nighc , nor haven to 
move, nor any thing to be meafured by time, there could be no 
time at all. 

Secondly, this truth ferves to make us fee our owne vanity,and %f e lm 
the weakneffe of our owne reafon and under/landing. Let a man See thy" 
of the ftrongeft braine and wit , and the deepeft reach in the own weak- 
world, doe what he can, and ftrive and ftraine to theutmoft , he nefle* 
(hall not by humane reafon and capacity conceive ,how anything 
can be without time ; How God could be before the world, when 
there was no time ; or what eternity mould be, but a long time 
without beginning or end- And yet this is Gods truth , as my 
Text faithy which cannot lye, that time was not till the creation : 
Let us therefore here learne to fee our owne weakneffe , and the 
fhort reach of our reafon. Let us acknowledge , that while wee 
have our foules imprifoned in our mortall bodies, looking onely 
through the narrow grates of our outward fenfes, we mail never 
be able to fee, or to comprehend things fpirituall and eternall fb 
as they are. And let this put us in mind to be humble here , and 
to reft in hope, that the eternity, and the eternall joyes of heaven 
are fuch, as neither eye hothfeen, nor eare heard, nor mans heart con- x £or.2.£ 
served: And let us labour to walke by faith, and not by fight , as 
the Apoftle faith, 2 CV.5.7. So much for the Doctrines. 

There be alfb two queftions which here offer themfelves to be 
difcuffed : The hrft is, What time of the yeare the world was crea- 
ted,and which day & moneth were the firft of the world;wirhouc 
the knowledge of this we cannot exactly teil how long it is fince 
the world was created.The fecond is,How long it is fince that firft 

E z beginning J 

44 The Worlds beginning in September ^confuted* 

beginning, wherein God created the heavens and the earth ; For 
iMofes doth carefully fet them downeuntiil his time ; and Co alfo 
doe the fucceeding Prophets which fheweth,that this knowledge 
is not to be neglected. 

gift/lA, For the firtt queftion : Some hold, that the. world was created 
in September, in the time of the Autumnall equinoc"tiall.Others s 
that it was created in the Spring time, and in March , when the 
day and night are equall , and of one length in all the world. 
Both thefe opinions are maintained by reafons and arguments 
produced out of Gods Word ; but the reafons which are brought 
to prove the latter opinion, I conceive to be more ftrong and fb* 
lide; and therefore I doe incline to beleeve , that the world was 

The world created in the Spring time , and not in Antumne ; and that o- 

began in ^^ ma y b e b ett er confirmed in this truth, I will propound the 
P nn S reafons on both fides, and will anfwer the one, and coniirme the 

. . The maine Arguments which tend to prove , that the world 

l m » u wa$ created in September, are foure efpecially : The firft, becaufe 
September was from the beginning obierved and accounted for 
the firft moneth of the yeare , both by the Israelites and Fore- 
fathers, and alfo by the Egyptians and other Nations : For Exod. 
1 2.2. it appeares, that March for a ipeciall reafon was made the 
firft moneth to the Israelites ; becaufe in that moneth thejr came 
out of Egypt. And that till then both they and the Egyptians ac* 
counted September the h"rft moneth. 

£nfo? I anfwer,that the Egyptians did erroneoufly begin their yeare 

in Auturone ; and the Ifraelites living with them , did for civil! 
refpects follow their account : And therefore, when they were to 
depart out of Egypt, God did both teach and command them the 
right obfervation in Abib,or March, Exod.n.z.and called them 
to the true ancient and originall forme of beginning the yeare in 
the Vernal! eqiiino&iall, which is in aAbih 9 that is,March : Yea, 
the Caldeans and Perfians, who were of better credit then the 
Egyptians, didalwaies from the beginning account March the 
firft- moneth of the yeare : therefore this Argument is of no 
'&£km>u Secondly, they argue, that September was the moneth, wherein 
the yea^eof^elt, and the yeare ofjubiie did begin by Gods ap- 

The Worlds beginning in September confuted. 4 J 

pointmenc, as appeares, Levtr.i^.g. for on the tench day of thac 
moneth, God commanded the Ifraelites to found the Trumpet of 
Jubile in all the land, and fo to begin their yeare of Jubile and 
Releafe : Therefore that is the true beginning from the crea- 

I anfwer to this two wales : Firft , that as the yeare of Reft was An fa 
not the firft, but the ieventh , and the faft of the feven ; and the 
yeare of Jubile was the next year after feven Sabbaths of years : 
So the Lord did fttfl follow the number of feven,and would have 
it begin in September ; becaufe it was the feventh moneth,and 
not the firft' by the order of creation. Secondly, the moneth of 
September, when all the fruit is taken from the ground, and men 
begin to fow and plant for the next yeare, is the fitteft time for 
to begin the yeare of Reft, and of Jubile ', wherein every man 
was to re-enter into his land which he had fold, as appeares, Ver/1 
10,11. and this was the caufe of beginning in September; nor. 
becaufe it was the firft moneth of the world , and of the yeare, 
reckoned from the creation : but becaufe it was the fitted for 
men to give up the land empty to the owners, when they had ga- 
thered in the corne and fruit, and cleared the ground ; and fo this 
Argument is of no force. 

Thirdly, they argue, That the time wherein all things naturally Arium.y 
come to perfection , is molt likely to be the time, wherein God 
created the world, and all things therein perfect in their kind,and 
that is Autumne and Septembers experience teacheth : There- 
fore it is molt likely to be the firft moneth from the creation. 

This Argument is divers waies defective : Firft, the ftate of the d*fo» 
world in the creation, was far different from that Rate of things 
which now is ever fince mans fall and corruption : Then all times 
were both Spring and Harveft , and trees did both bloflbme and 
beare perfe^ fruit at all times of the yeare : Therefore no cer- 
taine Argument can arile from this ground. Secondly , if any 
time be more perfecl then another, and retaine perfect ion from 
the creation, it is moll likely to be the Spring time ; for in the 
Spring all things begin to revive, and moot forth of the earth, as 
they did in the creation : then are the fields molt fxem and green, 
and full of beautifull flowers, as in the ftate of innocency. And as 
tor Summer and Harveft, they doe but ripen things which the 

E 3 Spring 

46 Arguments "toby the World Jl?ould begin in the Spring. 

Spring hath quickened and nourished , and haflen them to cor- 
ruption, and not to perfection, caufing them to die and wither : 
Yea veri'y,if the earth had not been curled for mans fin, it would 
now bring forth in the Spring not onely flowers, and bloflbmes, 
and Spring fruits; but alfo all other kinds of fruit : Therefore this 
is a weak Argument. 

Argm 4. As for their fourth Argument, which is Cabalifticall , drawne 
from the Hebrew word VTOna> which fignifieth, in September ; 
agreeing with niTBfcVD, which fignifieth, in the beginning , in the 

^nfm fame letters , I have anfwered it before , and fliewed that they 
differ in one letter, to wic (tt,) and therefore it is but a fal- 

But now for the beginning of the yeare naturally in the 
moneth of March, which is called by the Hebrewes Abib and ft(*- 
fan, as being the moneth in which the world was created,and that 
the world was created in the Vernall equinoctial!, when day and 
night were equall in all the world, divers of the Ancients affirme 
and hold, as Athanafins , Ambrofi', Theodoret, (jril , ( I)amafcene> 
Beda, and others ; and with them many judicious and learned Di- 
vines of later times doe concurre, as Junius, PoUnm, and others : 
Their reafons are very ftrong, forcible , and convincing , which 
cannot be gain-laid. 

Attum.\ Firil, they prove it out of the Scriptures, (jen.K.i 3. where that 
moneth is called thefirfl of the ycare, by account "from the creati- 
on, wherein the waters were dried up from the earth j and it be- 
gan to bring forth fruit for JVoah,and the creatures with him :io 
that in the next moneth there was food for him & the creatures, 
and birds and beafts began to breed and multiply in the earth. 
Now that could not be in September and October, when the 
fruits and herbes begin to decay and wither.Certainly, Ifyah tur- 
ned not out the creatures againlt Winter to leek food from the 
earth;that was no time to breed aboundantly. It is March,where- 
in the earth begins to bring forth ; and April, the fecond moneth, 
is that wherein the creatures, comming out of the Arke , might 
find gra(Te,herbes.and other food ; and Noah might fow and plant 
againfi Summer and Harveft : Therefore undoubtedly March is 
the firft moneth from the creation. 

Ar.gum.i. Secondly, they, prove it from.£vW.i 2.*. where God recalls the 
,. . Ifraelites 

■M I « I I I I ■ ' ■ M I I I ■ I I, 

Arguments y?hy the World jhould begin in the Spring. 47 

Israelites from the Egyptian obfervation,to the old beginning of 
the yeare from the creation • and to account Abtb % or March, the 
firft moneth, as the Text fheweth. 

Thirdly, the Spring time is every way fitteft for tht beginning Argum.^ 
of the world , and oV the naturall yeare: then things begin to 
flourim in all the earth, as they did in the creation ; then is the 
aire molt temperate and healthfull for the bodies of men , as in 
was in the creation;'then day and night are equall in all the world, 
and thedaies begin to grow longer then the night in the country 
of Eden and Babylonia, which was the place of Paradife , where 
Adam was created. But in September , daies begin to fhorten, 
and all herbes to wither, and fruits to fall from the trees : There- 
fore March is the fitteft moneth for the time of the creation. 

Fourthly, the Caldeans, Per(ians,and all cunning Aftronomers Argum.^. 
did by their art and skill difcerne, and by tradition from the firft 
fathers were taught, that March was the firft moneth of the year, 
and that in the Spring time the world was created. 

To thefe Jet me adde one Argument more,drawne from the in- Argum t {< 
.carnation and paflion of Chriit: For it is moft likdy , thatphe 
moneth, in which God appefinted Chrift to be incarnate by con- 
ception in the wombe of the Virgin , and alfo to fuffer for the 
worlds redemption, was the moneth and feaibn of the yeare, in 
which the world was created : For fo which God /ent 
forth his Son, made of a woman, and made under the Law,and to 
redeem them that were under the Law , comes to be the fulnejfe 
of time , as the Apoftle calls it , Galat.4.4. Now this wasthe 
moneth of March : for Chriit being borne on the fhorteft day of 
the yeare (2% Saint Auften and the Ancients , who lived within a Auguftj* 
few ages afrer Chrirt, by tradition had learned, and did x.zazh)f ern, -fe n ** 
mult needs be conceived in March, nine moneths before , in thc tal ' Dm ' 
Vernall eo^inoclia-ll. And in the fame moneth hee fuffered for 
our redemption; and riling from death, triumphed over death, the 
DivelJ, and all the powers of darknefTe; even at the time of the 
PafTover (astheGofpel teftifieth) which feaft was keptin tht firft 
moneth Abib, Sxod.i 2.2. and 1 3.4. that is, in March , as all con- 
fefTe. And fo we fee Gods performing of his promjfe in the ful- 
ncfie of time, was his keeping of his word to a day, giving Chriit 
to be conceived in the very day of the yeare, wherein he was pro- 

E 4 mi fed 

48 Of the number of yeares fince the Creation. 

m \ ii — — — * 

mifed to our firft parents, and to fuffer for aAdams finne in the 
fame day of the weeke> and of the moneth, in which *Adam was 
made, andmarr'd by fin (as fome of the learned Fathers have ob- 
ferved.) Even as he delivered Iirael out of Egypt , at the. end of 
43o.yeares, on tkefelfe fame day , when the terme of yeares was 
accomplimed,<f.v0<£ 12.41. Therefore I conceive that the time 
of the creation, and of the fall of our firfl Parents, and of thefirft 
promife of Chrift, was in the fame flrft moneth, in which he was 
conceived, and alfo perfected mans redemption, that is, in Abib, 
the moneth of March ; and fo he was fent forth infnlnejfe of time, 
as the Apoftle faith. The iecond queftion which arifeth from the word Beginning, 
is about the number of yeares , which have been fince the creati- 
on : For if there was a beginning of things , in which the world 
was created; as the Text here fheweth ; then there muft be a cer- 
taine number of yeares fince that beginning^which number if we 
can find out, and prove from Scripture, it will much confirme us 
in the truth of the creation , and of the whole Hiitory of Gods 
W^rd. Now about this number of years there is much* difference 
among the learned : but the beft computation is that which is 
grounded on thofe teftimonies of Scripture , which doc moit ex- 
cellently chaine together the holy Chronicle ; and by that com- 
putation the world was created i960, yeares before the death of 
Chrift ; and the day of Adams fall being upon the fixth day of the 
weeke,even towards the evening of the fame day , wherein he 
was created, was that day 39^o.yeares before the day of drifts 
death, which alfo was on the fixth day of the weeke, in the fame 
moneth of the yeare. To confirme us in this truth, wee have 
moft excellent testimonies of Scripture : Firft, the age of Adam, 
when he begat Seth , counted together with the ages of the fuc- 
ceeding fathers, before the birth of their fucceeding fbns , make 
up in all unto the birth ofbtyah from Adams creation,io5 d.years, 
Gc». 5. and from Noahs birth to the Floud, is <5oo.yeares , that is 
in all, 1 <55<5.yeares, from the Creation to the Floud. 

Arphaxad the fon ofShcm , borne two yeares after the Floud, 
Gen.i 1 .1 o. his birth fas the ages of the Fathers from him to Te- 
rah there reckoned doe fhew^ was before Teraks death 425. 
yeares. Now the two yeares between his birth and the Floud, to- 

Of the number of year es fince the Creation. 49 

gecher with the faid number of 425. being added to the yeares 
before the FJoud, make up from the creation to the death of Te- 
rah, 208 3. yeares. Immediately after Teralfs death God called 
Abraham, and removed him out of Charan, into the land of Ca- 
naan ; but gave him no inheritance therein, but onely promifcd 
ro give it to him, and his feed for a pofTch r ion,^iL r ?.7.4,5. and that 
in his feed all the families of the earth mould be bieifed, §«*X2, 
1,2,3. and thispromife was 430^^/ before the Law ve at given by 
U\{ofes, (jalat.3.i7. which was immediately after the departure 
of Ifrael out of Egypt, that is, the fiftieth day after • when they 
and their fathers, from Abrahams firlt peregrination in Canaan, 
hadfojourned 43o.year$,£.*W.i2.40. And from Ifraels coming 
out of Egypt, to the building of the Temple, in the fourth yeare 
ofS*/0/»<?#jreigne,is48o.yeares, 1 Kin.0.1. from thence, to the 
death of 'Solomon, is 36.yeares. Then Ifrael departed from Judah, 
and continued 3 90. yeares in their iniquities, £^^.4.1,2.^0 the 
deftrucTion of Jerulalem , and burning of the Temple, ip.yeares 
after the beginning of the 7o.yeares captivity; from the end op* 
which captivity, to Chrifts death, is feventy fevens of yeares, l Da~ 
r.isl 9. that is,490,yeares,all which make 39<5o.yeares, from the 
creation. Now from Chrifis death, which was in the 33-yeareof 
his age, or 3 3.afterhis birth , it is in this prelent yeare 1623, 
the full number of 1 590.yeares, which being added to 3960. be- 
fore Chrifts death, make from the creation 5 5 ^o.yeares. 

Now this computation of yeares,together with the clearing of 
the former queftion, may ferve 

Firft, to diicover unto us divers waics the admirable providence ttfe i. 
of God, in that he doth lb order all things, that the time of the God? pro' 
incarnation of Chrift, the fecond Adam , mould fail in the fame vidence 
moneth with the creation of the firft Adam: and the day of re- c °j*no- 
demption from finne and death , fliould be the fame day of the * J *° j 
week, and of the moneth ,wich the day of Adams falling into fin, 
and bringing all mankind into bondage to hell and death. And 
that in the holy Scriptures, which were written by holy men of 
God in feveraJi ages , the true computation of times and yeares 
fhould be put upon record, andreferved and kept fafe through all 
ages until! this day, in the midit of Co many dangers,and among 
fo many alterations and change* which have happened in the 

world. '' 

5° Mans redemption demonflratedjby ire 

world. Surely, he who is fo provident in ordering the circum- 
itance of times, and preferring the records of them, even his holy 
Oracles, when the Nation of Jewes, to whom they were com- 
mitted in truft, is calt off, and fcattered over all the earth , will 
much more keep his promifes, and fulfill all prophecies and pre- 
dictions, every one in the fet time and feafbn which he hath ap- 
Ufe 2. Secondly, this exacl record of times, and of the very moneth of 
Truth of the creation and of the redemption, ferves toconfirme us in the 
creation verity and truth of thole things which are written concerning 
and re- t h e beginning; and creation of the world, and the redemption of 
herXJdc- mar) kind by jefus Chrift, comming in the exa6t fulnefle of time 
monftra- t0 redeem the world, according to Gods promiles ; when feverali 
ted. witneiTes or writers,who never conferred nor confulted one with 

another, doe agree in their relations, not only in the maine mat- 
ters, but in the circumftances of time alfo ; no man can have any 
leaft pretence or colour of doubting. And thus doe the writers of 
the holy Scriptures, who lived in feverali ages ; they exactly agree 
in the hifrories of creation and redemption , even to thecircum<- 
itances of times, the very daies and moneths wherein they were 
performed. And therefore Jet us firmly beleeve them , and reft 
on the truth of them : for we have fure grounds of beleeving, but 
not any pretence or colour of doubting. 
flf e 3 t Thirdly, hereby it is made manifeft,that the world being crea- 
All made ted in time, and onely fo long ago as is before fliewed, was made 
for us,and onely for us, and for our benefit, who live under time, and not 
to be ufed f or tne ete rna]l God , to adde any good , or any blefTednefle to 
tor. 04. fe m ^ w j 10 was a ii_f u ft| c i er , c and molt bletfed in himfelfe from all 
eternity ; and both could, and would have made the world mil- 
lions of yeares before , if it might have been profitable to him- 
felfe : Wherefore let us hereby be ftirred up to ufe the world as a 
gift, and as talents given tons by God, to be well imployed,and 
liudy to honour him by all worldly things created. 
Ufe 4. Fourthly, hereby we may juftly be moved to admire the eter* 
Note and nity of God, when we fee the whole time of the world to be but 
admire: 5 5 5o.yeares , which are before him but as Jidaies and an halfe (For a thousand yeares with him are but as one day, 2 Pet. 3. 8.) 
PfaMoz. Wherefore, as holy David, when hee compared Gods eternity 
tjux*. * with 

Shamajim,yifg/ttj$wg Heavcnspb/wzce derived. ji 

with the temporary being of the heavens and the earth,and their 
inclining to decay and changes, Jike a vefltire and. wearing garment, 
did admire Gods infinite and eternall Majefty : So Jet us all be af- 
ter the fame manner affected with reverence of God , and admi- 
ration of his eternity , when we compare the ages of the world, 
even the longest of chem,the thoufands of yeares since the creati- 
on, to bz but as (b many daies with the Lord, who liveth and abi- 
deth the fame for ever. 

The fourth thing in this Text is the object and effect of Gods 4. 
fipft worke of creation, to wit, the heavens and the earth. 

First, the Heavens come to be considered , together with the 
creatures here comprehended under that name ; and that the/e 
things may more plainly appeare to our understanding, we mutt, 
firit iearch and sift out the true fenle and signification of the word 
(Heaven) in this Text, and then come to the instructions which 
doe thence naturally arife. 

The name, by which it hath pleated the Spine of God in this Derivati- 
place to call the Heavens, in in the Originall Hebrew £r^£tu, on of the 
Shamajim; concerning the signification and Etymologie whereof, wordfig- 
the learned much differ among themfelves. Some make it a com- #^"f ; 
pound of DID) which fignifieth /7?<«r<r , andtZD^O , which flgnifieth 1 
waters 5 becaule above in the aire(which is the lowest and nearest 
heaven) and in the clouds, water is engendered, and in fhowres di- 
f tills from thence. Some compound it of ;dn, which is fire J and 2. 
t^D, waters ; becaule the heavens feem to be made of both : the 
Sun, Moon, and Starres refemble fire, and the reit of the heavens 
relemWe calme and still waters. 

Some derive this name of OCUJ, which signifies aflonijhment • , t 
becaule if a man doe ftedfattiy behold and consider either the 
gIory,or the wonderfull height and compaffeof the heavens, they 
are things which will dazlc his eyes , and make his heart astoni- 

But the best derivation of the word, which is grounded upon * 
thebett reafons, is that which fome late Writers have obferved, 
to wit, that it is derived of the simple Hebrew word tZ]tu » which 
flgnifieth there, and is never ufed, but when we fpeake of being in 
a place which is remote and distant from us : For as the Hebrew 
\vordnb)bere , signifies the place prefent - } fo this wordE3*0% 

there, j 

5i Shzmz}im,fignijymg Heavens^kwce derived. 

there, fignifies a place remote and diftant from us and the being of 
things there, in that place. Now the heavens are the utmoit and 
moll remote place from the earth, which is let in the middle.and 
about the center of the round world, and upon which men doe 
live in this world: Therefore this derivation doth agree very aptly 
to the heavens. 

Secondly, of a place which is moft excellent, wee are wont to 
fay, There, there is the beft being, and in a kind of vehement and 
affectionate fpeech , we ufe to double the word. And heaven is 
the mod excellent place ; and therefore the word C^hQ\D, which 
is of the dual! number , and fignifies as much as There, there -, or 
there double, is molt fitly derived of d3"s£7> there. 

Thirdly, the heavens are divided molt properly into two hea- 
vens, the highefl heavens, which is invifible ; and the viftble or 
lower heaven, which alfo confifts of two parts; the Harry and the 
airie heavens : And all thefe are divided into two equall parts to 
■all men living on earth. The one is that which wee fee in our 
Hemifphere, and within our Horizon from Eaft to Weft , and 
from North to South, above the earth. The other halfe is that 
which is hid from us by the earth, and is feen by the Antipodes, 
that is, them who dwell on the other fide of the earth , directly 
oppofiteto us ; and both thefe parts of the heavens are equally re^ 
mote and di riant from the earth. Moreover, the heavens doe 
move about two Poles , the North and South Pole : and there- 
fore in many refpects the name of the heavens, r— nintH. is mod 
fitly derived of EZ3T17, brought into the forme of the duall num- 

Fourthly, this derivation of the name, and the fignification of 
it,doth fitly agree to all things which are called by the name Hea- 
ven ; and is verified in them all, even the higheft heaven, the flarry 
heaven, and the fiiperiour regions of the aire ; for they are all re- 
mote and diftantfrom the earth, and are divided everyone into 
two equall Hemifpheres, equally diftant from the earth : But in 
the higheft heaven there is neither fire,nor water, nor any muta- 
ble Element : and therefore the name CZD^Q^, derived of ua 5 or 
r — HQ, cannot agree to k at all. And as for the fuperiour regi- 
ons of the aire , they are not Co glorious , nor fo high as to 
allonifh us ; and therefore EZPERPj derived of d30Uo cannot 


. Divers fignifications of the Word Heavens, 5 j 

agree to them : wherefore the Jaft is thebeft derivation. 

The next thing after the derivation of the word, is the diverfi- Diver/ity 
tie of fignifications, which we are to note in the next place ; and of its fig- 
withall, to fliew in what fenfe it is here ufed in the Text. nificatr 

Firft, this word is ufed, in a Jarge fen/e, for that whole fpace cn5# 
from the upper face of the earth and the fiea, to the utmoft height * 
of the higheft heavens, which comprehends in it the higheft, the 
ftarry,and the airie heavens ; thus the word Heaven is to be un- 
der Mood, Cjen.2.1. and in all other places, where the Spirit of 
God comprehends the whole world under thefe two words, The 
heavens and the earth* 

Secondly, it is ufed to Cignidc more fpecially either the higheft 2 » 
heaven, as Dent. 2 6.1 5» Looke downe from heaven , the habitation of 
thy holinejfe, which Saint *Paul calls the third heaven, 2 Corin.i 2.2. 
Or the Harry heaven, as Gen. 22. 1 will multiply thy feed as the ftarres 
of heaven : and Pfal.i 9. 6. Or the airie regions, wherein birds flie, 
as gen. 1. 26. where mention is made of tht foules of heaven. 

Thirdly, the word Heavens, by a Metonymie of the caule tor '3. 
the effect, and of the fhbje&j is ufed in Scripture to C^gniRe foure Foure 
things : Firft, God the pofleflbur of the heavens, whole glorious tf] 1 "?** %• 
Majeftie doth dwell in the higheft heaven , as < Dan.^.26. where S h ~ e< * h * 
the heavens are faid to reigne, that is, the God of heaven: And Lttk* e v * au 
I 5«I 8. / have finned against heaven : and Matth.2 \ .2 5. Was the 
baptifme of John from heaven, or of men ? Secondly, the Angels and 2> 
blefled Spirits, which dwell in the higheft heaven , as Job 15.15. 
The heavens are not cleane m his fight .-and Pfal.Sy.S. and ^9»3 5- 
where the heavens are faid to praifi God, that is, the Angels and 
Saints. Thirdly, the Church militant,which is a congregation of ?♦ 
people written m heaven , begotten from above of heavenly feed; 
and whofe hope, reward, and triumph is in heaven, as 
the armies of the faichfull are called the hoft of heaven: And Co 
in the Prophets and the Revelation, Heaven fignifies the true 
holy Church • and the Earth fignifies earthly men of the world. 
Fourthly, the clouds in the aire, and in the face of heaven, as 4* 
Levi:. 26. 1 p. / will make your heaven as iron, that is, the clouds ; in- 
fomuch that they fhall yeeld no raine. 

Now here in this Text is meant (as I have before touched} the 
higheft heaven, as ic is diftinft from the rude maffe, without forme, 


54 Angels comprehended wider the name Heavens, 

which is here called Earth, which was the common matter of the 
ftarryandairie heavens, and of all the viable world, asappeares 
in the next Verfes. And under this name here the Angels, who 
were the hoft and inhabitants of the higheft heavens , are com- 
prehended : For as the word Jernfalem is often ufed in the Pro- 
phets, to fignifie the people and inhabitants , together with the 
citie and place ; fo here the word Heaven , fignifies not the bare 
place and body of the higheft heaven, but the place, with all the 
hoft and inhabitants of it, the Angels. As for the vifible ftarry 
heavens, which are the light of the inferiour world and the airie 
heaven called the firmament, they can in no caie be hereunder- 
ftood : for they were made out of the rude made, without forme, 
called Sarth, and oppofed to heaven in my Text. 

From the word thus expounded , I come to the inftruclions : 
For whereas fome doubt ,whether there be any heaven befides the 
vifible ftarry heaven ; where thofe heavens are, and whether they 
were created, this Text doth cleare the doubt; and ftieweth,that 
there is an heaven which farre exceeds the heavens which are feen, 
in all glory and excellency : For here CMofes fpeakes of an hea- 
ven created in the beginning, with or before the common made, 
out of which the Sunne, Moone, and Starres , and all the vifible 
heavens and world were made : Yea, in that this heaven was crea- 
ted out of nothing, and had not a being given it out of the rude 
made, without forme , out of which God made all the vifible 
world (as the Text here faith) this doth imply , that tfaey have a 
more excellent being, of another kind, farre better then all that 
is feen, and above - and without the compafle of the vifible hea- 
vens ; fo that hence the/e Doctrines arife : i.That there are luch 
heavens: 2.That this heaven is not God, but a place created by 
God: 3. That it is above the vifible heavens: 4.That it is moft 
large and ample ; and yet not infinite , nor every where,as God 
is : 5. That it is a place moil excellent and glorious, free from cor- 
ruption, excelling and exceeding the narurall knowledge , reach, 
and apprehenfion of men. 
DqUy.\. Firlt, we ^ ere learne, That, befides the vifible ftarry heavens, 
which were made out of the firft rude deformed earth , there are 
heavens created out of the firft beginning of the crea- 
tion : And this is confirmed by thofe Scriptures, which ipeak ex- 


The higbijl HeaVm is not God. 55 

prefly of the Heaven uf heavens , that is , an heaven befides thefe 
vifible heavens, as <ZW.10.14. 1 Kings 8.27. T/rf/.68.2 3.and 
11 5.1 6. Aifo by thofe Scriptures, which mention an heaven , in 
which Gods glorious Ma jetty is (aid to dwell ; and the holy An- 
gels, which cannot be the Marry vifible heavens, as />#/•. 2 6.1 ?. 
1 Kmgs 8.30. zndCMat.i 8.10. Yea, the ho'y Apoftle purs all out 
of doubt, 2 C or.i 2.2. where he calls this the third heaven* 

That this higheft heaven is not God, but a place created by Dotty. 1* 
God; for here it is faid,that (jod created this heaven : Some thought 
that there was no place above the Spheres of heaven ; but that 
there God is all in all, and that there all thirgs are in God, and 
fubh(t in him. Their ground is that fpeech of the Apoftle, 1 Co* 
rinth.i 5. that God (nail bzallinalL But that fhewes the contra* 
rie, that God is in all, not that all things are or fhalbe, and fubfift 
in God, as in a place. Againe, this fliewes not the place, but the 
ftate of the bleffed, that they fTiall immediately injoy God with- 
out a Mediatour. Now, that the higher! heaven is not God , di- 
vers rcafons fhevv : Firft, ir is Gods throne , Ifa.66.1 Deftt.26.1 5. 
therefore not God himfelfe. Secondly, it cannot containe God; 
but he is infinite, and farre without the compafle of it , 1 Kings 
8.27. Thirdly, God is every where ; but this heaven is not fo,it 
is onely above, not in the vifiole world. Fourthly , it is fuch a bo- 
dily fub(tance,as can containe glorified bodies ,a$ the body of Chrifr 5 
Enoch ,^nd Eliah. It comprehends the vifible heavens within the 
compafle of it : Eut God is a fpirit. 

Tnat it is not God, but his creature, and his workmanfhip; and 
that he harh rhe difpof ng of it, as his creature,appeares, (jen.i.i. 1^.16. 

That this heaven is above the vifible heavens, divers Scriptures Dottr.^ 
teftifie: For it is called Heaven above^ where Jehovah is y Deut.^.^p. 
Jofi.i 1 . that is, above all the vifible world. Into this heaven 
our Saviour is faidto be taken up on high, when he afcended. Luke 
24. 5 1 . Yea, he is faid to afcend up farre above all the vifible hea- 
vens, ifhef^iO. 

Fourthly, that this heaven isamoft ample and large place, may Dottr.4. 
eafily be gathered and proved from this, That it was madediflinct 
from the earth, which was the matter of the whole vifiWc world; 
and doth iubhft above , and without the compafle both of the 


^ ii a. 

56 The glory and excellency of Heaven. 

mafle, and of all things which were made of it ; and fo compre- 
hends them within the large compafle of ic. And our Saviour in- 
timates fo much, where he affirmes , that in it are many manfions, 
f'ohu 14.2,3. Alfb the Pfalmift, 'P/rf/.dS^. where hee calls this 
eaven rWW; which fignifies faire, and Urge fpacioks flames: And. 
yet it is not infinite, nor every where ; for God Rlls it and the 
earth a!fo,and it is not able to containehim, 1 Kings 8.27. 
&oflr»5* The fifth inftruction is, That the higheft heaven is a place moft 
glorious and excellent, free from all corruption, and full of glo- 
rious light, farre furpailing our fraile imagination, and the reach 
of mans naturall understanding. The very fignification of the 
name fhewes that it is farre remote from our fight, conceipt,and 
apprehenfion. And that rule in Philofbphy proves, that it is free 
from alteration and corruption, to wit, That thole things onely 
are changeable, and may be corrupted, and turned into their firft 
matter, which are made of a common matter, capable of divers 
formes. But things which have no part of any fuch matter in 
them, are incorruptible, and unchangeable, free from alterations 
incident to inferiour things. Now fuch are thefe heavens dilco- 
vered to be in my Text : For they were made abfolutely of no- 
thing, with, or before the firft common matter of the vifible 
world : Yea,in the next words the Spirit of God doth diftinguifti 
the rude mafle from thefe heavens , by this , that it was full of 
Kxcellen- darkneffe, and without forme,and void ; which implies,that thefc 
cie of hca- heavens were farre different , that is , full of beauty, forme, and 
7cn * light. And other Scriptures fully confirmethis : Firft, by the 
names, by which this heaven is called,and by. the excellent things 
which are fpoken of it ; for it is called the Heaven of heavens, that 
Is, the heaven farre above all heavens in glory and excellency, 
'Dent, 10.14. and 1 Kings 8. 2 7. and TfaL 68. 3*4. The Heaven of 
heavens everlafting, fo much the Hebrew word CZ3ip,doth inti- 
mate. And Saint Tan/, who was rapt up into this heaven, was fo 
aftoniftied with the glory of it, that he knew not whether he 
was in the body, or out of the body : there he heard words , which ic 
was not law'full to utter ; and the fight thereof was fuch a caufe 
of glorying, that he was afterwards in danger thereby to be mi 
vnueh exalted, and had need to be buffetted by the Angellof Sa- 
xhan for his humiliation, to keep him from excellive boafting, 

The glory and excellency of the higbejl HeaVen. 57 

2 Cor.i 2. And the fame Apoftle calls the inheritance therein re- 
ferved for the eleel:, the inheritance of the Saints in light, Colof. i.n. 
and he faith of God, who dwels there by his gIory,thathe dvvels 
in light, which none can approach unto^x Tim>6. 1 6. which teftimonies, 
with many other which might be cited, fully prove the glory and 
excellency of this heaven. Befides , we have many Arguments 
co this purpofe. 

The firlt is dravvne from the proper efficient caufe of this hea- p^on, u 
ven : For it is moil certaine, that the place and city which hath 
God only for the builder & maker of it;& in the building where- 
of God hath fhewed fuch admirable divine wifdome, that it more 
fpecially is called his worke and building , mu/t needs be moft 
excellent and glorious. Now fuch is the higheft heaven, it is cal- 
led the citie y whcfe builder and. maker is God, Heb.i \ .1 o. that is, the 
city which God buikfed alone as his matter-piece , for his owne 
purpofe , to mew therein his glorious wifdome and art , as the 
word tixviths there ufeefdoth fignifie. Yea, it is laid to have foun- 
dations, that is, to be lb firmly built, that it can never faile , but 
(tend Itedfaft for ever, world without end : Therefore it is a moil 
glorious place. 

A fecond Argument is dravvne from the proper inhabitants offcafoni. 
theie heavens : For in all reafbn, and by thecourle of nature,that 
is the belt place which falls to the mare, and is allotted to the bell 
inhabitants, by the will and appointment of him, who is the wi- 
fet\ of all, and doth order all things in wifdome and equity.Now 
the highelt heavens are allotted by God to the bell inhabitant : 
Firftjhe hath chofen them to be his owne habitation, wherein he 
delighteth to dwell, not onely by his erTentjail prefence and 
power, as he is in all other places, but alfo by his vifible glory ,ho- 
linefle, and unfpeakable majefty . So the Scriptures teftin*e,DA*J\ 
26.1 5. where thefe heavens are called//**? habitation of his holineffe. 
And Pfal.i 13.5. the high dwelling , in which G )d is fo high above 
all. And Ifa. 57.1 5. and 63.1 5, the high and hcly place , the habttd* 
tion of Gods holinefle and glory ; and even rica ity- , which fhall 
never decay. Secondly, God hath appointed this place to be the 
habitation of his holy Angels, which kept their (landing, in 
which he will have them to dwell, and to behold his gl >ri< us fsce 
continually, as our Saviour faith, Matih.iK.i o. and fo mtic 1 is in- 

F , timate 

5 8 Tfie glory and excellency of the highejl Heaven. 

timated Luke 2.1 3. where Angels are called the heavenly hoft. 
The third fort of inhabitants, to whom God hath allotted thefe 
heavens, is the glorified company of his Saints , with Chri/t their 
head, in whom they arechoien,and brought to faivation. Though 
tAdam was made after Gods image, yet,by creation , and in the 
ftate of natural! uprightnefle, he was not capable, nor worthy of 
heavenly glory ; that is the proper purchase of ChHft for his e- 
iect, and it is the gift of God in Jelus Gkrifi which he gives only 
to them who are made inChrift the firft fruits of his creatures, 
fons and heires of God. Our Saviour teftihVs id much, Joh.i 4.5. 
where he faith, that he prepares a place for his faith fir in. that houfe 
of God : And the holy Apoft Je,/&£.9. where he fiith, that Chrift 
onely opened the way into this Holy of holies ; 2nd that none can 
enter thereinto but by him the way, and the doore. And Ephefj.%. 
helaith, that God blefteth us with all fp.iris.uall bleilings /# &v*- 
venly.placesm Chrift. And i Pet. 1.3,4. vye are laid robe begot- 
ten to a livdy hope, by the refirrection of jefus Chrilt from the 
dead, to the inheritance incorruptible > and undefiled , that never fa- 
detb, re [erved in heaven for us : wherefore it ismarifeft by the ex- 
cellency of the inhabitants, being none but God himielfe, and 
the eled Angels and Saints , which are mod neare and deare to 
God, that this Heaven is a place moft glorious and excellent. 

Kcafm t. ^ t^d Argument may be drawne from i\\t fit nation of it : For 
the higheft place is ever the belt by the law and courie of nature, 
as our fenles doe teach, and we fee manifestly in all knowne parts 
of the world ; and by faith we ought tobeleeve , that it is ib in 
places beyond our fight , efpeciafly becaufethe Spirit of God in 
the Scriptures extolls the higheft places, Pfal.u 3. 5. and Ifaiah 
57.1 5. Now the higher! of all places is the third heaven in fitu- 
ation :For Chrift a/cending up thither, there to remaine. and to 
make interce'^on for us, ^§.3. 21. and Heb. 9.1^.1$ laid roafcend 
jarre above all other heavens > and thole heavens are called tZTDHO* 
the high places , Pfal.i 48.1 . and Tot li^isoc, the light ft places , Ephef. 
4.8. and Heb. 1. 3. Therefore they are the molt excellent and 
glorious place*. 

KMfon4* ^ iC ^ ur: " teafon is drawne from the excellent things, which are 
there Lid up in (tore for the Saints : For the wifdome of God re- 
quires,, that he mould ft ore up the beft treafures and things in the 


The glory and excellency of the btgk ft Heaven. 59 

bed place ; and undoubtedly that place is the bed , where God 
layesup in fibre iiich treaiures. Now in the tfeehtft heaven are 
the belt treafures, which neither rufl nor moth can corrupt , nor 
vts touch wirhunjud hands, Matth.6r.\ . there is th: inheri- 
tance of the Sain:s in ioln, ( olof.x.12. and the incorruptible and 
undeMed, 1 Pet.i 3. There Cod hath prepared for them that love 
him fnch things as neither eye hath feen, nor eare heard, nor mans 
heart conceived, 1 Corin.i. That is the place of Gods right hand, 
and of his prefence, where is fttlnejfe of wy , and pleafnres for ever- 
more, Pfai. 6. Therefore it is the bed place of all. 

Fifthly^ that place from whence every fupernatnrall good and per* faaf 0H ^ , 
fett gift doth come , mud necedari y bee the moft excellent : and 
iuch a place is the highelt heaven. Chnd, the fecond sAdam, the 
fountaine of all blellings, is laid to be from feaven, heavenly \ i Co- 
rinthi 5. and to be the b/ead of life , which came downe from hea- 
ven, to give life to the world, John ?. The calling of men to the 
participation of all excellent graces, is called the heavenly calling* 
Hebr.^.i. The gift of ftpctnatfl ill grace is called the heavenly 
gift, Heb.6.4. The (fabftanr&II things fhadowed out under le^ill 
types, are called heavenly thhgs, Hcb^.%. and the new Jerufalem, 
tne mod glotioUS Church , is ca!'ed the heavenly Jerafalem, Hebr. 
1 2 .2 2 . an i is iJd to come downe from heaven , T^evel.2 1 . In a word, 
every good and perfeel gift is /aid to come iowne from above, from 
the far her of lights, that is, from heaven Jam. 1.1 7. Therefoie this 
heaven mtfft needs be a mod excellent p'ace. 

Sixthly, the Sprit of God in the Scriptures doth defcribe and RcafoH6$ 
fet forth this Heaven, by all the things which are, or have been mofi 
excellent in this world , and do h make th m but types and flia- 
dowesof it : as fird, by the earthly Paradife, in which God put 
Adam in the date ofinnocency, which was the f.veeteil and moft 
cxcellenr place that ever was knowne in the world, 2 Cor.i 2.4. 
by the hill of Zion, which wasmod beautiful for /ituation,andthe 
joy of the whole etfth,Heb.\ 2. 2 2. By Jerufalem>ihe mod glorious 
citie of all the world the place which God chofe to put his Name 
there, Gal. 4.26. and by the Temple of Jernfalem , the mo/t glo- 
rious Sanctuary of God ; and the Holy of holies, Tfal.i 1.4. and 
1 8.7. HSa({.2.20. Heb.9.1 2. and 1 o.p. Therefore this Heaven i? 
mod excellent. 

F 2 laftly, 

6o The glory and excellency of the bigbefl Heaven. 

Laftly, that this Heaven is a place of wonderfull light and glory, 
and a worke of God, which /hall never be changed or peri (h, but 
ftandmd endure for ever ,• it appeares by the light which hath /hi- 
ned from thence , and by the eternity of the things which God 
hath annexed to it. The light which mined from thence on Saint 
Paul at mid-day, did furpaffethe brightneffe of the Sun, Att.26.1 3. 
And the houfe which thefaithfull have there prepared for them, 
is faid to be etemall in the heavens, 2 Const. 5.1 .And the inheritance 
there referved is faid to be immortally 1 Pet* 1 . 3 . and the life which 
the elect /hall live there, is called Itfe etemall: Therefore it is a 
moft ble/Ted place. 
ebieft. Now, though fome Scriptures feem to /peak to the contrary, 
that the heavens mall ferity, as Pfal.102.26. and that heaven , as 
well as earth , /hall faffe away, Matth.2 4. 3?. and the heavens 
{hzllfajfe away with a notfe, 2 Pet. 3.1 o. and be burnt with fire : 
vinfw* Yet the truth is, they fpeak not of the higheit heaven , which 

was with the Angels created immediately out of nothing ; but of 
the vifible fiery and Harry heavens , which were created out of 
the fame rude ma/fe, the common matter of the aire, water, and 
earth.: They may be burnt, and kt on fire, and pa/fe away j but 
the higheft heaven, being not of the fame common matter, no 
fire can take hold of it. 
fife 1 . Now thefe in/truclions concerning this firft worke of God,the 
To con- higheit heavens, ferve for excellent u/e : Fir ft, to difcover the 
fine the madnefle and folly of all them , who either deny the creation of 
0t >u[ d t ^ le ^ neavens > as ajetan, <iAuguflinu4, Steuchns , and other great 
Popifh Writers have done ; or doe hold this heaven to be no- 
thing elfe but God, or his glorious Majefty, and light mining 
forth to his creatures. Thefe Doctrines prove the contrary , and 
declare all fuch profane conceits to be doting dream es., ever to be 
Ufe 2. Secondly, they /hew the admirable free bounty and love of 
Admire God towards his ele& , and his eternall fatherly providence > in 
the bcun- that he hath not onely provided fuch an excellent habitation for 
ty of God them , wherein they may live moit happy and ble/Ted for ever ; 
r ? h is but alfo made it the firft of all his creatures and workes. If the 
Lord had fir/1 made as , and tryed our obedience how we would 
ferve him, before he had made and furniflied the higheft heaven, 


Motives tojlirre us up to prepare for Heaven . 6\ 

the houfe of glory ; men might have imagined, that by their own 
doin^ they had procured it : But lo, God hath cut off all fuch 
vain£ conceits, in that he made this fir ft, and by fo doing, fh ewerh 
thatnt is his love and free bounty, not our merit ; it was his pro- 
vi Jence.not our purchafe or care for our feJves : Let us therefore 
give him the glory and praife of a God wonderfuU in goodnefle, 
tree grace, and providence ; even from the firft foundation of the 
world, creating a place of reft and glory for us. 

Thirdly, in that the higheft heaven is here discovered to be fo uf e •; 
high & excellent a place, fo full of glory and iight,and the proper Beafta- • 
country of the Saints chofen in Chriftjthis ought,as to reprove us, medef 
& make us afham'edof our immoderate love & arTedtion to world- th y cartJl - 
Jy things, and of our groveling on the ground, like brute beafts, ^"i? 
and cleaving to the earth , like moles and earth- wormes, and of 
our negligence in inquiring after heaven, and meditating on this 
heavenly country : fo alfo to ftirre us up to the contrary , and to . 
direcl us how to prepare our fdves for it , by looking and mind- "^ j£r" 
ing high things, and cafting off all earthly clogges, and workes of h ea ven. 
darknefle, and all undeanneffe and filthinefTe, and by putting on 
all holine(Ie,and the armour of light. If we were to goe into an- 
other country, there to fpend all ourdaies , we would be careful! 
to enquire after, and learne the nature , qualities , fafhions, and 
language of the country : And fo let us doe concerning our hea- 
venly country and city, which is above. Let us enquire after hea- 
venly things, fafhion our fdves to it ; and becaufe there is our in- 
heritance and our treafures, let there our hearts be alfo. 

Fourthly, feeing heaven is fo high, and fo excellent and glori- life 4. 
ous a place and habitation, that man in innocency was neither ca- B= rhank- 
pable, nor worthy of it , this ferves to magnifle in our eyes the f "H for 
infinite goodneffe and admirable bounty of God, who hath given * lw & 00 * 
Chrift to purchafe for us , being corrupted, and become f nners ^ r 
by sAdams fall, a more excellent place, ftatcand condition, then 
did belong to us in our belt naturall being in the ftate of pure 
nature. This alfo magnifies the vertue and power of the gr?ce of 
Chrift, which hath lifted us up from the valley of darknefte , and 
ofthefhadow ofdeath;and hath advanced us to be heires ofa 
better inheritance then the earthly Paradife , eyen to Jive and 
reigne with God in his heavenly Kingdomc. 

F 1 Fifthly. 

6i Of the creation ofAtgels. 

Ufe 5. Fifthly, here is matter of lingular comfort , and of patience, 

Comfort and hope in all the afflictions, which can befaJ! us here on earth in 

m all a£ t hi$ vale of mifery ; when men labour, and ftrive , and ngnc for 

flidtions. an ^thiy crov\ne,and in hope of a glorious victory and triumph, 

no danger of death doth daunt or diimay them,no pain and griefe 

of wounds doth difcourage them ; but the crowne of glory,which 

we wreftle for , it is incorruptible , and never fadeth : and the 

Kingdome for which we fuffer, is an heavenly Kingdome, and an 

inheritance reserved in the higher* heavens, which is a place more 

glorious and excellent then any tongue can exprefle , or heart of 

man conceive : And therefore let us be (tedfaft and unmoveable, 

never daunted with any danger, nor difmayed with any feare, bur 

comfort our felves, and pofleflc our /bules in patience , knowing 

Rom. 8.18. and counting , that all the furTerings of this life are not worthy of 

the glory which (hall be revealed,, and our momentany pafTions mall 

2 Cor. 4, bring a farre more exceeding and eternal! weight of glory in heaven, 

1 7 * where a durable fubftance is flored up for us. 

Ufe 6. Let us hence iearne to loath and hate alfo that erroneous opi- 

A^aiiift nion which fome hold, to wit, that the higheft heaven n not or- 

thc Chili- darned to be the habitation of the Saints after the la ft judgment; 

****• but that Chrift (hall reigne with them here on earth in his bodily 

prefence : a fond conceit, contrary to the exprefle Word of God, 

utterly razed by the former Doctrine. 


0/ the creation of Angels. Their names. They had a beginning ; %ea~ 
fins and Ufes. They were all created by the one true God ; with Ufis. 
They were made in the beginning of the world. They are Gods first 
and be ft creatures : with the Ufe. They were made in heaven, and to 
inhabit heaven : r t\eafons and Ufes. Stven Corollaries or Condufi- 
0ns concerning the Angels, 

I Proceed in the next place to the inhabitants or hoft of the 
higheft heavens, the Angels, which were by the fame Worcfaf 
God in the beginning created together with them ; as appeares, 
Chapt.2.1. Andhowbek they are noc here exprefly named by 

Mofes ; 

Angels comprehended in the rnrne Heaven s 6 j 

Mofes ; yet they are neceflarily included in this word , r~iN Angels 
O^Giun, the heavens, as may eafily be proved, and made manifeft comprc- 
by three reafons : Firft , the Article if, is demonstrative, and ^ ndcd '" 
fhewes thar there is an Emphafis in this word • and the particle Heavens** 
HNj confining of the fitft, and laft letter of the Alphabet , is of i , 
generail comprehension, andfhewes, that by theie fpeciali and 
moil glorious heavens, he means ail whatfoever was created with 
them , and whatfoever was in the creation contained in them, 
even all the glorious Angels- Secondly, it is a common and ulu- s« 
all thing in the Scriptures, for the Spirit of God, to fignifie by 
the nameof the place, both the place and the inhabitants :as for 
example , Tfal. 147.12. and Jeremy 1 4. O Jerufilem , wajh thine 
heart. And LMatth.2 3.3 7. Jerufilem, Jerufalem , that kdlefi tf* 
Prophets* In thefc places, by Jerufalem is meant not the city on- 
ly, but alfo the inhabitants. And fo the name crown , the hea- 
vens* is ufed to hgnifie the Angels which were the created inhabi- 
tants of heaven, lob 1 5.1 5. where it is faid , The heavens are not 
pure in his fight ,tnat is, the Angels, becaufe many of them rebel- 
led, and loft their habitation, and were ftained with finne And 
Tfat.Kg^. And the heavens fhall declare thy wonders, O Lord^ that 
is, the heavenly holt : Therefore by analogy of Scripture,the An- 
gels may here be underftood. Thirdly , what is here meant by ;. 
the heavens, Mofes himfelfe iheweth, Chapt.2.1 . namely, the hea- 
vens and the hofi of them, that is, the Angels, for they are the hofl of 
the higheft heaven, and fo are called, Luke 2.1 3. Therefore un- 
doubtedly the Angels are included in the word Heavens. 

So then the creation of the Angels coming now the next in 
order to be handled , I will feeke no further for a Text 'though 
there be fome more plain and exprefle v > but will ground all my 
Doc"trines,concerning the creation and nature of Angels, on this 
word, taken in that fenfe which I have here proved ; which offers 
to our confederation five maine and principal! points of inftrutfi- 
on, unto which all other Doctrines may be reduced , which con- 
cerne their nature and creation , and may be as branches com- 
prehended nnder them. 

Firft, we here learne, that Angels had a Beginning, and were not Points 
from alj eternity. Secondly, that God created them , and that concern- 
they were made by that one God and three perfons , here caHed ,n 8 lhcro * 

F 4 Ehhimj, 

($4 Sever all points ofDoElrine concerning Angels. 

Elobim. Thirdly, thac they v\ere created in the beginning, as 
the word Berefhtth , taken in the moft ftrict fenfe, fignifieth \ the 
firft moment of time. Fourthly, that they were created by the 
firft fimple acl: of abfolute creation, thar is, they were made out 
of nothing, moft perfect and glorious creatures , in an inftant. 
Fifthly, that they were made in and with the higheft heavens, and 
by the law of creation made to inhabit them, as the proper place 
of their naturall habitation. Thefe are the maine and principall 
points of Doctrine, which immediately flow from the words. 
And thefe, efpecially the laft of them , doth offer to our confede- 
ration divers other particular queftions,and points of in hWtion 
to be handled. As firft, feeing they; were created in and with the 
higheft heavens, to be the proper inhabitants of them ; therefore 
they are of an heavenly nature, even pure, excellent, and glorious 
fpirits, fuch as the nature of the place requires, to be futeable in- 
habitants. And here an occafion is offered to feeke out a true 
defcription of Angels,andto enquire after their wifdome,power, 
and fuch like properties, wherein they excel! , and are like unto 
God the Creatour, bearing his image. Secondly, hereby are of- 
fered to us thefe points to be handled , and thefe questions to be 
difcufled, viz,. That the Angels are of a finite nature, limitted to 
their places : Alfo, whether they are circumfcribed, and meafured 
by the place in which they are, or .rather definitively in it. And 
whether, and how they move from place to place, and fuch 


Thirdly, the moft high and large heavens, compafling about 
the whole vifible world,.in and with which they were created, to 
. be thehoft of them ; doe import, that the Angels were created 
many in number, according to the largerefle of the place, and 
that they are innumerable , more then mans fraile reafon can 

Fourthly, the higheft heaven, being their naturall place, in 
which they were created, Hence a queftion arifeth , concerning 
a being in other places; How they come to be out €>f heaven,their 
naturall place , and fbme of them quite banifhed out of heaven 
for ever. And here their mutability and fall comes to be hand- 
led ; and the diftin&ion of them into good and eviil Angels. 
Thus we fee in briefe into what a broad field this fhort Text doth 


What Jtgnified by the ttame Angels. 65 

Jeadus, and what large fcopek gives m to fpeake of the Angeli- 
call nature, and the heavenly fpirits, the firft and chiefert of the 
creatures of God. 

That we may better underftand thefe Doctrines , I will firft 
confider the name of Angels, what it fignifies, and how we are to 
take it in this place. 

The name,^//, comes of the Greek name.ccyyeA©^ which Ofthek 
figniries a mejfenger , lent forth from fome fuperiour perfbn , or nai «cs. 
itate, to deliver a meflage, and to declare the mind of him or 
them that fent him. The Hebrew name, Tj^D, which is the 
name of an Angell in the Old Teflament , fignifies alfo a mejfen- 
ger ; but yet in a more full and large ienfe : For it fignifies fuch a 
meflenger 3 as doth not only deliver and declare a meflage by word 
of mouth , but alfo doth a6t and execute indeed the will of him 
that fent him, and doth performs his worke injoyned, as a faith- 
full minifter and fen-ant. And hence it hy that the Hebrew 
word, rnDlsVo, which is derived of it , and is ufed for the office 
and worke of an Angell , fignifies in generall any thing which 
ferves for the ufe and miniftery of man. And as the fignification, 
according to the Etymology, is generall and large ; io the word 
is ufed in the Scriptures , to fignifie any mefienger or minifier 
fent forth upon a meiTage , or fbme employment , either from 
God or men. Jacobs mefiengers which he lent unto EfaUjCjenefi 
32.3. to worke his peace- are called by the name, CHjiD^Q,^- 
gels. And Num. 20.1 4. the mefiengers which CMofis fent from 
Kadefh unto the King of Edom, are fo called , and in Greeke 
tranflated ayy£\sc- But when Gods mefiengers are thereby figni- 
fTed, it hath the name Jehovah , or ku£&> molt commonly added 
to it. 

As for the firft figriification, we let it paffe, as a ftranger in this 
place , where we are to difcourfe of heavenly Angels ; and doe 
take it in the fecond fignification , for the Angels of the Lord. 
And being fo is ftill doubtrull, till it be more particular- 
ly difiinguifhed : For in this fenie it fignifies three forts of An- 
gels, as the learned have well obferved. 

Firft of all it fignifies, that chiefe and principal! meffenger and 
atnbiftadour of God,his Son Jefus Chrift, who was fent forth as 
God, in the forme and mape of an Angell and Mefienger to the 


66 What fignified by the Tbord Angell. 

fathers before his incarnation: And as man, in fulneffe of time 
by incarnation , and afiuming of mans nature into his per/on : 
For, 5^.48.1 6. by the Angell which delivered Jacob , and which 
he prayeth, may bleffe the fins ofjofeph, is meant the Lord Chrift. 
And in all places, where the Angell which appeared, is called Je- 
hovah, or was worfhipped, God the Son is meant , as Exod. 3 . and 
Zach-l* there by the Angell Chrift is meant,appearing either like 
an Angell, or in the fhape of a man,to fore-fhew his incarnation. 
So likewife, where we reade of the Angell of Gods prefence or 
face, as Ifa.63.9. Or of the Angell of the Covenant, as CMalac.^x . 
Or of the Archangeil, as 1 Thef.4.1 6. Jud.9. Chrifl is meant. 

Secondly, this word is ufed to iignifie men, by divine in/pirati- 
on called, and fent from God upon fome fpeciali meflfoge, efpe- 
dally the mejfage of falvathn, as Job 3 3.2 3. Judg.i.i. Malac.z.i . 
and 3. 1. and ReveLi.Sc 3. 

Thirdly, this word is mod frequently and commonly ufed, to 
fignifie the heavenly fpirits created by God, to rtand about his 
Throne in heaven , to behold his face continually ; becaufethey 
are, as by nature fit, fo by office ready to be fent on his meflage, 
and to doehis will, as (jcri.\ 9. 1 .Tfal.i 03. 20. Matthi 8.10. In 
this fenfe we are to take the word in this difcourfe of the creati- 
on of Angels : For though Chrift be the Angell of God • and the 
great meflenger of falvation ; and Gods minifters, as they are 
Godsembafladours , fent by him , are Angels of the Lord : yet 
they are not Angelicall fpirits, created in the flrft beginning; 
they are onefy Angels by office and calling , not by nature in the 
creation. Onely the heavenly fpirits, wnom God hath made at 
the flrft fit to minifter, and hath fince in Chrift appointed to be 
miniftring fpirits for the good of them, who are chofen to be 
heires of falvation in Chrift ; they are Angels both by nature and 
office. And they are the proper fubje6t of our prefent difcourfe. 
I proceed to the Doctrines , which I will proiecute in order , as 
they arife out of this Text. 
Voftr.u Firft, feeing the Angels are included in this word, the heaven ; 
Angels hence we may learne, that as the heavens, fo the Angels, the hoft 
had a be- p| ieaven % had their beginning with the higheft heaven , and were 
ginning. hqC « n being from all eternity ; which point is farther confirmed 
by ail fuch Scriptures, as attribute a beginning to all things, and 


.Angels had a beginning. 67 

tell us that they are,and fubfift not of themfelves,but from God, 
as I\om. 11.36. where the Apottle faith, that of God, and through 
him, and to him are all things : and i Cor. 8. 6. But to us there is but 
one God the Father , of whom are all things, and we for him ; and 
one Lord Jefas Chrift, by whom are ail things. And Revel.4.1 1. 
and 10.6. thou Lord haft created all things, and for thy pleafure 
they are and were created. And that God , who liveth for ever, 
created heaven , and the things that therein are. And that in this 
univerfality of things created , the Angels are comprehended, 
the Apoftle fheweth moft plainly, Colofi. 16. where hee af- 
n*rmes,that all kinds of things vifibleand mvtjtble, whether they 
be thrones, or dominion^ or principalities, or powers, all were created 
by him, and for him. But if any fhail cavill and fay, that though 
they are of God, and he is the caufe and creatour of them ; yet it 
dotn not neceflarily follow, that they were created in the begin- 
ning with the heavens , but from eternity, and as co-eternall ef- 
fects have their being from God. The next words which follow 
will cut off this objection, which affirme, that Chrift is before all 
things, and by him all things confift, Vcrfe.ij. and therefore 
they had a beginning after Chrift, and were not co-eteroall with 

Reafon alfo confirmes this , drawne from the fall of a great Reafon, 
multitude of the Angels : For things eternal!, which were, and had 
their being from eternity, without beginning, and before all 
times, they cannot fall in time, nor be changed, but abide the 
fame for ever :But a great multitude of the Angels did fall. And 
theDivell was once one of the moft glorious among them, and 
he with many others, who left their habitation , are referved in 
chaines to the loft judgement^ 2 Pet. 2. 4. and Jud.6. Therefore 
they are but creatures, made in the beginning. 

Secondly, though Angels are not circumfcribed , and meafii- foifin *• 
red by a bodily fpace or dimenMon ; yet they are definitively in 
place ; and where there is no place , there can be no Angell, as I 
mail fhew hereafter. Now before the creation of the heavens, 
there was no place at all wherein Angels might be,abideand fub- 
fift:Therefore before the heavens they were not,buc were created 
with them. 

But Angels are called Jehovah , as that Angell which fpake to 03j fl.i. 


— — — — — - "— "— ■— ^— ^—^— 

68 jfngels not from all eternity. 

- — — ^ 

^4gar,at)d rjromifed to multiply her feed, Genef\6.\ 3. said the 
Angell, which appeared to LMofes in the bisfh, Exod.3.4. and the 
Angell which rebuked-Satan, Zach^i . And Jehovah is without 
- The Angell mentioned in thofe places was Chrift the Sonne of 

God, the Angell of the Covenant, and fo was JfW^,indeed,the 
creatour of Angels ; the words of the feverall Texts fnew fo 
much : For that Angell faith, / mU multiply thy feed: and I am the 
Cjod of Abraham : Therefore this Objection is of no force. 
Qli ( ft tl . Angels are called the fons of Cod Job 1 .6. and 38.7. Therefore 
they are of Gods nature and llib fiance f begotten from all eter- 
nity ; not created with the heavens. 
4nfi». Every fon of God is not a naturall fon, begotten from all eter- 

nity ; for men are alfo called /#// of God by creation , regenera- 
tion, and adoption ; and yet are not naturajl,and co-eternall fons 
of God. And fo Angels are fbns : Firft by creation, in refpe<5t of 
the fpeciall image of God , in which they were made, and to 
which they are conformable. Alfb the good Angels are fons by 
adoption unto God in Chrift their head. But none of them all is 
the Son of God by nature , as the Apoftle teftifieth, Heb.i.^, ?. 
that is proper to Chrift alone ; he onely is the brightneffe tfhis Fa- 
thers glory y and the expreffe image of his per fon : and he onely is cal- 
led theftrft-borne, and the onely begotten Son of God, John U 
14,18. Therefore this Objection is of as little force as the o- 
. ther. 
Ufci* This point ferves to (hew, that abfolute eternity, without be- 
ginning, is the proper attribute of God; and to communicate it 
to any other, by holding, that any other befides the one onely 
true God is eternail , is no JefTe then a facrilegious robbery , and 
taking from God the honour due to him : For feeing Angels are 
all created in the beginning, when the heavens were made, and 
r are not from all eternity ; much lefle may eternity be attributed 

to any other, befides the true God. .4 

jr Secondly* here we fee the grofle errour of Papirls , who vvor- 

Uje 2. |kip Angels, and pray unto them. As alfb their foule mifiaking 
nouo be an ^ wrefting of fome Scriptures, & fbme examples of the Patri- 
worfliip- archs, as Abraham, Jacob, and Mofes.who did worfhip the Angels 
pcd. which appeared to them, and ipake unto them. For thefe were 

Cbr'tfl abfolute Lord of the Angels . 69 

not divers Angels, but the great Angell of the Covenant, Chrift 
the Son of God appearing in the forme of an AngcIJ, who, as he 
is Jehovah, the true God ; fo he is called by them who prayed to 
him, and is worthy to be worfhipped and prayed to : but not any 
of the Angels, which are but creatures, and not Jehovah, can be 
worthy of this honour which God requires as proper to him- 

Thefecond Doctrine hence flowing is, That all the Angels Doffr. 2. 
were created by that one God, and three perfons, here called Slohim; Angds 
and that the Son, together with the Father and the Spirit , is the aI * crea - 
Lord the Creatour of them : which trurh is confirmed alio by di- ^lj y 
vers Scriptures, as John 1.3. where by the Word, the eternall Son, all 
things are faid to be made, and nothing without him. And Co/of. 
1.16. all things in heaven and in earth, whether they be thrones, 
or dominions, principalities, or powers, all are laid to be created 
by him. To which we may adde thofe places, Pfa/.i 04.4. Rtvelat. 
4.1 1 .and 1 0.6. where all things in heaven and earth,and,by name* 
the Angels are faid to be made by God. 

Which point may comfort us with ailurance, that Chrift is Ufii. 
abfolute Lord of the Angels : and as he hath a love to us, and a Chriftis 
will to help, and affi(tus;fo he hath the Angels, which ex- Lo «lof 
cell in ftrength , at his command , alwaies ready preft to doe , An ~ 
his will, and to execute his word for our good. The bert ^ e '" 
ground of Lordlliip and Dominion, which any can have over any 
things, is the creating and making of them : For it is good rea- 
son, that none mould have more power over a thing, then he who 
made and formed it by his owne hand and skill , and gave the 
whole being to it* And this the Scriptures mew, where they at- 
tribute great power and lordfhip to the potter over the clay, which 
he formeth, and the veflell which he makes of it, I fa. 4 5.9. Jerem 
1 S.6.Rom.g. Now this the Lord Chrift our Saviour hath over the* 
Angels, as he is their Creatour, in an high meafiire; for he made 
them out of nothing by his ovvne power : And therefore juft it is, 
th-At all Angels, Principalities, & Powers mould ever be fubje£t to J 

him ; and that they mould not only wor(hip him, Heb. 1 .6. but alfo 
mould be his ministring fpirits, fent forth to minifter for the good 
of them, who are heires of ialvation in Chrilt. In this aflurance 
let us folacc our felyes, and be of comfort, knowing that the An- 


■ ' ^ 

70 Chrijl took not the nature ofAngds upon him. 

Mat. 1 8. gels in heaven are miniflersfor us , when we are Ch rifts little ones , 
and they behold the face of our heavenly Father. And let us in this 
hope harden our faces, and ftand with courage before all wicked 
violent enemies and perfecutours. And as we are here affured,that 
the Angels being created by the Lord Chrift, and having him for 
their head, adding light ancfholinefTe unto them; muft needs love 
us as fellow-creatures and members under the fame head, and be 
ready and willing to help us when God fends themrfb we are here 
admonifhed to iove them as our fellow-fervants, under one & the 
fame Lord, and as creatures made in the fame image , but more 
excellent, and by one and the fame hand , rejoycing in heaven at 
our converfion,and turning unto God by repentance. 
fife 2. Here alfo we are admonifhed, that we are not to dream or ima- 
gine, that Chrift tooke the nature of Angels on him , though he 
Mal.3.1. £ e ca u e d the Angellof the Covenant, and of Gods prefence, and the 
Archangel!, that is, the Prince of Angels ; for an Angell he is cal- 
led in refpeel: of his office, but by nature he h no Angell , but as 
different from Angels, as theCreatourand Lord differs from the 
creature, who is by him created of nothing, and the fervant mi- 
nifying to him. 
Doftr.3. The third point of inftru6Uon is , That the Angels were crea- 
An S e k ted/« the beginning of the world, in the firft moment of time, by 
the begin- Gods firft ac"t of creation. This is confirmed , Job 38.7. where 
ning of Angels are called the fins of Cjod , to fhew, that he is their father 
thecrea- by creation ; and alfo the ftarres of the morning, to fhew, that 
tion. they were created in the firft moment or morning of rhe creati- 
on, with the firft light, the higheft heavens ; and are faid to fag 
together, and to lift up their voice, when God laid rhe firft cor- 
ner-ftone and foundation of the earth; which neceffarily implies, 
that then they were already made, and had a being given before, 
even with the heavens. Alfo Pfal. 1 o^.where God is firft faid ro 
make his Angels fpirits , and his minifters a flaming fire ,• and 
then to lay the foundations of the earth, that is, of the infericur 
vifib'e world. 
Ufe. This lerves to fhew, that Angels and their actions are no' r i 
properly meafured by time, as the anions of men, and other infe- 
riour creatures :but as they were created in the firft beginning, 
with the firft moment of time; fo they can remove their pre- 

Angels Godsfirfl and chiefeft creatures. 71 

fence into places far diftant in a moment, without time, and doe 
things quickly in an inftant, and are fvvift meflengers. 

Fourthly, in that the Angels are here included in the word 'Doftr^ 
Heavens, and are faid to be created with them in the beginning ; Angels 
Hence wemayJearne, That the Angels areGods firft creatures, ar ^ ri £ 
made perfect out of nothing , by the firft acl of fimpleand abfo- creatures 
Jute creation. For proofe of rhis we need no further argument 
but thole Scriptures which arrirme , that God made his Angels 
Spritsy that is,fpirituall fubftances, which are the moft perfect of 
creatures, and come neareft in nature to God, who is a fpirit , as 
7*/*/. 104.4. and //<?£r. 1.7. If they had been created out of any 
matter made before, then they muft have been made out of the 
rude made, without forme , called earth : For all things which 
were created not by abibiure and fimp'c creation , but cut of 
fome thing made before, were created out of the rude mafle, the 
earth ; but Angels were not made on r of it : for it is the com- 
mon matter of the viable and inferiour world ; but Angels are 
invihble, and were created to bee inhabitants of the higher! 
invisible heavens: therefore they mult needs be the fir ft of Gods 
creatures made perfect, as the invifibie heavens were, of nothing, 
by the firft ad of fimpleand abfolute creation. 

This diicovers to us the excellency of the Angelicall nature,thac fife. 
the Angels are Gods matter-piece , his firft and moft perfeft Exccllen* 
worke in all the creation. The rude mafic, without forme, called c * c of the 
earth, was made out of nothing , imperfect, void , and full of ng 
darknefie , and was no perfect creature • but the matter of the 
vifible inferiour mutable vvorld, and all the creatures therein.The 
higheft heavens were alio made perfect out of nothing, to be the 
place of the Angels,the heavenly Spirits; but yet the Angels muft 
be more excellent then they by nature , becau'e they were made - 
to fcrve for the life of Angels , even to be the place of their habi- 
tation. And yet the Angels , thole excellent and chiefeft of all 
creatures, are in Chrift become our brethren and fellow-fervant.s; 
yea, they are after a fort made our lervants and miniftring /pints, 
fent forth to minifter for them, who (hall beheires of falvation : 
Wherefore, as we are by this dodtrine ftirred up to contemplate 
with admiration upon the excellency of the Angelica'! nature ; 
and to wonder at Gods bounty to us frai/e men, inferiour earthly 


72 Angels created in and Tfrith the higheft Heavens. 

creatures, in honouring us fo farre, as give his glorious Angels to 
minifter for us : Soalfo we are provoked to magnifie, and extoll 
the infinite excellency of the merits and mediation of the Lord 
Chrift our Redeemer and Saviour , who procured and purchafed 
this honour and dignity for us, that theblefled Angels fliould mi- 
nifter for our good, who of our felves, and by our finnes, deferved 
to be flaves of the Divell, and evill Angels : Wherefore, as An- 
gels grudge not to minifter for us ; Co let not us grudge , but re- 
joyce to minifter for the pooreft of the Saints, and the little ones 
of Chrifts flocke, our brethren. 
Voftr.<>. The fifth point of Doctrine is, That the Angels were created in 
Angels and with the higheft heavens ; and by creation were made to in- 
made in habit thofe heavens, as the natural! and proper place of their be- 
tolnliab^ in & atK * habitation. This Doitrine is confirmed, firft by the ex- 
heaven. ' ptefle words of Cftfofes himfelfe , in the firft words of the next 
Chapter, viz.Gen.2.1. Thus the heavens and the earth were fwijhed, 
and all the hofl of them. In which words he plainly afrlrmes , That 
not onely the heavens and the earth, but alfo all the hoft of them 
were thus created and perfectly finimed, that is, in that order and 
maner as he hath before related in my Text,& the reft ofthis firft 
Chapter.Now in this Chapter we have not one word which can be 
underftood of the creation of the hoft of the higheft heaven, that 
is,the Angels, but onely thefe words of my Text, which affirme, 
that in the beginnings that is, in the firft moment, when God began 
to give being to his firft creatures, he created the heavens ; that is, 
the higheft heavens diftinft from the earth , which was the com- 
mon matter of all the vifible world ; and with thofe heavens the 
hoft of them, that is, the Angels, which are the hoft and inhabi- 
tants of them. For it is anuiuall thing in th^ Scriptures, to figni- 
fie by the name of a place the proper inhabitants of the place, to- 
gether with the place it fdfc y as I have before fhewed by divers 
examples. Yea, the word heavens isufed to fignifiethe Angels, as 
I have fhewed from Job i 5. i 5.Therfore it is a thing moil clear & 
manifeft, that the Angels were created together with the higheft 
bcavens,as the hoft & naturall inhabitants ofthem,and thofe hea- 
vem,by the law ofcreation,are the naturall and proper place of 
their being and habitation. Secondly, the Scriptures fully prove 
tills point, which call the Angels, the Angels of heaven \ as CMat- 


Angels created viand Tvtth the htgbcft. Hea\wu y j 

thew 24.36. and G^r.i.S.and the heavenly hoft, zsLhU 2.1 j.and 
name the Angels among the hofts of the Lord , which from the 
heavens, and in the heights Jing. Halleluiah and praife to him , a? 
yfal. 1 48.1 ,2 . Thirdly, -this doctrine is confirmed by divers rea- 
fons, grounded on the Word of God. 

The fir it is buiJded upon the Doctrines before proved by plaine p ua r u;i lt 
teftimonies of holy Scripture, to wit, that the Angels were not 
from ail eternity , but were created by Elohim , that i<, the true 
God , who is one God and three perfons , as is plainly terrified, 
Py*/. 104.4. and 148.5. and Colof. 1.16. upon this infallible ground 
I thus argue, That Angels being creatures , created and made by 
God, mult of neceility be created either before the heavens, or in 
and with the hiohdi heavens ; or ejfe together with the Ele- 
ments, and the creatures of the infericurvifible world, which 
were ail made out of that rude mstle called eanh,\\hich was with- 
out forme, and void. But they were not made before the hea- 
vens : For the heavens were made in the beginning, that is in the 
firft moment , when God began fir it to make and to give being 
to creatures , before which beginning there could be no creation 
of Angels, or any other things. Neither indeed was there any- 
place, wherein Angels could iub.^it, before the heavens were made. 
Certainly, no finite creature can fabfift in it fdfc 7 without a place 
in meer nothing ; it is proper to God oneiy to rubfi/t. in and of 
himfelfe. Neither were they createdtogcther with the earth,and 
other elements and creatures of the viable world : For it is plain- 
ly r eftified, Job 38.7. that when God laid the foundations of the 
earth, an J itretched the lines upon it , and laid the corner- /lone 
thereof,-/ 1 /*?// the fens of (jod (boated for joy, that is, the Angels ; for 
they are called the ions o£God, Job 1 .7. and there were no other 
living creatures then made : Therefore the Angels were un- 
doubted'y created before the earth , or dfe they could not have 
fhoureci and lung together, when the earth was made. T>>ivid 
alfo teftirieth,that the Angels were made fpirits firlt,T^/. 104.4. 
and after them God laid the foundation of the earth, Verk y 
Therefore it followeth neceffarily. that rhe Angels were created 
in and with the higheft heaven, and are the hofi and pro] a ir. . 
bitan's thereof. 
Secondly, char place from winch the evill Angels Were \£jft Reafim. 

G downc, 

74 ifogrff created in and *toith th highefl Heavens. 

downe, and did fall, when they finned , and Jeft their firft eftate 
and habitation, is their natural! proper place in which God crea- 
ted them ; and they by creation are the proper inhabitants there- 
of. Now that is the higheft heaven : for when fbme of the An- 
gels, to wit, proud Lucifer, the Divelland his Angels finned , and 
* left their habitation , as Saint Jude fpeakes, Jade 6. then they were 
call dovvne to hell, 2 /Vf.2.4. even from heaven , as the Prophet 
■Jfaiab tertifieth, Ifit. 1 4. 1 2. faying, How art thou fallen fromhea- 
ven 9 O Lucifer . ? Therefore undoubtedly the Angels in their crea- 
tion were made in and with the higheft heavens, and had them gi- 
ven for their proper and natural! habitation. 
Keafont. The third reafon is drawne from, the order which God obfer- 
ved in the creation : For as foone as God had fitted any part or 
place of the world for the creatures which were to dwell, and to 
have their being in it ; he made thole creatures, and replenished 
the place with them : So loon as the airie heavens were made, and 
the waters feparated from the earth, and place made for the Sun, 
Moone, and Starres, and for their beamesto be ftretched out 
from heaven to earth ; then the holt of the vifiWe heavens , the 
Sunne, Moon, and Starres were created and placed in them: And 
fo fbon as the fea was fitted for living and moving creatures,God 
created them out of it; and fo likewife when the earth was made 
to ftandout of the waters, and furnilhed with herbs, plants, and 
trees, for the ufe of living creatures,God created birds and hearts; 
and when it was furnifhed with ali creatures fit for man* ufe,then 
fie created man,and the woman alfo an help meet for him:There- 
' fore undoubtedly fo fbon as he created the higheft heavens , the 
proper and naturall place of the Angels, then and together with 
thole heavens he did create the Angels , which are the heavenly- 
hoft,and fuffered them not to remaine one houre empty, without 
their furniture and inhabitants. 

This Doctrine thus laid downe and proved, befides fbme/peci- 
all ufe which we may make of it for affection and practice , is a 
ground and foundation of many other Doftrines concerning An- 
gels,which flow as Conclufions and Corollaries from ir,and an oc- 
caficn of queltionsto bedifcuded :Fir/t,let me make fomebriefe 
application of it, and then proceed to the Doctrines and Queiti- 


Gods power d&nonflrated in the creation of Angels. 75 

FirM, in that Angels were created in and with the higheM hea- life 1 . 
ven by Godspowerfull Word, and by his fimple and abfolute ad Go<kinfi. 
of crea ion ; this fhewes the infinite power and omnipotency of nit e pow- 
God, that he can make themoft excellent, immortall, and glori- * r hcr ety 
ous creatures,greateM in power and Mrength , meerJy out of no- ^^ 
thing by his owne hand immediately. The wifeft , and moM able 
and skilrull Artificers and Matter-workmen in all the world, and 
among all the fons of men, doe Mand in need of divers helps and 
inftruments for the effecting and perfects of any good worke, 
and without them he can doe little or nothing. He muit have fer- 
vants and inferiour workmen under him; he murt have good 
tooles and instruments fitted for his hand, and he muM have alfo 
good materials to worke upon • for he can frame and make no 
good worke out of courfe Muffe,and bafe met alls : But lo here an 
admirable Artificer and Work-matter , before whom all the art 
and skill of all creatures is as vanity and nothing. The Lord God, 
the Creatour and Former of all things, he alone hath made all the, 
world ; and he hath not onely made his owne materials , out of 
which he framed this great fabrick of the viable world , and all 
this without any inMruments or working-tooles ; but alfo hee 
hath made in a moment, in the firtt beginning, together with the 
glorious higheM heavens , the Palace and Throne of his glorious 
and infinite. MajeMy , the moft glorious and excellent of all his 
creatures the Angels, and that out of nothing, which are great in 
power, wonderfull in Mrength, and admirable in fwiftnefie , im- 
mortall fpirits , able to deltroy a whole army of men in a night, 
and to overturne kingdomes and cities in one day ; at whole light • 
and prefence valiant Cjideon, a mighty man of warre,and the great 
Captaine of Ifrael, was fo aflfraid and aft onifhed , that he cried, 
Aha, Lord God, I (kail die. Zachary, an holy PrieM, was Mricken 
Annie for a time : And the hardy Roman louldiers , which wat- 
ched Chri Ms fepulchre, wereaMonimed,and became as dead men. 
Who therefore can fufficiently admire this mighty Creatour? 
What heart is able to conceive , or tongue to exprefle his wis 
dome, power, and omnipotency ? Let us in filence adore him, and 
tremble and feare before him ; not with lervileand flavifh hor- 
rour, but with holy feare and reverence. Let us flee tohim for 
all help, foccour, and Mrength in all diftrefles 5 for fiippfy of all our 

G 2 wants, 

, -_ . . — I „ > 

76 Erroneous opinions concerning Angels confuted. 

wants, for guidance and direction in all our waies. If we be aflu- 
red of his favour, and that he is with us, and on our fide, and that 
we Hand .for his caufe \ let us not care who be againtt us,nor feare 
what men and Divels can doe unto us. If we want meanesand 
imlruments, iet-.vs not be difmayed; for he can worke without 
them. It. we want neceflary matter , he can make it , or worke 
without it, and bring things molt excellent out of nothing For 
this very -endUhe Lord hath mewed himfelfeand his divine power 
in the creation, and by the creacures,that we might know and ac- 
knowledge, love and honour, ferve and worfhip him, and upon all 
occasions give him the g'ory due to his name, and tell the people 
what great. and wonderfuii things he hath done, and how by his 
ovynearme and power he hath brought great and Grange things 
to pafie. 
U[e 2. Secondly, this Do&rine ferves to difcover theerrour and fal- 
Confuta- mood of divers opinions, publimed and maintained by men of 
rionof learning : As h*rit, that of Origen.Bafil , and other Greek fathers, 
arrours 7 who dreamed, that the Angels were created many ages before 
the corporeall and vifible world, z. And that held by" fome others, 
That they .were created after the crearion of ^4 daw. 3. That the 
creation of Angels is not mentioned by Mofes in the hi/tory of 
the creation ; but the time thereof is altogether concealed, which 
is the opinion ofPererins, and of fome Fathers and Schoolmen. 
4-That opinion of fome Ancients, who held, That God by the 
miniftery of Angels created this viable world. This Doelrine 
proves them all to ,be vaine dreames and fidions, in that k mewes 
plainly, by plaine teftimonies and foiid arguments out of Gods 
holy Word, that the Angels were created in and- with the highe/t 
heavens , neither before nor after them; and are the inhabitants 
and ho/t ofVthoie heavens mentioned, GV/7.2.1. and that exprefly 
[by CMofes. 5. AJfo for that opinion of the Popifh Schoolmen, 
and.of their iAaftev eAriftotle , who hold, that Angels move the 
fpheres of the vifible heavens , and guide the /everall motions of 
rhe Sun, Moon, and Starres ; it is in no cafe to be allowed. Foras 
rbe Scriptures doe exprefly a fcribe the creation of all things to. 
God alone, and to his eternall VVord and Spirit , and never men* 
tion Angels, as creators working with God in the creation ; but 
as creatures firft made in and with the higheft heavens, and re^- 


Angels tbefirft and cbiefeft of creatures. 77 

j'oycing at Gods founding of the earth : So they affirme , that in 
God all things move, and have their being ; and he gives the law 
and rule of motion to the Sun, Moon, and Starres , guides them J° b 9 #7,8c 
by his hand,caufeth them to rife and fer, and brings forth all their l7%l 2 " 
ho(l by number, lfa.40.16. and 45.12. And this Do6trine,which 
teachethus , that the Angels were made to dwell in the highed 
heavens, and there they have their residence, not in the fpheres of 
the vifible heavens, it overthrowes all fuch conceiprs,makes them 
vanilli like fmoak , and drives them away like chaffe before the 
wind : Wherefore let us all acknowledge,that as God created An- 

fds of nothing by himfelfe alone, and did give motion to the 
eavens ; fo without help of Angels he doth continue the fame 
motion,and did create all other inferiour things. Let us take heed 
that we give not Gods glory to any other ; but let us confefle, 
that all thankes for all blelfings are due to him,-in him things livc 9 
move, and have their being ; and he turneth about the fpheres of 
heaven by his counfels, that they may doe whatfoever he com- 
mandeth them upon the face of the world in the earth , Job 

From the ufe of this Doctrine , I proceed to the Conclufions, 
which necefTarily flow from it. 

i.C^ollary-, or Conclusion. 

The fird is, That Angels by creation , and in their nature and Angels 
fubdance are the hrd and chiefed of all Gods creatures, far more thechie- 
excellent then man in his bed naturall being in the date of in- feft ofthe 
nocency ; this Doctrine floweth necefTariiy from the former: For crcatures# 
flrd, God in wifdome hath made all things, the bed andchiefed 1 • 
of creatures for the bed places; and inferiour creatures , for infe- 
riour places , as we fee oy experience in all things vifible : And 
therefore undoubtedly the Angels , which were created to be the 
naturall inhabitants of the highed and bed place , mud needs be 
the chkfc(\ creatures, and the mod excellent in nature and fab- 
dance. Secondly, thofe creatures, which God framed in thecrea- z. 
tion,to dwell neared to his glorious pre/ence, even with his hea- 
venly Majedy, and to dand before his Throne in the heaven of 
heavens, mud needs be in their nature and fubdance mod excel- 
lent, and farre above man in innocency,whOi'e bed dwelling was 
but an earthly Paradile, or Garden furniihed with fruits , which 

G 3 might 

7 8 The nature of Angels mojl excellent. 

might be eaten up and confirmed ; and iuch were the Anoels , a s 
the former Do&rine hath plainly proved : Therefore this^conclu- 
fion neceffarily flowes from that Do6trine,and is proved and con- 
firmed by it. 

But we have for further confirmation both plaine testimonies 
and arguments in the holy Scriptures: The royal! Prophet Da- 
W, being raviflied with the contemplation of the fuperceleftiall 
glory appearing in the fecondary beames thereof, which fhine in 
the vifible heavens, and in the Sun, Moon, and Starres , cries out 
in admiration and wonders that God, dwelling in fuch admirable 
glory, and having fiich excellent and glorious company and atten- 
dants about him, ihould vouchfafe to look upon man, or have any 
regard of him : What is man (faith he) that thou art windfall of him, 
or the fonne of man, that thou vijttefl him . ? Pfal.8.4. But in the next 
words he goeth further, and fpeaks fully to the point,and fhevves, 
that Chrili himfelfe, according to his humanity , though concei- 
ved and borne moft pure and holy, was made lower then the An- 
gels ; thou haft made him(fahh he"" a little 3 or for a little while lower 
then the Angels, that is, Chrirt in the nature of man,whichhe took 
upon him ; for fo the Apoitle expounds thefe words of David, 
Hehy.2.6. And Pfal.i 03.20. Tee zAngels (faith he) which excellin 
power. Our Saviour alio in the Gofpel fheweth plainly , that the 
Angels in heaven are fo excellent in nature and Jubilance, as the 
ele£i Saints glorified fhall be after thelaft reiurre&ion ; and their 
molt glorious and blefled condition , which farre excels zAdam 
in innocency, fhall be like unto the Angers, Matth. 2 2.30. Saint 
Teter in plaine words faith, that Angels are farre greater then men 
in power and might, 2 Pet. 2. 1 1. Saint Taut calls them aAncels of 
light, 2 Corinth.i 1 .14, and the Angels of Cjods power, 2 Thef.i .7. he 
numbers them with principalities and powers, which farre excell the 
nature of man, %om. 8. 3 8. Whenfoever he fets forth the greater* 
excellency of things created, greater then in men , he cloth in- 
itance in Angels , as 1 Cor a 3.1. though I ipeak with tongues of men 
and as^vgcls. And Ga/at.i.S. If I, or an Angellfrom heaven, and 
4.14. Ye received me as an Angell of God, yea a* Chrifi Jcfm. In a 
word, whereas man is an earthly creature, framed out of dull, in 
refpeel of his vifible part his body ; Angels are pure heavenly /pi- 
rituall fubftances, framed immediately out of nothing , by the 


Gods loVe to mail free and Voluntary. jy 

fimple and abfolute act of creation. And whereas mans better 
. part, the fcule, though it be a fpirit ; yet was not created a per- 
fect compleat creature, but made to lublilt in the body, and can- 
not be in full perfection without it : Angels are fpirits complete 
and perfeft in themielves, without fubfiftence in any other crea- 
ture, as fhall appeare hereafter. And therefore Angels are by 
creation, and in nature and fubltance farre above man in his belt 
natural! eltate, even in the Mate of innocency. 

Firft,this fhewes molt clearly , that all the Jove and favour „* 
which God extc nds to man in Chrilt, and in giving Chrift to be T1 / c Jo * 
mans Saviour and Redeemer , by taking mans nature upon him, f c 
and making full iatisfaition therein to jultice for him, and in fa- man here- 
ving man from hell and damnation, and exalting him to heaven- b > com- , 
ly glory, is on Gods part moil free and voluntary,arilingmeerly mencicJ ' 
and wholly from the good pleafure of his owne will , and noc 
from any merit, worth, and excellency, which heat firlt created, 
or fince found in mans nature. If the naturall excellency of any 
creature could procure Godsfpeciall favour, or deierve his boun- 
tie,ormove him to fhew mercy to any creature which hath fin- 
ned, and by fin is fallen into mifery ; iurely,the Angelicall nature 
mould have been more refpedted of God, then the nature of man: 
and Angels, being fallen, fhould more Qa.fily have found mercy 
at his hand. For (as this Dodrine hath proved) Angels are by 
creation , and in nature and lubliance the chiefelt and molt ex- 
cellent of all Gods creatures, far excelling man in power, might, 
purity, and being ; And yet,when Angels and man were both fal- 
len, and found guilty, charged with folly , and involved in milery, 
God parTed by the Angels/and fhewed no mercy to them ; nei- 
ther gave his Son, to rake upon him the nature of Angels, and 
to be their Saviour and Redeemer; but fo many of them as fin- 
ned, and kept not their firlt eitate, but left their habitation , he 
hath referved in evcrUftin^ chaines of darknejfe, unto the judgement of 
the great day, 2 Pet.2. Jud.6. But for man, who is of lefle worth, 
2nd farre inferiour by nature , he hath given his Sonne, to take 
mans nature upon him, to be incarnate and made flcfli, and hath 
fent him forth in xIiq forme of fraile and finfuli flefh , made of a 
woman, and made under the Law, and hath delivered him up to a 
curfed' death, and to hellifh agonies, pangs, and forrowes, that he 

G 4 might 

80 Gods infinite loye to mankind in Chrift. 

might redeem thisfrailevvorme of the earth, miferable and fin- 
full man , from hell and damnation , unto which the Angels 
which finned are referved under darknefle ; and to exalt him far 
above the Mate of innocency, in which he was created,and his belt 
naturall eftate in Paradife, unto the high eftate of heavenly glo- 
ry, with the eiecl, holy, and blefled Angels, which is farre above 
that mutable ftate of glory, in which the Angels were firft crea- 
ted, and from which fo many of them did fall : Wherefore let us 
admire this free grace of God, and ftand amazed at his wonder- 
full and fupertranfcendent bounty to mankind. And whatfoever 
mercy we receive from him in our deliverance from any evill, or 
whatlbever bletfing and benefit of bounty and goodneffe in ad- 
vancing us to this ftate of grace or glory , ht us wholly afcribe it 
to the good pJeafure of his owne free will, and not to any merit 
in our felves, or any excellency created in our nature. And let no 
man glory in his naturall wit or wifdome, and knowledge gotten 
by learning and ftudy,nor boa ft in his owne ftrength ; but, as it is 
written, Let him that glorieth, glory in the Lord, and triumph in this, 
that he knovveth Gods free grace and aboundant mercy in Jefus 
Chrift, and hath the fvveet tafte and experience of it in his owne 
Mfe 2. Secondly, this ferves to magnifie in our eyes both the large 
And.the meafiire of Gods bounty to his ele£t in Chrift , and alfo the inri- 
Chr'ft • n * te P ower an< ^ excellency of Chriic his mediation, and the digni- 
not t.v ty and worth ofhisperfon, in which hee hath fo dignified our 
king the fraile nature, by afluming it upon himfelfe, and uniting it perfo- 
rative of r» a Iiy to hfs Godhead; that hee hath exalted it farre above the 
A^gel?, moft glorious and excellent ftate of the Angels in heaven. That 
uc mans. ^ n g e j s are ^ ^^ anc j chiefeft f a j] Gods creatures by creati- 
on, and in nature and fubftance farre more excellent then man in 
his beft naturall eftate of innocency , I have proved in this Do- 
ctrine. And yet Chrift taking upon him our naturcwhich was far 
inferiour to the Angels, and uniting it perfonally to himfelfe, as 
he is the eternall Sonne of God , hath dignified, and exalted, and 
crowned it with glory and excellency farre above all Angels, Princi- 
palities, Thrones, and Dominions, Hebr.i. 7. fo that the holy, 
ele6t,and blefled Angels exalted above their beft naturall eftate, 
to the immutable eftate of fupernaturall life , immortality and 


Gods infinite love to mankind in Qmjl. Zx 

glory,doe adore and worfhip him, as Davtd fore-told, P/2/.97.7. 
and the ApoftJearTirmes,//^.i.6.He isthe head of 'all, and they all 
are made [abject to him , i 7V. 3. 2 2. And Co wonderful] is Cods 
bounty to man in Chrift, and io powerful! and excellent is Chrifis 
mediation for the elect of mankind , that by Chrifis mediation 
concurring and working together with Gods bounty , according 
to wifdome, and for the fatisfadtion of Gods juftice, a ready way 
is made for them into the Holy of holies,the Heaven of heavens : 
and they are not onely exalted and elevated farre above their beft 
naturall being, unto the blefled Hate of the glorious Angels; but 
alfo the holy Angels , with whom they mine in heavenly glory 
hereafter in the life to come, are made of God miniftring fpirits, 
whom Chrift hath procured to minifter for their good here in 
this world in the ftate of grace 3 fo that upon him , as upon the 
Ladder in Jacobs dreame , the Angels of God defcend from hea- 
ven to earth, and afcend from earth to heaven , and doe encamp 
roundabout them, to lave and deliver them, as Davtd faiih, Pfal. 
34.7. Yea,and when theevill Angels mall be judged at thelaft 
day, they fhall through Gods infinite bounty, and for the merit 
and worthinefle of Chrift, be advanced to fit upon Thrones with 
him, and to judge and give fentence again ft the 2)/W/ : and all his 
Angels, as wee reade,i Corinth.6.3. And therefore if wee had the 
tongues of men and Angels,we are never able to utter or expreffe 
the infinite excellency, worth, and dignity oftheperfonand me- 
diation of Chrift, nor fufficiently toextoll, laud<and magnifie the 
bounty of God to poore mankind in Chrift. And here we fee.that 
truly verified , which the Prophet fore-told, Ifa. 64.4. And the 
Apoftie proclaimed, 7 Cor.2.9. that fince the beginning of the 
world, the eye of man hath not feen, nor his eare heard, neither hath it 
ever entered into the heart of man, what good things Cjod hath prepared 
for them that love him. 

Thirdly, this Dodrine ferves to worke in us a true love, and re- yr e 3. 
verent refpect of the Angels of God, as being the chiefeff of Love and 
Gods creatures , and by nature more excellent then man in his reverence 
beft naturall eftate, and great in power, able to help us more then the An " 
all other creatures, when God offers occafi on and opportunity, & k 
and gives them charge over us. Every man is bound to thinke 
better, and more reverently of other men , who are in any gifts 


82 A reverent reftett to be had of the jfngels. 

more excellent then him felfe , though they be all of one nature 
and kind, and of the fame flefli and bloud. And God hath put 
upon the beads of the field by nature a feare and refpecl: of man, 
becaufe he is a more excellent creature. Now the Angels are by 
nature and creation more excellent then man in his beft naturall 
eftate ; and man in the fupernaturall ettate of glory, mall be but 
equall to the ele<ft and holy Angels : And therefore, as we mult 
ever labour to decline that fervile foperttition, and bafe will-worfhip 
of Angels, which is condemned, Co/of. 2.1 8. and muft beware of 
giving divine and religious worjfhip to them , which they them- 
felves reject and refufe, being our fellow-fervants 9 and have utterly 
detefted and forbidden , when it hath been offered, as appeares, 
Reve/ f and 21. p. fo we mult take heed, that we doe not 
thinke meanly of them, as if they were but our fervants, becaufe 
they minifter for our good : For in guarding us , and encamping 
about us, and in minifying for us, they are not our fervants which 
owe us fervice ; neither have we power to command them , nor 
ability to requite them for theleaft fervice : but they are the fer- 
vants of God, and of our Lord Chrift , and fellow-fervants with 
all Kings,Prophets,and Holy men of God; and as Gods EmbafTa- 
dors,and Princely Courtiers & Mini(ters,we ought toefteem and 
refpec~t them, with all love and hearty affedion. And, as in all 
places where there are Embafladors and noble Princes and Cour- 
tiers of great Emperours and Monarchs, men will have a care to 
beare ttiemfelves orderly, and to doe all things decently, and will 
be affraid and afhamed to commit any abfiirdity, or beare them- 
felves immodeftlyrSo let us in the publick aflemblies ofthe Saints, 
and in holy congregations of Gods Church,where Angels are fup- 
pofed fbmetimes to guard us, and to over-look us (as the words of 
the Preacher feem to import, Ecc/ef.5.6. and of the Apoflle alfo, 
1 Cor.i 0.1 1 .) beare our felves reverently, and beware of ail vaine 
words, filthy behaviour, and beattly drovvzineffe and fleepine/Te, 
as if we came to the Church like uncleane dogges for company 
only, or to lye fhorting and fleeping , which is the cxill cuftome 
and practice of many carnall people. 
fife 4. Fourthly, this Doctrine is matter of comfort to Gods poore de- 
Comfort fpifed fervants, in that it doth aflure them, that the Angels which 
hereby to j ove t j iem anc | as friends rejoyce in their conversion ; and as guar- 
the godly. - dians 

Angels pure JieaVenly, fpirituall fubftances. Si 

dians protect and watch over them, are great, excellent, and glo- 
rious above all earthly men : And therefore,though the great men 
of the world fcorneand defpife them, and among iuch they can 
find no favour, help, or defence ; yet let them comfort them - 
fekes, and rejoycein this, that he,who is higher then the highelt, 
hath a guard, to whofe care and charge he hath committed them ; 
and that not of mighty men , in whom there is no help , but of 
Angels, which in power, ftrength, and glory far exceed the moil 
excellent among the fons of men. 

2. Corollary. 
Secondly, in that Angels were created in and with thehigheft Angels 
heaven, to'be the naturall inhabitants fttable to the place ; hence are hea- 
we may gather a definition of Angels , to wit , that Angels are venly fpi- 
heavenly Spirits, or pure and entire fpirituall fubftances , created rits% 
in the beginning by God after his owne image , every one of 
which is diitincl: from another by a fpeciall exigence , or proper 
particular being of his owne , which God hath given to have in 
himfelfe for ever. Firft, in that Angels were not made and crea- 
ted out of the rude matte, without forme, and void,which is called 
earth , and the deep , nor of any other matter before made by 
God ; but in the firft beginning of all things were created perfect 
creatures in and with the highelt heavens, the lively and proper in- 
habitants of them : Hence it neceflarily followes, that they are 
pure heavenly fpirits, and intire fpirituall fubftances, not parts of 
any body or perfon , nor compounded of any matter firft made, 
and of a forme thereto added afterwards; and therefore havea 
proper exigence and being, every one in himfelfe, which cannot 
bediflblvedjbutin refpeit of fecondcau fes remaines immortall : 
fo that this definition, and every branch thereof flowes from the 
former Doctrine, as a naturall Corollary, or neceflary Conclufi- 
on. And it doth excellently fet forth the nature,and naturall be- 
ing and properties of Angels, by which they arc diftinguifhed 
from all other things. 

Firlt, in that they are called fpirits, or pure fpirituall iiibftances, i . 
this fhewes their nature and being, wherein rhey referable God, 
and beare his ima^e , who is the one onely true Jehovah , who 
hath his eflenceand being in and of himfelfe , and gives eflence 
and being to al! things , and by whom all things fob/ill , us that 


84 Angels dijlinguijbed by their properties from other thmgs . 

name Jehovah Signifies , which he aflumes as proper to himfelfe, 
Exod.^.i 4,1 5. and 7/^.42.8. and who is a fpiric,as our Saviour te*- 
ftifieth, ^0/^4.24. And by this nam^ fpirits , they are diltingui- 
fhed from all bodily creatures. 

2. Secondly, in that they are called pure, intire, fpirituall fub fian- 
ces, and perfect creatures,which have every one a proper exiftence 
and particular being ; hereby they are diftinguifhed from the fpi- 
rits, that is, the foules of men, which are not intire, complete,and 
perfect creatures of themfelves by creation ; but are made to be, 
and to fubfift in an humane body, and together with the body to 
make up a perfect man. Hereby alfo they are diftingui fried from 
the breath of life, and the vitall and animal! fpirits , which are in 
living bodies of men, and other living creatures : for they are not 
pure, perfect, intire creatures , which fubfifl by themfelves , but 
fraile vanifhing parts of creatures, which continually increafe and 
decreafe, fade and peril n. 

3. Thirdly, in that they are called heavenly fpirits,hereby they are 
diftinguifhed not onely from the fpirits created here below on 
earth in this inferiour world, even foules of men, and all bodily 
fpirits; but alfo from God,who is a fpirit,but not contained in any 
place,no not in the Heaven of heavens : but is efTentially prefent 
in all places, as well in earth as in heaven, as the Scriptures tefti- 
fie, 1 Kw.S.27. and T/a/.i 39.8. 

4. Fourthly, in that they are faid to be created in the beginning 
by God, hereby they are diftinguifhed from the abfoluteeffence 
of God, and from every one of the three perfons in one God : for 
they are not created, but are abfolutely eternall, without begin- 
ning of being. 

5. Fifthly, in that they are faid to be created in the image and fi- 
militudeof God, this fhewes the excellent natural! properties of 
Angels, that they are living, fpirituall, and immortal! creatures, 
indued with knowledge, wifdome, understanding, liberty of will, 
power, Strength, and a&ivity to doe and performe great things 
wifely, juftly, and freely, and fo to refemble God in his glorious 
attributes and workes. 

6. Sixthly, in that they are faid to be diftinguifhed onefrom an- 
other by a proper and particular fubfiftence and being, which eve- 
ry one hath by himfelfe ,• this ihewes that Angels are not one 


Angels entire y and complete Spirits. 8 J 

common fpirit, breached into the bigheft heavens, and every one 
apart of that one fpiric ; but they are every one a whole fub- 
itance or perfon by himfelfe, as Augnftine faith, Snchirli. 1 8. Enchirid. 

Laftly, in that every one ts faid to have a proper exigence and a * *jp 
particular being, which God hath given him to hdw in himfelfe, \- ' 
by which he differs from the reft l this neceffariiy implies , that 
Angels are finite, and limited both in their fubiiance and num- 
ber^ and are mutable, not infinite and unchangeable, asGod is. 
This is the definition , which in the feverall parts and branches 
thereof doth fully let forth the nature and naturall properties of 
Angels. I proceed to the confirmation of the teverall parts in or- 

Firit,that Angels are fpirits, or fpirituall fubffances, the holy lm 
Scriptures arfirme molt clearly, T/4/.1 04.4. and Heb.i .7. where it They arc 
is faid , that he maketh his' Angels faints. And Hebr.1.1 4. where spirits. 
they are called mimftring [pints. And left any Ihould thinke or 
imagine, that Angels are not fpirits by nature and creation , but 
by grace and communion of trie Holy Ghoft , which is given to 
the eleel: Angels in and by Chrifr.and by which they become ho- 
ly, and are fettled in the immutable ftate of eternall bleflednefle, 
we have molt cleare testimonies in thofe Scriptures , which call 
not onely the good and elec't Angels fpirits, as ^#.23.9. and the 
places before cited ; but alio the t\i\\ Angels of Satan , even the 
Divell himfelfe and his Angels, which in refpeft of their fiib/tance 
which they ftill retaine, though they have loll their goodneffe 
and uprightneffe, are Mill called fpirits,asL<rz/// L .2o.2 7. 1 Sam<\6. 
1 Ki». 22. <JMattk.$.i§. Att.5.16. Ephef 2.2. where the Divell 
{peaking in falie Prophets, and his /pint of fwj in Sanf&nd of. tying 
in Ahahs Prophets , and his evill Angels poffefling divers peribns, 
and call out by Chrift and his Apoftles, are called evill and un* 
clean fpirits. 

Secondly, that Angels^are entire and complete fpirituall fob- 2 « 
fiances, an j perfect creatures, which have every one a proper ex- Entire & 
iitenceanJ being in himfelfe, the holy Scriptures prove moft £°. m P letc 
clearly by divers reafons : Firli, by naming fome of them by pro- * in s * 
per and diitinct names,as the Angeil which wis put to Daniel, Dan. 
8.1 6. and to /aluce the Virgin Ulfarj, Luke i . is called Gabriel. Se- 
condly, by giving them fuch titles , and afciibing and aligning 


86 Angels entire ^complete, and heavenly Spirits . 

to them fiich offices as belong to none but complete fiibltances 
and peribns, which hare a proper and perfonall exigence : as for 
example, they are called the fans of God, Job i .6. and 3 8.7. They 
are called Gods mejfengers andminiflers , as appeares by their He-* 
brew and Greek names, and by Scriptures, MattL^i 1 . and Heb. 
1 .1 4. They have the office of * -watchers and guardians, which have 
charge given over the elect, and encamp about the righteous , to 
guard and defend them, and obferve and behold the face of God, 
ready to beat his beck for the defence of his little ones , as ap- 
peares, jVttm.zi.iz.PfaL^.j. and 91.10. D^.4.1 3. and iMatth. 

^ Thirdly, the Scriptures doe plainly fhew,that Angels doe wil- 
lingly and readily, and by themfelves performe perfect and com- 
plete attions and workes, which none can doe buc perfect crea- 
tures, which have a proper fubfirtence by themfelves : as for ex- 
ample, that in the firft creation as fbon as they were created,they 
didyW together, and lift up their voice, Job 3 8.7. that they praife 
God, hearken to the voice of his word , and keep his commandements, 
Tftl. 1 03.20. and 1 49.2. that they have appeared and fpoken to men, 
as to (Jideon, Judg>6. to the father ofSampfon, Judg.i 2 .and to £- 
liah, 1 Kin.19. that they have comforted Chrift in his agony, Luke 
22. rolled the itone from his fepulchre, (JWatth.2%. opened the 
prifon doores,and let the Apoftles at liberty, ^#.5. and 12. and 
have fmitten and deftroyed thoufands of men in a night, as 2 Kin. 
19. and rejoyce over finners which repent. 
• Fourthly, the Scriptures reckon up Angels not arttong tho/e 
infpirations, motions, or affections , which proceed from Gods 
Spirit, or any other per/on or, fubftance; but among perfect crea- 
tures, and fpirituaJI fubftances, which live , and move., and fubfifl 
by themfelves, and not in ariotheir fubltance ,* and fo the Spirit of 
God fpeakes of them , Tfi/.iqp.f. and in all the places, where 
they are /aid to come from heaven to earth , and to be fent from 
God unto men. 
3 . The third point in the definition is, That Angels are heavenly 
Heavenly fpfrics, that is, neither made of any bodily fub fiance , nor com- 
fy irks, pounded of any elements, or creatures of the vifible world,bnt of 
a pure and heavenly nature 1 , made to dwell in the higher! heaven, 
as in their proper and natural! place of habitation , and there 


Angds are like unto God. 87 

have their continuali relidence. This is manifestly proved by the 
former Doc\rine,and alfoby thofe Scriptures which teftifie, that 
they al vvaies , and continually in haven behold, the face of God , as 
Matth. i 8. 10. and that they are the heavenly ho ft, Luke 2.1 3. and 
Spirits of heaven, Zach.6><>. And there they encamping, are in a 
moment as ready to defend the righteous , and to guard the 
Church militant on earth , and avenge ail wrongs done to Gods 
little ones^as if they were here p'rcfent on earth :for in the twinck- 
Jing of an eye> they can defcend from heaven to earth, and deliver 
the godly, and May the hand of their enemies , and fmite them 
with death, as we fee by the army of Angels coming from heaven, 
and guarding Slifha , lb foon as he called upon God, 2.Ak6. and 
by the Angell of God, which, at the praier of //l?^f^£,dertroyed 
all the army of the Afiyrians in one night : and at our Saviours 
praier in his agony , appearing prefently from heaven, and com- 
forting him. In a word, our Saviour affirmes, that {pints have not 
fiefh and bones, Luke 24.35?. They cannot be feen with bodily tits, 
nor fe.'t by bodily hands , as corporall things may be : Therefore ' 
Angels, being fpirits, are not corporall, nor compounded of bo- 
dily elements, but are pure, and invtftble, as the Apoftle cals them, . 

The fourth point to wit, That Angels were created by God in 4* 
the beginning, and God hath given to them their being, is aboun- 
dantly proved in divers Doctrines before : I need not fay any 
more of it. 

The fifth point is , That Angels were created in the image of 5* 
God, and dotin many refpe&s'refemble God more then any o- Thcyar*. 
ther creatures : Firlt, in their very fubitance and naturall being ; q^/ 
for as God is a fpirit, fo they art fpirits, yea pure fpirits, and in that t \ 
refbeft refemble God more then any other creatures. Secondly, 2 \ 
as God h absolutely pure and fimple ; fb they are more pure and 
fimp'e then any other creatures , and have no corporall or vifible 
fubftance in them. Thirdly, as God is the living God, and even 3+ 
life it felfe ; and as he is infinite in wifdome, knowledge, good- 
nefle,and power, and doth all things freely of himfelfe, according 
to rhe good pleafure of his owne will ; alio b in and of himfelfe 
moll glorious and bleffed for ever , and with him is no variable- 
nefie, of fhadow of turning ; fo Angels are moft quick, aclive.and 


■ - ■— .y I '■ « " ■ ■ ' ... I 

88 ■ dirge Is are finite in nature and number. 

lively ipirits, the moil excellent of all Gods creatures in wi; 
dome, knowledge, and liberty of will, and in all goodnefTe , an 

good will towards men : they arealfo great in power, and exec 11 in 
jfrength, Pfal.103.20. and are called the blefled and glorious An- 
gels of light ; heaven, the place of blifle,is their habitation : And 
as they are incorporeall fpirits, which cannot be dilTolved anGf die, 
as men doe, when their foules are feparated from their bodies.and 
the whole per/on is diffolved : fo,andin that refpe£t, they are im- 
mortall, & do more relemble God, who only hath immortality, 
then any other creatures doe by nature : All thefe things, to wit, 
the lively ftrength, adivityjknowledge^ifdomejfree-vviiljglory, 
power, and blefied eftate of Angels, wherein they were created, 
• the Scriptures doe molt clearly teftifieand declare,where they af- 
firme>that the Angels doe fee Gods face,who is all in all.and that 
they look into all the myfteries, know the manifold wifdome ofCjod 
concerning the falvarion of the Church , 1 Tet.i .1 2. and Ephef 
3.10. and have great joy in heaven over finners which repent ; and 
doe relate great and mighty workes done by Angels,moft readily 
and fpeediJy without delay. 
6 # The fixth point is,That Angels are diftinet and different among 
themfelves, and one from another, by a proper and particular ex- 
iftence,and being : this I have fully proved in the fecond branch. 
7. The laft is, That Angels are finite in their nature and number, 
They arc a nd have their bounds and limits ; and alfbare by nature muta- 
finitem -^j^ ^^ as ^ght f a u f r0 m the firlt eflate, wherein they were 
created. That^Angels are in nature finite, and cannot be in divers 
* places, or in all places at once, is moft plaine, both by this, that 

they are laid to be Gods heavenly hofond Angels in heaven.thai is, 
who are confined to heaven for the proper place of theic duel- 
ling j and when they are here on earth , are faid to be defended 
from heaven, CMatth.i 8.2. and to be here, and not there. That 
though they are many, and more then man can number , and in 
f. ,.- • that refpect are called innumerable ; yet that their numbjer is limi- 
ted, and that God knowes the number of them, cals them by their 
names, and brings them out by number, the Prophet- teftifieth, 
1 r fa. 40. 2 6. That Angels are mutable by nature, (ubjefl to fall from 
theftate wherein they were created, the Scriptures doe teftifie, 
where they make this Gods property , that hee onely changeth 


dfjiimedbodies not of thefubftance of Angels. 89 

not, MaUch. 3. 6. And with him is no variablenetfe, lam. 1. 17. 
And where i: is teftified that God hath charged the Angels 
with folly , lob 4 1 8. And many of the Angels did not kee^> 
their rirft eltate , but left their habitation, and by finning did tall 
from Heaven and arccaft downe to Hell , and delivered into 
chaines of darkneffc , 2 Pet. 2. 4. and Inds 6. And that oncly 
the elect Angels are made holy and immutably bleflcdbythe 
light which God hath added to them, lob 4. 1 8. Thus much for 
the definition of Angels. 

3. firolUrj. 

inc rnira vxxonaryis, mat incuutmy uupes or men, an u Wl,u »i- 
other creatures, in which Angels have appeared, were no parts |" me< * . b °- 
of their nature and fubftance , neither were eiTentially united ^^ 
unto them, but were onely aflumed for the prefer* t time and 
occalion, that thereby they might make fraile men fee more evi- 
dently, and acknowledge their prefence and their actions. For 
the heaven of heavens is not the place of grofle earthly bodies; 
and therefore Angels, being naturall inhabitants of heaven, have 
no fuch bodies perfonahy united ; they onely did for a tinieaf- 
fume the bodies in which they appeared and performed fome 
actions on earth. The wordes of our Saviour, Luk^ 24. 39. 
(hew that Sprits have not flefb and bones. Therefore Angels 
being fpirits have no fuch bodies united to them as thofe 
wherein they appeared. 

4. Corollarj. 

£■ That Angels arc confined to the places in which they are, How An- 
and are in places definitively, though not circumfcribed and mea- gels arc m 
furcd by them as bodily things are; Angels being pure (pirits,aplace. 
doc not confiji of parts as bodily things doe^ neither have they 
any bodily quantity or dimension, as length, brcadth,height, and 
thickneffe; and lo they cannot bee comparted about, nor mea- 
fured, nor limited by any bodily fpace; but yet they are defini- 
tively in their places, that is, there and no where elf e; and their 
iubftance together with bodily iubftances may be in the fame 
place; as the whole foule of man is in the whole body, ^is 
wholly in every part of it and no where etfc, lo it is with 
AngeU. H 5 • C°- 


9 o Tfo number of the digits is exceeding gnat. 

5. CoroUarj, 

The num. . Seeing Angels are by creation the proper and naturall inha- 
feerofthembitants of the higheit heavens, which is a moft fpacious place, 
wry great, comparing about the whole vifible World , and more large and 
capacious then all other places -, as Solomon doth intimate, 
iJThz.8. 27. Hence it followed] that the Angels are many in 
number, more then can be numbred by man, and fo in refped: of 
man innumerable. For we mud not thinke that God , who in 
the creation repienifhed the Sea with fifties , the aire with 
birds, and the vifible heavens with innumerable ftarres, and the 
earth with beads and creeping things ; and commanded man 
to multiply and replenish the earth,wouldleave the beftand moft 
glorious place of all not fully replenished with inhabitants,glo- 
rious Angels, who were created at the firft in their full number: 
undoubtedly therefore there mull: be many, farrc more then man 
can number. And this the Prophet Daniel faw in a vifionand 
teftified, Da/?. 7. 10. where hee faith that a thoufandthoufand 
miniftred to the Lord Chrift, and un thonfand thonf and Hood 
before him. Alfo in the Gofpcll wee read that there was a Le- 
gion ; that \$ y fix thoufand div els in one man , Mark* 5. £. And 
if there be fo many divels , that is, evill Angels in one man; then 
furely the whole company or multitude ofthofe cviilAngeli 
mull be many. And the whole company of Angels, in the firft 
creation of which Ibrne oncly did fall and become Divels, muft 
needs much more bee innumerable. And if that conjecture and 
opinion of learned men be true, to wit, that the Angels which 
finned and were cad downe from heaven, are as many in num- 
ber as all the ek& of mankind which have beene, are, or fnaibe 
to the end of the World ; and that they ftiall fill up the glorious 
manfions, and fupply the roomes and places of the loft Angels ; 
then furely the multitude of all the Angels which God created 
muft needs,, bee great and innumerable, farre exceeding our ca- 

6. Corollary. 

t£n C2r Jon" Sixtnlv tl,c ni £ neft heavens, being the place of reft , and not 
drous "9f??oti?9 which is proper ;to vifible and corporeall things, and 

quick, P^ng 

Iht motion of Angels u Ponderous quick. p i 

being the place where God hath appointed that the cternall reft 
or Sabbath (halbe kept ; Therefore the Angels, which were crea- 
ted to bee the naturall inhabitants of thofe glorious heavens, 
were not made to move with bodily motion, as bodily creatures 
doc: their coming from heaven to earth is not a paflage through 
the whole fpace between heaven and earth, which would re- 
quire a long time; but, as it is with the mindes and thoughts of 
men , they are now here exercifed about things prefent, and in a 
moment of time, in the twinckling of an eye, they are in the re- 
moteft parts of the World , or in the higheft heavens, and yet 
pafle not through the fpace betweene: fo it may well be,and wc 
may with good reafon conceive, that the Angels, which are of 
t purer and more heavenly fubftance then our foules, and more 
nimble and active then the mindes or thoughts of men sre by 
nature; can in a moment bee prefent here on earth, and in the 
next moment bee againe in heaven. But howfoever, or by what 
way foever, they defcend and afcend , it is moft certaine , that 
they arc the fwiftefl of all things created ; and fo much the Scri- 
ptures uSew clearly in many places, where they defcribe An- 
gels with wings , and call them Cberttbins and Seraphtns ; yea 
fome one of them with.many wings, which are inftruments of 
flymg and of fwiftefl: motion, as Gen. 3. i^.Ezech. 10. I. 19. 
and 11. 22. and Ifa. 6. a. Aifo we read that on afuddaine,even 
in an inftant , a whole multitude of the heavenly i$Ji have de- 
feended from heaven and beene prefent on earth, Lu!^ 2.15. 
^Andthe Angell of the Lord is faid to encampe with an heavenly 
hoft round about them that feare God, Vfalm 34. 7. not by being 
here refident and abiding on earth , out of their proper place of 
abode; but by (tending before God in heaven, and beholding his 
face ; that they may bee ready in a moment when hee gives the 
watch word to prefent themfelves on earth , there to deliver 
his circl, and to deftroy their enemies, as our Saviour doth in- 
timate, Ma'th. 18. 20. 

7. Corollary. 

Seventhly , feeing the higheft heaven is the proper place of Ottkefal? 
Angels, and this is the order which God did tetinthecrca- JJ^ ft . an " 
tion, that all creatures fhould keep their ftation . and not leave am & ot 

H a thcic An&ti " 

9 2 Sin contrary to the nature ofAngtk. 

their dwelling; Hence it followes , that it is againfl: nature, and 
contrary to the order of creation, that many Angels are ex- 
cluded and iliut out oi- heaven, even all the evill Angels: And 
it is a thing above nature , even the fupcrnaturall grace and gift 
of God , and a thing purchaiccl and procured by the infinite 
power, excellency, and dignity of Chritts merit and mediation, 
that the elect and holy Angels il\ould bee made miniltering 
fpirits, and fait forth to minijlerfor them who Jhall be heires offal- 
vario* } as the Apoftle faith , Heh. i. 14. And here now oc- 
casion is offered to diicourfe about the {in and fall of the Divell 
and evill Angels ; how contrary it was to the law of nature, 
that they mould foriake their ftation , fin againfl: God, and not 
ftand in the truth , and to the order which God fet in the crea- 
tion ; that they fhould leave their dwelling, and exclude them- 
selves out of heaven , and be call: downe into Hell. Alio here 
is occafion given to {hew, that the elect Angels come to mi- 
niftcr for the elect through the fupcrnaturall pov/er and efficacy 
of Chrifts mediation ;& that Chri(t,by fupcrnaturall grace and be- 
nefits given to the heavenly Angels , hath obliged and bound 
them tohimfelfc, to obey him as their head, and to minifter 
for the good of his little ones. But thefe things come more fittiy 
to bee handled after the creation , when wee come to difcourfe 
of the confufion of the World by the Divels Apoftafie and mans 
fail ; and of the reftoring of mankind, and the renuing and pcr- 
feding of the World by Chrilh 
yfe x. Now thefe Doctrines thus opened and proved, arc of great 
Comfort ufe for comfort and confidence to all the elect and faithfuil 
by the mi- people of God, in the midft ofall troubles which befall them in 
niftcryof t ^j s \[fe . anc | when dangers and worldly enemies befet them 
Angels. roU Qd about; alio for confirmation and ftrengthening of them 
againft all the affaults , and temptations of the Divelis, For if the 
glorious Angels which are miuiftering fpirits for their good, 
which alfolove them,rc;oycc at their conversion, watch for 
their fafety, and are their fellow fervants under one Lord Chrift, 
be fuch heavenly, power full, and active fpirits even by creation; 
fo excellent in ftrength, fo lively, quick, and ready at hand to 
help in a moment when God gives the watch-word ;what need 
wc fcarc or faint fo long as wee cleave to God andftickc to his 
fcruth? Hesis a tender and loving father j and Chrift our high 

Angeh neither corporeal!, nor corruptible creatures. 9? 

Pried hath a feeling of our infirmities and doth pity us; he will 
be ready to help; and lie hath mighty inftruments and miniftcrs, 
even thoufands and ten thouiand thousands ready to lave and 
deliver us from ail enemies, as he did Daniel from the Lyons, 
and his three fellow es from the fiery furnace. Or, lfheedoth 
not fend them to deliver us out of the troubles of this life; yet 
hcewill at our death fend his Angeisto carry our foulcs with 
triumph to heaven, as Eiiah was carried up in a fiery Chariot,and 
thcioule of Lanarns is faid to bee carried up by them into 
Abrahams boibme. Wherefore let us notfeare either multi- 
tude, malice, or might of enemies ; but carefully fervc God, and 
confidently reft on the Lord Chrift our Redeemer and Sa- 

Secondly, Thcfe Doctrines lervc to difcover divers errours y& 2 
concerning the nature and fubitancc of Angels ; as that groflc Confuta. 
opinion of Peter Lombard, who held that the Angels are cor-non of 
foreall fubftances , becaulc the Divell and cvill Angels fliall contrary 
fuffer the torment, and feelc the paines of hell fire, which hath errors * 
no power but over bodily creatures: Alfothat opinion of the 
Gentiles, and Cardanus who held that the Angels were mortaH 
and corruptible creatures ; both thcfe are here dif covered to be 
erroneous. "For thefirftis builded on a grofTe conceipt , that 
the fire of hell is clementall and corporcall fire; which, as it bur- 
ned] and confumeth bodily fubftances, over which it hath 
power ; fo it in time wafteth it felfe, and goeth out : but indeed 
the fire of Hell is the fire of Gods wrath, which burnethand 
tormenteth worfc then elcmentarie fire; but confumeth not, 
neither fhall ever be quenched , as our Saviour teftifieth. The 
fecond opinion is alfo confuted by thcfe doctrines, which have 
proved Angels to be fpirits or fpirituallfubftances;which, though 
they may bee ftained with fin; yet they cannot bcedhTolved, 
as men are in death by the reparation of foule and body; nor 
corrupted, as mens bodies are m the grave; but the cvill An- 
gells ihall live in cternall torment, and their fubftance ftiall ne- 
ver be corrupted and confumed , and the holy and blefled An- 
gels are immortall and (hall live in glory for ever , and there 
lhall be no end of their bkuednefle, 

H 3 Chap 

p 4 0/ the Creation of the Earth, 

Chap. V. 

Of the Creation of the Earth. The names whereby it is called. Pro- 
perties efit. *s?ll creatures have being of God; with Ffes. The 
World is aU mutable , and appointed fo to be : Vfes. The creation 
and redemption of the World, wherein thej refemble one another-. 
Vfes. The holy Ghofi is of one and the fame nature with the lather 
and the Sonne \ 


'He Second thing created next after the higheft heaven, with 
the inhabitants thereof the Angels , is the Earth , as my 
Gen. i.2* text here faith in thefe wordes, and the Earth. But wee mult 
not here underftand by Earth,th\s earth or drie- land upon which 
Mohlw menanc * bcafts doe live, and move, and have their being; and 
* ar €re which is beautified and adorned With trees , plants, greene 
herbesand flowers; and replenished with-ftones and metals of 
all forts : For that was created together with the waters of 
the Sea , and brought into forme and replenifhcd in the third 
day, as appeares in the, <?. io. n. verfes of this Chapter. But 
here by Earth , wee arc to underfiand a certaine rude matter and 
maffe without forme and void 3 out of which God made all the 
mferiour vifibie World ,and all things therein contained; fothe 
wordes following in the fecond vcrfe plainely (hew : The earth 
was without forme and void , and darkness was upon the face 
cfthe deep. Now that wee may know what creature this Earth 
was,wee are to csonfider thefe 3 things; Firft, the feverall names 
by which it is called. Secondly, the properties by which it is 
dcicribed. Thirdly, the meancs by which it was upheld in 
being, and difpofed to bee the common matter of all other vi- 
fibie things created afterwards. 
T^tnames Firft, the names by which it is called are three , 1 JTNjthe 
©fit. earth. 2 D'Hn, the deep. 3 O^P, waters. Firft it is called the 

earth becaufe of the groffenefle , unmoveablenefTe, and impurity 
of it. For the earth is of all elements moft grofTe,heavy , impure, 
and confufed, not fit to move out of the place wherein it is; rnoft 
untraceable and not ready to apply it felfc to any other thing, and 




J be names whereby Earth is called. $> 5 

hard to bcc turned into the forme of other things without la- 
bour and working of it. This firft; rude and' informed mafle 
which God created out of nothing, is here declared by this 
name, Earth>to have bcene,like the earth, very impure and con- 
f ufed,dull and unfit for motion, resembling., at the firft, the earth 
rather then any purer element. 

Secondly ,it is called Dinn, the <%>,hereaifo in the text,which 2^ 
word fignifies a great deep or devouring guife,as it were of 
troubled waters, alfo troubled and confounded with mixture of 
mud and my re; which,though in refpecl of the troubled mixture 
and confafion it hath a rcfembhncc of earth, yet it is tottomleiTe, 
there is no folidity in it,no ground or flay to bee found at alUThus 
much the Hebrew word fignifies according to the notation and 
common ufe of it. 

Thirdly , it is called D^H, wsttrs, alfo in this text, becaufe 
of the waterifh flexibility which was in it; by meanes of which 
it was unliable and unfettled, and alfo becaufe it was an huge 
deep like the great wators of the Sea, Now it may fecme ftrangc, 
that this one and the fame rude maiTe fhould bee like earth, and 
like a bottomlefle depth of myre or quick-land, and like waters, 
all at once;which arc things different and unlike one to ano- 
ther , cfpccially the thinne flowing element of water, and the 
grofTe , dullj unmoveable earth. And therefore the learned Ex- 
politors labour thus to qualifie the meaning of the words; 
they fay it was a confufed mafle, even the matter of all the ele- 
ments mingled together; and becaufe the earth and water are the 
mod grofle and impure, and did mod of all appeare in it, there- 
fore it is called earth and water, and the deep, which is a mixture 
of both. But in viewing , reviewing, and (ifcing the words 
thoroughly,! haveobferved funethingover & above that which 
by reading I could obferve in others; to wit, that this rude 
mafle was not fuffered to lye idle one moment from the firft 
creation , and bringing of it into being out of nothing; but being 
a meere unformed mafle orChaos,it had at the firft a ref emblance 
of?4rt6,becaufe the grofle matter of the earth was {o mingled and 
confounded in it , that it ehiefely appeared in the upper face oi 
it, and fo it fcemed grofle and earthy, and is firft called Earth. 
Secondly, by the operation of the ipirit of God cherii*hin^ and 

H 4 moving 

96 The earth in the bt^tnnhg without fatnritj&c* 


moving it, the groiTethicke matter fettling downward toward 
the center , it became immediatly in the upper face of it like a 
dtep rmre or quick-land, which more inclines to water then 
earth, and hath no ground ,ftay or bottome in it; and therefore in 
the fecond place it is called the deep. Thirdly, God making 
the earthy matter to finke and fettle downward ftill more and 
more, all the upper face of it became morethinne and fluid,like 
unto impure waters; and thereupon in the third place it is called 
the waters : though indeed , there was neither perfect water, 
nor eartrf, but a confufed matter without forme and void, out 
of which all vifible things were formed. Thus much the names 
{hew unto us concerning this mafic, which I propounded as the 
firft thing. 
Properties The fecond thing is the consideration of the Properties by 
of ic. which it is defcribed ; for it is faid to be Tohu and Bohny and that 
darkneffe was upon the upper face of it. 

Firft , it is faid to bee inn Tohu, that is ^without forme, even 
a thing imperfect , which had neither the nature, nor fubftance, 
nor naturall (hape or property of any perfecT creature. 
2. Secondly , it is called "TO Bohu, void; it had in it no formed 

creature of any kindeto fill and repleniflvit; for this word is 
ufed to fignifie the emptineffe and utter defolation of a land 
wholly depopulated & laid wafte,and of a Citie brought to ruine 
having nothing left butheapes of ruined Walls , Ifa. 34. 1 r.and 

2 Thirdly , it is faid to bee all darkneffe in the upper face of it; 

tUrkneftcwM upon the face of the deep. By darkneffe we arc not 
here to underftand any darke body , as aire or thick clouds 
-of darkneffe compafling it round, and over-fpreadi'ngof it, as 
the dark aire and thick mid: did the land of hgypt when God 
plagued it with darkneffe; but this is the meaning, that in this 
rude matter there was no light, neither did any appeare in the 
out -fide or upper face of it. 

Now thefe properties,by which it is defcribed, do comprehend 
in them that which in naturall philofophy is called privation^ is 
held to be a principle or beginning of natural things. For unto the 
making & generating of any bodily,creaturf or natural body there 
arc three things required as firft principles. 1 , A matter capable of 


What truant by the Spirit moYing upon the waters. 97 

fome form:, that is exprcfted in the names of earth , deep, and 
waters. 2. Privation, which is an abic-nc* or want of the tormo 
which ought to be or might bee in that matter, for to give it 
that naturall being of which it is capable, and unto which it is 
inclined. This privation of forme, and this emptincfic of all 
natural! powers and properties which are required in creatures, 
and this darkeneile which is the privation of light, they are the 
fecond principle. The third is the naturall and fubflantiall 
forme, which is that which di tinguiiheth one creature from 
another ,and gives being to every creature; that is,makes it to bee 
that which it is in the kind of it. 1 his forme God by his word 
gave to theievcrall parts of this matter, when h.e laid, Let it 
be,& it was f b. But when a matter rude, undigeited and unformed 
is inclining to fome forme, and wants it, there malt be a diipo- 
fing of the matter to receive the forme which it ought to have 
to make it a pet feci creature hi his kind, md which it yet wants 
and requires; and that working , preparing anddi (poling of 
the matter , that it may bee fit to receive the forme which 
mull per fed it. And this dilpoiing of the common and rude, 
matter of all the viable World is here exprcfted in thefe words 
of i ! IC text; And thefpirit ef God moved upon the face of the waters . 
Some doe here by the fpirit of God underitand lome Angela what the 
call fpirit, which God ufld and imployed to fie and prepare thisSpim mo*. 
matter to his hand -.thus Cajetan-d. llominS Cardinall.and ^choole- vingis. 
man held. Tertullian. lib. 3, contra Hcrmog. faith, that this. fpirit 
of God was a winde, by which God prepared and dit poled it. 
7*h:oderet idxhk was the aire, which moved on the upper part 
of it, Qftaft. 8. in Gencf But I conceive-all thele to beeun- 
found opinions Firft, they are confuted by the very words 
of the text, and by ail other Scriptures which afcribe the whole l§ 
workcof the creation, and the making or the World, and all 
things therein wholly, and ondy to Qod the Father, the Woni{ 
a<;d the Spirit , three Perfons in one undivided eiVence. Se* l Ioh * ** 7< ~ 
condly, it is againft allreaiou, to thuike that God, who created 2 * 
the chiefefl: and mod excellent of all his werkes the higheft 
heavens, and the Angels,the heavenly fpirits, imnacdiatly o? no- 
thing in a moment , andalfothe common matter of all thevi- 
fiblc World in an inftantj would uie,. or did imgfcy any creature 

9 3 What meant by the Spirit movi ng upon the Waters* 

to difpofe the matter and to fit it to his hand : Wherefore the 
heft expofition of theft words is that which is held generally 
by the bed learned ;to wit,that thisSpirit ofGod,here mentioned, 
is the eternall Spirit,one and the fame God with the Father and 
the Son, by whom all things were made; *nd Heeis faid hereto'*** 
move upon the face of the waters. The Hebrew word here ufed 
doth properly iigmfie the Eagles gentle fluttering with her wings 
over her young ones, thereby to cbcrijh thtm\2& appeares, Dent. 
32. 11. And here it fignifies the worke of Gods Spirit exten- 
ding his power upon this rude, confofed , unformed* and empty 
made, and gently fluking it , and caulmg the grofler parts 
to fettle do wnewards, and the morefubtle parts to gather into 
the upper place, and £0 to prepare and difpofe every part for the 
fubftantiall forme which God at length gave unto it» Thus yoa 
have the text opened . 
1 Dottr ^ rGm whence we iearne,Virft,That man and all other creatures 
•Ail crea. ' which live, and move, and have any being in the whole vifible 
zures have World, howfoever they are engendered and propagated one by 
fceing of another ,yet they have their whole fubftancc and being fromGod, 
c " od ' and he is the folecreatour and maker of them. That he made the 
firft common matter out of which they were framed, the text 
here fhewcth plainely. Alfo that the fpirit of God did prepare 
and difpofe that whole matter and every part of it, to receive 
that forme which God gave to the whole World, and every 
creature therein. And by his word he gave a fpeciaii forme and 
being to every creature after his kind, as afte; wards appeares 
throughout the whole Chapter. And hee gave the gift of ge- 
neration and propagation to every kind of creature which is 
propagated and begotten j and power to multiply^ and without 
his power afliiling and working together, no creature is formed 
at all: ib that this Dodrine is moft neceffarily gathered from 
hence: And other Scriptures-fuily conhrme it,as AEt. 1 7. 2 5,28, 
where it is faid, that m him we live, move, and have our being; 
and hee gives life, breath, and being to all : Hee hath not onely 
made the heavens, and the earth, and ail the hcit of them, and 
every thing which hath being, even all the enangaoie elements, 
andvanifhingrneteorsjin thj firft Creation, as fire, water, aire, 
earth, hailCjihow, thunder, lightening, clouds, vapours, and 


(}cd is Lord of all the (features. p 9 

the like, as wee read , Job 28. Pfalm. 33. 6. and Tfatw. i45M- 
and I/a. 66. 2. but htgb&*fr*mscvc*§ man in the womb of his 
mother; as the Pfalmtft te(ti(ieth,T/^/w. 139. 13, 14,15. and all 
children and the fruitc ofthc womb are igiftpnd bleiTi ng which 
cometh of the Lord, Pfalm. 129. 3. And reafon drawne from 
the proper name of Ged, Jehovah, proves this, that hec gives all 
being to every thing; and that as he is abfblute of himielfe, fo the 
being of every creature depends wholy on him; for fo much 
that name iigniheth,as I have eliewhere proved, 

Firir, this ferveste admoniihus* tint as wee our felvesare ff e \l 
the creatures of God, andhc is our Lord to whom wee owe our He i* then ' 
whole fubftance,being,power,ftrcngth,life,brcath, and motion, Lord of 
and are bound to imploy all to his glory : {o all other things a "* 
in the World which ferve for our ufe, or can come within our 
reach and power, are Go is workmanthip ; he is the Lord and 
Owner of them, and no man ought to ufe or imploy them, but 
by his permiMion, and in his lervice, and to his glory. There- 
fore let us devote our (elves to God, and ferve him by all 
his creatures, and for our life, breath, being,and all things,render 
duethankestohis heavenly Ma jetty, concerting that the whole 
World is his, and the rulnetfe thereof! 

Secondly, this Doclrincihewcth, that no man hath right or pfe 2 ^ 
intereft before God in any creature, or in his owne life, limbs, Allow: 
and members of his body , but by the free gift of God : Yea, "ght if 
fincc mans fall and forfeiture of his life and all things by fin, no frorn **©£♦. 
man hath right to any good thing in -the World , but in Chrift 
who is heire of alLthings, and hath by his merit and mediation 
procured the prefervation and continuance of being to man, and 
to all other things made for mans ufe. Although wicked., 
carnall, unrcgenerate men, have a common right and intereft ci- 
villy before men in their lives, goods, lands and pofleffions^yet 
before God (while they abufe their power,rich:s,and all abilities, 
to fin and to pride , and oppreflion in the lervice of their owne 
lufts) they are no better then thceves and ufurpers : And let all 
fuchlooketo it, for certainely God will call them to account, 
judge and condemnc them,as for unjuft much more 
for their profane abitfe of his creature^ and all worldly blef- 


i oo Alt change m the creature according to Gods counfell. 

i. Doftr. Secondly, in that God, who by his infinite power can make 
■fhcYVorMpcrfc&in a moment, and that immediatly out of nothing, the 
is all mu. molt excellent creatures of all, even the higheft heaven and the 
riib'.c, and Angels ; did of his ownc will, and according to his counfell, 
appointed ma ^ e a ru ^ Ci con f L1 ( ec i j imperfect and unstable matter fir ft with* 
ddtforKic, that out of it he might frame, and indeed did frame 
this whole viiible World , and all creatures therein: Hence wee 
may learne, That as all this World is mutable and inconftant; 
io the mutability and inconftancy of all viiible and natural! 
things in this World , is a thing which God purpofed and fore- 
{hewed in the creation of them; and all alterations and changes 
whick arc found in them, are according to the counfell of his 
will, and hee alone doth over- rule ,order and difpoicthcm.Many 
Scriptures prove this fully in all parts. Wile Solomon fheweth 
fit large that all worldly things are fivb/ecT: to continuall changes, 
Ecclef. i; 4 5. 6 . and David, Tfalm 102,26. teilifieth of the 
viiible heavens, which are the moft durable parts of the inferiour 
World, that they fhall perifb , and (hill waxe old as doth a gar- 
ment, and as a vefturc God iliali change them, and they {"hall be 
changed, and 7/4.40. 7. all HcJli is (aid tc bee as grajfe which 
•withereth, and the glory thereof as the flower of the Field which 
fadeth ; and 2 ret. 3. 10. 1 1. the ApohTc amrmes, that the 
heavens (hall pafe away with a noyfe, and the elements fhall 
melt with heat , and the Earth with all things therein /ball bee. 
bumf, and that it is God who over-ruleth,ordereth,and difpofeth 
all mutations , and changes in the World. David alfo llieweth, 
Tfalm 104. 2p. 30. that nh;n God hideth his face, all living crea- 
tures are troubled^ when hee taketh away, their breath they dye, and 
are turned into their du ft: and Pftlm 46. 6. Hee faith, that, when 
Codutterethhis vnce, the Earth melteth, and TWf 8. Come and 
behold the worlds of the Lord, how h:c difpofeth deflations in the 
Earthimd 7/4.24. 1. the Prophet faith, Bihcldthe Lord will empty 
tie Earth , ani lay it wafle; hee will ov Tturne the face of it, and 
d'fpcrfe thsm th<t dwell therein. Jt is God who pulleth dmme 
the mighty , and exalteth the humble andmeeke, 1. Sam. 2. Hee 
reflraines the waters, and rivers arc dnednp. Hcefendeth them out y 
a nd t r jey overt urtte the Earth ; Hee breaketh do wne y and it cannot bee 
built againc; l,eleadcthcotmfellorsawayfpoiled } aud mak^th judges 


All changes are ordtred by Gods wifedtme. \ o i 

fooles\ hee rcmoveth away thefpeech of the trttftie , andtakcth away 
the under/landing oftheaged- y hee pnivreih out contempt upon princes , 
and weakemth the ftrengtb of the might jr, Id 12. 14. 15. 17. 
20, 21. 

This Dofrrine fervcs to admonilTi us not to put (ruft or con- yr \ 
fidence in any worldly thing; not in the earth, nor any creatures TrufUot 
in it; not in the face of the heavens, nor in the Sun, taoone, and in any 
Starrcs , becaufe all are fo mutable and changable. A faire Sun- earthly 
(hine morning may bee turned into a tempeltiious day of haile thin S« 
and rainc. When the Sun is rifeh up moft gloriouily in the mor- 
ning upon Sodome,and the countries of the plaine; before noone 
they maybeedeftroyed by a fhower of fire and brimftonc, and 
fruitfull lands may quickly bee turned into defarts, 1 and barren 
wildemelTe. The Sun itfelfe mayftand in the midlV of his 
courfe, and may bee turned backe when hee. is going dpwne. 
Wherefore Ictus not trull: in decciptfuil vanities, but (till re- 
member that of the holy Pf Imift, O put not your trufi m princes, 
nor in any child of mm, for there u no helpe in them, Pjalm: 1.46. 3, 
and that of the Prophet leremie, Curfedu the man that truftcth 
%n man >an d make thfiejh his armejer. IJ.$. 

Secondly, though there happen many changes and great con- yr 1 
fufion in the World , yet let us here take notice , that they come j^k*'' 
not by chance ; and alhvayes acknowledge, they are in the changcTiii 
will and power of God, and are ordered and difpoied by his the World 
over-ruling wifedome. If to the wicked enemies and perfe- to come by 
cutorsofGods Church changes c^mefor vvorfe , to their con- chance * 
fufion, and overturning of their power; letns fee Gods hand 
therein , and let us give him the praife for working our delive- 
rance, and avenging our caufe on our enemies. If changes come 
to our felves, and our peace bee turned into trouble and danger; 
let us humble our fclves , asunder Gods hand. If ouradveriity 
bee turned into profperity, let God have all thethankes. If 
wee fee juft caufe to feare great changes in Church or State^ 
let us flie to God for helpe, ftrength, courage 3 and patience , and 
betake our felves to his protection , that wee may reft iafely 
under the (hadowes of his wings. 

The third point of do&rine, which wee may obferve from 
the Spirit of^God movjpg upon the waters , chcrifhing and 


1 o z Ibe fimilmde cf Creation and ^aemptwru 

•imilitude fitting the unformed mafle to receive a perfect being and perfect 
* ths formes of vifibie creatures, doth (hew the concord and perfeel: 
anjMU- ^ l ^i tL1 ^ c which is between the worke of creation, by which 
^cmptlon # God formed all things by his word and Spirit; and the workc 
" of reftauration and redemption of mankind , by which he re- 
formes them by Chrift and by his Spirit, and brings them to fu- 
pernaturall perfection and blciTednelTc. As in the creation, God 
by his Spirit ch criming the rude matte did prepare, and fit every 
part thereof to receive a perfect forme and naturall being: fo 
in the reftoring of man kind, being deprived of his image and 
deformed, God doth by his Word, and by his Spirit fhed 
on us through Chrift „ regenerate, renue , rcforme and 
prepare us for the fruition of himfelfe, and doth fit, and prepare 
ns for fupernaturall perfection and bleiTednefle. As in E^ecbiels 
vifion, the wind from God did move and (hake the drie bona 
Scattered upon the face of the earth, and fitted them by flelli and 
skinne to receive life , and to (land up living men in perfect; 
flrength and ftature : So, by the word and Spirit of God, men 
dead and rotten in finnes and (in full corruption, are, by the Spi- 
rit of God breathed through Chrift , renucd after his image, 
and fitted by the life of grace , for the etemall life of glory, 
Ezecb. 37. The Spirit of God ( as our Saviour teftifieth ) is like 
the wind, which blowetb where it lijietb: it is bee, which doth 
frame us after Gods image in our new birth, lob. 3, s> 8. and 
fits us for the Kingdome of glory. Wee areas farre from God, 
and from Chrift, and as void of his image and of ail Spirituall life, 
as the rude maffc was of all forme in the firft creation; until! 
the Spirit of God bee given to us in Chrift to dwell in us ,and 
renue us % as the Apoftlc (hew cth, Row. 8. p. 13. Ephef. 2.18. 22. 
and Tit. 3. 5 <<. 
ys \ \Vhcrefore,as weeddireto be made like unto Chrift in the 

f/ ^- # image of glory, and to fee, and enjoy God in his heavenly 
Kingdom, where all fulnefle of perfection and blefiedneiTe is to 
bee found ; So let us by the confideration of this Doctrine bee 
itirred up to thirft after the river of the water of life, even the 
gifts and graces of the holy Ghoft, and never reftfatisfied, till 
wee fcele within us the tcftimony of the Spirit of Chrift wit- 
neffirig with our Spirits that wee we the children of God, 


No calumny mujl difcosr.tge the godly. 1 05 

and till wee feele our felves fanctified throughout both in foulc 
and body, and holincffc engraven upon our hearts without which 
none can iecGod. 

Secondly, feeing the Spirit of God is he who prepares men Vfe i* 
for fupematurall perfection, and there is no communion to be 
had with Chrift, nor participation of his merits and faving 
benefits to lalvation , except men have the Spirit of God 
dwelling in them, and of profane and carnall fons of Adam, 
making them holy, and fpirituallfonsofGod; Let us not count 
it any fhamc or reproach to us, that profane mockers of thefe 
laft times doe, in mockery and derifion,call us Jpiritttall fnerr, 
whoafcribe all good motions which are in us to tbeSpiritofGcd 
d welling in us,& directing us in ail our wayes.We doe not deny, 
but that all Enthuilafts , and other men of fanaticall Spirit,doe 
mod profanely, and fkrilegioufly Father their owne fanfies, 
and lultfull motions on the Spirit of God, and therein deferve 
reproach and derifion: but let men take heed, that they doe not, 
by loathing their hypocrifie and arrogancy, runne into Atheifme 
and blaiphemous impiety, by rejecting and denying the Spirits 
dwelling in all Gods regenerate children , working in them all 
faving graces, and moving them to walke in the holy wayes 
of God which lead unto fupernaturall perfection and etcrnall 
blefledneflc. For , raoft ccrtaine it is that as the firft rude matter 
of the vihble World was fuftaincd and cherifhed by the Spirit 
of God moving upon the face of it, and was net otherwife able 
to fubfift,or to bee formed into divers creatures, every one made 
perfect in their kind with naturall perfection : fo the perfect 
ttabilitie of man, in an happie unchangable eltate ; yea the per- 
fection of the vihble World made for mans ufe, is the work of 
the holy Ghoft uniting man to to God in Chair , and 
gathering and reconciling all things unto God in him , who 
is the head over all. Although man and all creatures (as ap- 
pcares in the laft verfe of this Chapter ) were created eveiy 
one good and perfc& in hiskind> with naturall perfection : yet 
manthechicfe , and the Lord of them all , having not as yet 
the holy Ghoft (hed on him through Chri(t,as all the regenerate 
and faithfull have , was mutable , and in that honourable cftate 
ofinnocency hee did not ftandl and abide, but did full from it: 

very 1 

i o 4 (brifls livings not efficacious to the ^regenerate. 

very quickly after that the Woman was created and given to 

him, as wee read Chap. 3. yeahee did not lodge one mght therein^ 

rPfalme 49. 12. and by Mans finfull fail and corruption, the whole 

frame of the vifible World was made iubject to vanity , and 

groaneth under it as under an intolerable burden, and with 

eameft longing waitech for deliverance and reftitution to an 

higher cftate in the glorious libertic ofthe fons of God, Rom. 

All whom 8. 19. ao. And although thecternall Word, the Son of God, 

Clniit had undertaken for man in the cternall counfell of the bleiled 

f3VCS a k C " Tr initio, and did ftep in to mediate for man, and in the firft pro- 

d'eS ml * e ma ^ c u P on mans ^ was ? roc ^ me ^ to DCC Ac oncly and 
• ' all-iutticient Redeemer , and was fully exhibited in the flefh, 
and became a perfect Redeemer in his death and refurrection; 
io that in him is plenteous redemption, and matter fuiricient to 
nierit more then man loft by fin , even heavenly glory and im- 
mortality : yet all this profits nothing without the work of the 
Spirit. Chrift with allhisfufferings, and obedience unto death, 
and all his righteonfneiTc, and fulfilling of the law ; are as a 
Tountaine ieaied up, and treafures hid, and locked up in dark- 
nefle ; fo that none can partake of him or them for re- 
demption and falvation without communion ofthe holy Ghoft; 
which God in our regeneration doth flied on us aboundantly 
through Chrift. This Spirit dwelling in Chrift and the faith- 
full, makes them one myfticali body with Chrift, fons and heircs 
of God; makes his fatisfaction their ranfomc for actuall re- 
demption and reconciliation , and his righteoufnes their 
righteoufhes for /unification. This Spirit alfo doth renuethem 
after the image of God, and trans formes them into the image 
of Chrift in all hohneffe, that they may bee fit to fee and enjoy 
God 5 and thus hec brings them to the fruition of perfect blct 
fedneile , and to the inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, 
which never fadeth : And Gods bie/fings arc through Chrifts 
mediation poured out upon all creatures for their fakes : And 
hereupon it is , that all gifts and graces , which tend to make 
men perfect and unchangably blefied, are afcribed to the Spirit, 
as wifedome,knowledge,£uth, hope, love, meekeneflc, patience, 
courage, ftrengib, prayer, and in a word all holinefle and per- 
fection : and whensoever God is faid to give any of thefe gifts 


All gifts and graces are the Ttorke of the Spirit. t o 5 

to men in an eflfe&uall and faving manner and mcafurc, hee is 
faid to give them the Spirit ofgr*ce> y^ifedome^ z,-aU and ftepplica- 
tioHy as appeares If*. 1 1 . 2. Zach. i a. 10. Yea common illumi- 
nation and all extraordinary iiipcrnaturall gifts, which are given 
to unrcgenerate reprobates for the revealing of Chrift, as the gift 
of prophecic to Bafoam and S*u/ 9 and the change of heart 
in S*ul from cowardly pusillanimity, to fortitude and magna- 
nimity;thc gift of miracles to Indu; alio illumination, t*ft of the 
h:*venlj gift, joy in the holy Word of God, given to back- 
fliders, Hcb. 6. arc the workeofthe holy Ghoft, aflifting them 
and infpiring them from without , fjr the Churches good; not 
inwardly dwelling and working in them for their owne falva- 
tion. Wherefore let us count it no reproach that wee have no 
hope of being in an happy and blcflcd eftate, no afTurancc that 
wee are in the way to perfection, till wee feeiethe Spirit of 
God dwelling and working in us , moving our hearts, and son- 
forming us to the image of Chrift ; and that wee rejoyce in this, 
and this is our glorying that wee are not carnall but fpirituall. 
They, who think it enough, for the obtaining of perfection 
and iaivation, to know, beleevc, and profeffe, that in Chrift there 
is as fufficicnt matter of fatisfaction for the redeeming of all 
mankind; as there was in the rude made without forme, matter 
enough for the whole vifible World and all creatures therein, 
doc much deceive themfelves; for many who know and bclccve 
all this doc perifh ; and none are faved or perfected by Chrift, 
but onely they who arc by the Spirit dwelling in them united 
to Chrift, and regenerated and rcnued after his image. This 
Spirit is the earned ofour inheritance, and witneffeth to us our 
adoption; hee makes us new creatures and a free willing people, 
hee fanctifieth us to bee an holy Temple for himfclfe to dwell 
in, purgeth out finfull corruption , mortifieth the deeds of 
the flclhjfo that fin cannpt rcignc in our mortal! bodies. 

There is one thing more, which I may not paiTe over here in a D ftr 4 
filencc , to wit , that this text doth prove plainely, that the 
Spirit of God, the third perfon in the Trinity, is one and the 
fame God with the Father and the Son, of the fame uncreated 
nature and fubftancc, the almighty Creatour,and Prefervcrofall 
things in heaven and in earth, vifible and invifible. To firtaine? 

I a rude 

io6 Ihe Spirit the famelith the Father and the Son. 

a rude matter without forme and void, and to make it fubfift, is a 
worke of power, farrc above the power of any thing created; 
and to compaffc and comprehend the Whole matter and made 
of the viftble World ; and to aflift and cherirhby prcfent vertue 
every part thereof at once,is a ftrong argument and plaine proofc 
of divine and infinite power and omnipotency,proper to Jehovah 
the one onely true God; and all this is here teftified of the Spi- 
rit of God in thefe words, and the Spirit of God moved upon ths 
face of the waters > that is (as the Hebrew word fomo, Mcrachc- 
pheth, and here ufed in thcoriginall ngnirieth) did fit upon and 
chenjh that mightie maffe, as an hen doth fit upon and cher- 
ifhheregges, that they may bee formed into chickens. There- 
fore the Spirit of God is here proved to bee one and the lame 
God with the father and the Son, and the almighty Creatour, 
former and preferver ofthe whole World, and all things there- 
in. To which purpofe the Scriptures alfo fpeake fully in other 
places, where the heavens and the hoft of them are faid to bee . 
made by the Word and Spirit of God, as Pfalme 33.6. and that 
when God fends out his Spirit, things are created,as Pfalme 104. 
30. and that God by his Spirit gamijhed the heavens , lob 26.13. 
and that hee isprelent by his preferving and fuftaining power 
in all places, Tfalme 1 $9.7. which places prove the Spirit of God 
to bee Jehovah the Creatour and Former of all things , and 
the true God , in whom wee all live, move y and have our 
yr This point , which I have proved and confirmed by many 

■'*' other firong arguments already, in my difcourfe ofthe Tri- 
nitie; as it difcovers the defperate malice, impudency, and A- 
theifme ofthe Remonftrants, the Difcipks of Socinus, and Ar- 
minius, who call into queftion the Deitie ofthe holy Ghoft 
and his unitie, with the Father and the Son, and his right to bee 
prayed unto and worfhipped with Divine wedhip: fb it is of 
fingular comfort to the faithfull , whofe bodies are Temples of 
the holy Ghoft,in that it aflurcs them that God is their portion, 
and dwells in them, and they arc begotten of his feed in re- 
generation, and are partakers ofthe Divine nature, and heaven 
is their inheritance, 


Of the creation of Light \ 07 

Chap. VI. 

Of thejfrftdayis worke. IV rat t lie light was. tvhat itu t Cod [aid, 
Let there be light. How he called the light) day> and the darkened 
night. Of a day natural/ and avill. That the night was before 
the day. How a day wot before the Sunnc was. Prerogatives of 
thefrfi day. 

VErf. 3 ,4, 5 . And Godfaid t Let there be tight ,and there was light; Gen. Y. 
AndGodfaw the light that it was good. And God divided the 
light from the darkneffe. And God called the light day^ and the darks 
ntffe hee called night, and the evening and the morning were the fir ft 

After that darknefle had continued upon the face of the dccp 9 
and the whole matter of this inferiour World had remained 
full of darkneiTe for the fpace of one night , God by his power" 
full Word created Light , the firft perfect creature and clement 
ofthevifible World, and commanded it to fiine out of darknefle ; zQq U *6, 
and this was the morning of the firft day. In tha words wee 
may obfervc thefe fourc things : Firft, the creation of light in 
the 3. verf. Secondly, Gods approbation of it in thefe words, 
God faw the light that it was good. Thirdly, Gods feparation of 
it from the darknefle, verf.^. Fourthly, Gods nomination or na- 
ming of the light yday t and the darknefle night 3 and fo compounding 
thefe two, light and darkneiTe , into the firlt whole day of the 
World, verf. 5. 

In the firft thing, which is the creation c flight, the firft of 
all perfect creatures in this vifible World , two things come to 
bee fifted and examined for our right undemanding thereof 
Firft , the thing created, Light , what is thereby here meant. 
Secondly, the manner of creating it, Godfaid> Let light bee, and it 
was fo. 

Concerning the flrft , I find divers and feverall opinions ofwhattfce 
the learned. Saint Auguftine lib, 1. liter am cat. 5. Light was. 
and Rupertus lib, 1. de Trtnit, cap. 10. doe by this light un- 
derftandthc highclUieavens , and the Angels, which arc not a 

I 2 cor- 

io8 Opinions of Fathers concernm? this Light, 

corporeall but a fpirituali light ; but this cannot bcc the truth, 
for this light isfaidto bee that which is called the day, and is 
oppofed to the darkgefle efths night here in this mutable and vi- 
fiblc World; the mining whereof doth diuinguifh day from the 
night, which cannot bcc laid of the Angels and the higheft hea- 
vens , which were not made out of darkneffe , nor out of the 
rude unformed made as this light was, which God commanded 
to fhine out of darkneffe as the*" Apoftle faith, 2 Cor. 4. 6. 

Secondly, others ,ss Beda t Ljra, and Lombard, doe by this Tight 
under ftand a bright cloud carried about, and making a difference 
of day and night. 

Nazianztne znd Theodore? doc think , that it was the fame 
light, which now is in the Sohj Moone, and Starres,fubfifting at 
the firft in one bodie, and afterwards divided into feverall 
parts when God rnsde the Sun, Moone, and Starrcs out of 

Bajil thought that it was a light without a fubjccT. Aquinas, 
that it was the light of the Sun made impcrfed at the firit; and 
ofthis opinion is P*vriair alfo. 

Catharlnus held, that it was the Sun it felfe, made firft of all; 
which is dircdtly contrary to the expreffe words of the 16* 
ttcrf. which affirme, that the Sun was made the fourth day. 
Juntas, by lightjherc under ftands the element of fire. 
In this variety of opinions, 1 hold it the beft, and fiireft way 
of rinding out the truth, to feekeitout of the word ufedinthe 
originall text. The Hebrew word f!TW., Or) which is here 
tranflated Light, (befidesthe tiqpicall and fpirituali fenfes, in 
which it is ufed in thofe Scriptures which eallGod the light 
in whom U no darknc fje > and the light and falvation of his people; 
and doe call Gods regenerate people light m the Lord) doth 
more properly fignific two things : Virft, that naturall bodie 
orfubftarcc 3 which among all the parts and creatures of the 
vifible World is moft bright and mining in it fcife, and gives 
light to others; as forexample,thc Sun, Moone, and Starrcs, arc 
called Lights, Pfalme 136. 7. and the clement of fire, is called 
by this namcT^N, Light, Eztch.j.z. Secondly, it (ignifics, and 
that moft frequently in the Scripture 3 thc light,that is,the mining 
brightneflc of the heavens, and of the Sun, Moone, and Starres, 


W bat the Light wo*. 1 09 

and of the element of fire burning in a lamp or torch , or other 
combultiblc matter. Here I &oz not take the word in this 
latter ienfc, oncly for a iluningbrightneile ; for then God had 
created an accident or quality without a fubjed;, which is a thing 
againft nature of things created; for common reaibn and experi- 
ence (hew, that never did any quahtie fubiift of it fclfe with- 
out a fubftancc ; by courfe of nature no light caiibebutmfome 
created body,as in the heavens,fire,or aire. But here by light wee 
are to underitand , of neceffity , iome notable part of this great 
frame of the vifible World, which God hriHramed out of the 
rude mafic, which was without forme and void, before mentio- 
nedjyea that part, which is mod bright,lliining and rcfplendent; 
and doth by light and brightnefle, which is naturall in it, thine 
forth and enlighten other things. Now that cannot bee any 
ofthefe lower elements, the water and the earth, for they have 
no fnch light in them; and befides, it is manifeft, that they were 
formed out of the groiTeft and moft dark part of the common 
mafle, on the third day, verf.9. Neither can it bee the fpacious 
region of the aire, which is extended and fp.rcad abroad farre 
and wide, over all the round globe of the earth and the waters, 
and reacheth up to theetheriall region of the vifible heavens, 
even to the fphxre of the Moone, and is called the lowed heaven, 
or D'OH "pro 1PJTI, that is , the broad expanfion or firmament 
in the midft of the waters : "For that was formed the fecond 
day, as appeares in 6.j.$.verf. It mult needs therefore bee 
the firmament of the vifible heavens, which is called D'E&H 
IPplj The Urge And farre firetched firmament of the midle hea- 
ven, even the fiery or etheriall region, wherein God, on tke 
feurthday, formed andfet the great lights of the Sun, Moone, 
'and Starres, verjl 14. 16. For, firft thole heavens were framed 
and made of the moft pure, and refined part of the mafic, which 
is the common matter of the vifible World, and Arc moft bright 
and flrining, full oflight and brightneile ; and undoubtedly as in 
place and order, they are the next to the higheft hcavens,ib they 
were created next after them in the firft day, and are here calbi 
by the name of Light, becaufe all the light of this viiible World 
is in them, and from them (hincth into the aire and giveth light 
upon the earth. Secondly, there is no particular mention macU 

I 3 k* . 

1 1 o Sevsraii opimm concerning the ^vifibk Heavens. 

by UWofes in this Chapter of the framing of thefe heavens,among 
all the works of the lix daye«,except it bee in this word Light; 
and it is mod incredible that hee would omit the creation of 
them which a r e the mod excellent and glorious part of the 
vilible frame of the World, efpcci ally feeing hee doth cxaclly 
and particularly name, and relate the creation of all other parts, 
and the day wherein they were created. 

I am 'not ignorant, that tAriftotlc, and the moft learned na- 
tural! rhilofophers of his feel:, did hold, that the vifible heavens 
areeternall and unchangable, and of a matter and fubfta nee dif- 
ferent from the foure elements, fire, aire, water, and earth; and 
were not made of the fame common matter. Alio divers learned 
Chriftians and Schoolemen doe thinke, that thefc heavens were 
created together with thehigheft heavens immediatly of no- 
thing , in the beginning when time fir ft began to bee , and are 
mentioned in the firft vcrfe; and the light, which is here faid 
to bee made, is the element of fire; the naturall place and region 
whereof, the Philofopbers held to bee next under the vifible hea- 
vens, and above the aire: their reafons are two efpccially; The 
firft, becauie there is no other mention of the creation of the 
firie clement in all this Chapter. The fecond is, becaufe the 
fire is the moft pure clement, and full of light*. But thefe things 
are not of ftreigth to overthrow our expolition. Firft, for the 
opinion of the rhilofophers , that the vifible heavens are immu- 
table and cannot beeduTolved, it is contradicted by the expreffe 
words of holy Scripture, Pfalrm 102. 26. and 2 Pet, 3. 10. 
ffifc wee findeby experience many changes in thofe heavens; 
as new Star res & Comets appearing for a time & after vaniftung,. 
The Sun and yioonzftoodftill for the fpace of a whole day, /0/£, 
1.0. and the Sun went backjizn degrees, 2 King, 20. Secondly, 
the vertue and influence which is in the vifible heavens, and is 
from them naturally communicated to the lower elements, 
fheweth plainely that they all arc of one common matter. 
Thirdly, that they were not made at once of nothing with the 
higheft heavens, appeares by this, that the Sun, Moone, and 
Stars,which are the chiefeft parts and ornaments in them, were 
created after the firft rude matter, and fecondarily formed out 
of it on the fourth day* 


7be <vifibk Heavens are of afirie ft&Jlance. i 1 1 1 

m Fourthly, that the vifible heavens arc indeed the pure clement 
of fire, which is here called Light, and that the creation of the 
light is the creation of them,and of the firie element all in one , 
may eafily bee proved by divers reafons. Firft , by the light 
and fervent heat , which flowes from them into things below, 
by meancs whereof they doe beget firie meteors and lighte- 
ningsintheaire, and fcorching fumes, and burning flames in 
the earth, as dayly experience teacheth. Secondly ,by the burning 
and coniiiming tires , which delcended from thole heavens in 
the deftruclion of Sodom , and when the Lord came downe on 
mount Stnah to give the Law , and when EUah con fumed the 
captaincs and their fifties , i King, i, and was anfvvered by 
fire, which confumed his facrificc, i King. 18. Thirdly, that 
thefe heavens are of a fierie Jubilance , and indeed the puree- 
lcmcnt of fire , and that in the diflblution of them, when the 
Lord by his mighty voice fhall rend them and diflolvethera 
at the lad day, and mingle them with the inferiour elements; 
they (hall bee all on fire,and in flames and fiafhes fhall pafle away 
with a noyfe, and melt the elements w r ith fervent heat^nd burne 
the earth with all the works that are therein; the Apoftle doth 
affirmc in plaine words, iPet.i.\ 1. 12. If they werenotof 
a firie lubftance made out of the rude mane, but of an higher 
and fuper- elementary nature created immediatly out of nothing, 
together with the higheft heavens, they could not bee diffolved 
and fet on fire. Thus you fee the tint thing opened, 1^. what 
is here meant by Light. 

The next thing is the manner of creation; exprefled in thefe Of Gc«!s 
words, God/aid) Let there bee light, and there was light J will not tying. Let 
here trouble my difcourfe with need leilequeft ions, which are hghebc. 
moved by divers ancient Writers, and not cleared concerning 
the manner of Godsfpeech when He /aid, Let there bee light} 
as whether it were a bodily and audible voice, or a fpirituall, 
and the like. Certainly it was no found of voice , nor any 
forme of words or fpeech by which God formed the light: 
It was the ad of his Almighty power, by which he formed, 
and brought into a&uall being the light and every other 
thing, even lb as hee had decreed from all eternitic. Now the 
Spirit of God doth here eapreffc this powerfull act by thenamc 

I 4 of 

1 1 2 The manner of the treat ion of Ltg t . 


of faying oj: fpcaking,for 3 . reafons ; Fir(l,becaufe as the fpeech 
and word or a wife man theweth bis niindeand declarcthhis 
will, fo by this a A of power, by which the light and every other 
thing was formed , God did fhew and declare his eternall 
counfell, purppfe and decree concerning the nature and bein<^ 
of them. Secondly, becauie God the Father by his eternall Word, 
the Son, who is one God with himfelfe, did forme and make 
the light and all other things created, as appeares, Ioh. 1.3. and 
Co/of. 1. 1 6, and Hebr. 1. 2. Thirdly, |o fhew, that the creation 
of the World, and all things therein, was a worke as eafieto 
God,asit is for a man to fpeake a word and to command a thing 
to bee done; and that God by his power omnipotent,and power- 
foil and mighty word and command , can as quickly bring into 
being the greateft things, andperforme whatfoever hewilleth 
and purpoleth with moreeafe , then man can fpeakcand fay, 
Let this thing be. This is the true fenfeof the words, wherein 
the manner of creation is expreifed. 

The fecond thing after the creation o flight is Gods appro- 
bation of it, in thefe words,. And God faw the light that it was 
good: That is, fuchas God purpofed to make the light, fuchit 
was when heehad made it ; there was no dcfecT in the makings 
or in the thing made ; but God did fee and know it perfecT in 
the kind thereof, and did approve it to bee good , profitable 
and' ufeftill, every way, for thepurpofes which hce inten- 

The third thing is Gods dividing between the light and the 
darknciie which did over-fpread the face of the deep, and pof- 
feffed all the rude maffe which yet remained without forms 
and void. This dividing between them, was nothing elfcbut 
Godsfctting and placing of the fine and lliining vifible heaven 
in the fupcriour place above the confulcd matter which was full of 
darknefie, and fettled downe in the inferiour place where now 
the inferiour elements are 

The fourth thing is Gods nomination of the light and dark- 
neife , and compofing the firft day of the evening , that is, the 
fpace wherein the darkneife remained over all the deep before 
light was created out of it; and of the morning, that is,,thc fpace 
M'heiein light appeared before God let upon the fecond dayes 


Why the Light call'dDay^ami tbeBarfatffiyNtgbt. 1 1 } 

worke, and made the firmament. This is exprefled verf. 5. God 
called the Light Day^vid the Darkneffe he calledXight^O' the evening 
and mormrrgrvere the firfi day. Here for our right una" Cf (landing 
of this point, divers doubts and queftions come to bee touched 
andbriefely anfwered. 

The rirft is, how and in what fenfe God is faid to call the light *'Ji* e fti 
D aj^and the darkgeffe Night. The true and full anfwer is this, Anf. 
that Cjod did not onely call the light Say, and darknefle Night: 
but alio did ordaine and appoint , that the time of' light fhould 
bee the day, and the time of darknefle fhould bee the night, and 
that they fhould bee ib accounted and called. 

The iecond is y why God called onely the light day , an&.i.gxefi* 
Mofes calls both the evening and the morning , that is , the 
time of light and darkneflc one day ,.or the firft day. 

I anfwere, that Gods day,which is moil truly and properly fo Anf» 
called, is the time oflight,and in it [their is no night or darkneflc, 
For God fpeakes of a naturall day di&inft from*he night: but 
Mofes fpeakes of a civill day which comprehends in it the 
ipace of 24, houres ,. in which the Sun runnes round about 
the World with the heavens; which day includes in it a day 
and a night:and here obfervc that Gods day is all light, and mans 
day is mixt of light and darknefle. , 

Thirdly ,it may asked whether the night,rr the day went be- 3 •<*<*'/**• 
fore in the firft day of the creation. A f 

The Anfwer is, that the night or time of darknefle wasfirfl »• An J^ 
and it is likely that darknefle didovcr-fpread the face of the deep 
thefpace of a night , that is 12. houres, before God formed the 
light, and fetled the vilible heavens in their place; and that 
after the light was created, it did fhine forth for the ipace 
of 1 2 . houres more before God went about to make the firma- 
ment, which was the fecond dayes work; and fo the firft day cf 
the World was of tfft fame length with all other civill or Aftro- 
nomicall dayes, that is, 24. houres, divided equally between light 
and darknefle. The words of the textlhew that darkgejfe over* 
ffread all the mafle of the inferiour World for a time, before the 
light was formed . Alfo in naming the fix dayes of the creation, 
the evening, that is,the time of darknefle,is rchearfed firft before 
the morning* which is the time of light. Alio Gods people 

beaan . 

1 1 4 Every 'Per/on in the Trinity is a Qeatour. 

began their dayes of the weeke and of the yeare with the night, 
and reckoned the Saobath and other folemne dayes from eve* 
ning to evening) as appeares,/^//-. 23. 32. 
4. Queft, Fourthly it may bee asked , how the firie or vifible heavens 
could by their light make a day before the Sun was created, 
feeing the light of the fame heavens, together with the light 
oftheMoone, and the S tarr es-added thereto , cannot make a 
day, but it is night where the S un is abicnt, and the light of it 
not f:ene, notwithstanding the light of the heavens, and of the 
Moone and Star res. 
A*f* * an ^ were > tnat tnc light of the heavens without Sun, Moone, 
and Starres is fufficiont to make a bright day in the place where 
they are , and there it is alwayes day, though byreaibn of the 
fpacious regions of the aire , and the great diftance betweene 
them and the earth, their light doth not mine to us to make a 
day of light without the beames of the Sun, but it is dark night 
in that part of the earth where their light onely appeares. Now 
in the rirft day before the firmament was made, that is,the re- 
gion of the aire purged and refined out of the made by the fin- 
king and fading of the earthy and waterifh matter towards 
the center , there was no need of light further then the body of 
the heavens reached, that is to the upper face of the rude mafTe, 
not yet formed , but remaining rude and fullofdarkneffe; And 
therefore fo farre as the vifible World was brought into forme, 
they did give oioft clear day-light: ;md as ail had before bin over- 
fpread with darkneffe for the fpace of a night; fo all was now 
overfpread with light for a dayes fpace, and fo the firftdayof 
the creation was one halfe all night, and another halfeailday in 
all the vifible World, even in all parts thereof w 7 hich were then 
created and brought into perfect forme and being. From this 
text thus opened wee m^: obferve divers points of inftru- 
7) Vt\ ^ ir ^ we * earnc 3 t ^ at as trier e are three Perfons in that one 
ThrecPer" ^ oc * vv h* cn created the World by his own infinite power; fo 
fomm the every Perfon isacreatour; and God the Father by his eternail 
Godhead. Word, the Son, did extend and fhew forth his power to the 
-+ framing ofevcry creature , and by his Spirit did give all forme 

and perfeftion to them, As the vjotd£fobim, uied in the firft 


toothing impo/sihle to God. 115 

verfc, notes more Pcrfons ; io here,and in the verfe before, wee 
fee the Per ions ditlinguifhed , and all three working in the 
framing of the World and all the creatures therein. Brft,God 
the Father is brought in creating. Secondly, by his Word, that is, 
not by a found of the voice , or a word uttered j for there was 
then no aire to receive fuchaibund; but by his cternall Word 
bringing things into being according to his cternall Ccunfcll 
and decree. Thirdly, by his Spirit moving upon the face of the 
waters , and chenthing the rude and common matter of the 
whole vidble World, yet void and unformed, and preparing it 
for the receiving of the fevcrall. formes of all creatures in the 
feverail parts of it. 

Which point excellently confirmes our faith in the true Vf*. 
Doftrineoftheblefl'edTrinitie, and confutes SabeU'iHs, Serve- 
*/«,the Socinianszx\& Armmans^ho denied the etcrnali Deity 
of the Son ana* the holy Ghoft , and overthrowes their feverali. 
licrcfics and damnable errours. 

Secondly wee hence lcarnc , that all things arc pofliblc to 2# j) &r; 
God;he can as ealily and quickly by his etcrnali Word and power All things 
bring greatclt things to pafle , even bring light out of darknefle, pofGWe to 
and the glorious, pure, ipacioin, viible heavens out of the rude, God . 
impure and confuted made, w T hich was without -forme and 
void ; as a man of nimble tongue and ready fpeech can fpeakc a 
word. Which Doctrine other Scriptures doe abound aitly con- 
firm?, which aicribe to Godomntpo:ency,and proclaim: him 
to bee wonderfuli in counfell, and excellent in working; and 
tint nothing is too hard or wonderfuli for him to doe, as Gewf, 
1.8. 14.7/^r 28. 20.7^36. 5. and 42. 2. 

Which ferves to ftirre us up to feare, admire, and reverence Vfri 
God, tofeek his favour and protection above all things, and to 
reft confidently on him for defence againft all enemies and 
dangers when wee arc reconciled to him^ and have him for 
our God and our portion. 

Thirdiy,we may here obfcrve,thatGod is wonderful in wife- 3 . £><7&y 
dome and providence,in that the firft thing created in this viiible God won"*. 
World was light,even thebrightand fnining heavens; which/os ■' null ia 
above all vifible creatures they ihew the glory and fupcr-celcitial fi^dome 
excellency of God in their naturall frame and fulihnce, ioalfo ^ nd P ro ** 

1 1 6 The honour of tbefirfi Day. 

give bodily light to the eyes of all bodily living creatures, whic" 
were to bee made to fee, and difcerne the glorious beauty 
and admirable frame of his vifible works: for hereby it came 
to paiTe,that none of gods vifible & perfect works of wifedome, 
were for an houre fmoothcred in darkneffe ; but were all ma- 
nifeft, and Gods glory was clearly feene in them, fofooneas 
there was a feeing creature able to difcerne them. 
yn. This fheweth, that God hath done his part to reveale him- 

felfe ; and man who takes not notice of God in his works, to 
worfhip him aright, is without all excufe. And this iliould 
ftirre us up to labour to fee God, and to difcerne him in his 
works, and to place all our perfection and happineiTe in the light 
and knowledge of him. 
4. Dottr, Fourthly, we may hence obferve divers lingular prerogatives 
l'reroga- of the firft day, which is now, by the refurredfton of Chrift,the 
tivesofthe Lords holy day , and the Sabbath of all true Chnftians. That 
firft day. by many ipcciall prerogatives, God did in the creation forefhew 
hiseternallcounfeli andpurpofc to make this day his holy day 
v in the dayes ofChrift, and in the time of the Gofpell under 
^^ the Kingdome of grace. 1. This is the firft fruits of all time, 
- a * 2. In it was created the glorious frame of the heavens, and the 
g* firft light of the vifible World. 3. In this day God firft fhewed 
by his eternal! Word, the Son, hiseternall counfelland purpofe, 
and by his Word and Spirit, began to bring his purpofes to pafle, 
4.; and produce things into being. 4. In this day darknefTe and 
light were io feparated and divided, that, while the night lafted, 
there was no day in all the inferiour World ; and while it was 
day,there was no night over all the face of the earth & the deep, 
but light in all the World, which was then created and brought 
into forme and perfect being. 5. In this day God firft (lie wed 
his approbation and his pleafure , that he approved for good 
the things which by hiseternall Word, the Son, he did forme 
and bring into being. Therefore without doubt molt fit to bee 
the day of the LordChrift,and fandHfied and kept holy to the ho- 
nour and glory of him, who is the firft borne of God, and the 
firft fruits of them that ileep , and the light of the World, and in 
whom God llieweth his counfel! ,and is in him well pleafed,and 
.by him tumes night into day, and brings light out of dar knell c, 


Of ihz things created. i \y 

and brings us to etcrnall reft in the higheft heavens, which were 
created in the beginning of the rirft day. 

Chap. VII. 

Thefecond dayes work*. Of the skiff and things now created. All 
made by the power of G»d in Cbrtfi. The ufe of the firmament. 
Bow called heaven. All wot created wifely and orderly: Vfe* 

ANd Godfaid , Let there bee a Firmament in the midfl of the Veife 6, 
waters, and let it divide the waters fromthe waters. 7. cx^W 7,8* 
God made the Firmament^ and divided the w at *rs which were under 
the Firmament , from the waters which were above th? Firmament ; 
and it wfo fo. 8. ^dnd God called the Firmament heaven ; and the 
evening and the morning were thefecond day. 

In thefe words wee have a briefe hiitorie of thefecond dayes 
workcin the creation of the World : wherein wee are to con- 
iider thefe five things : 1. The thing created. 2. The creation 
and bringing of it into being. 3. The life of it. 4. The name 
which God gave unto ir.5^ How by this worke there came in 
an evening and a morning, which where die fecond day 

Firft,for the thing created, it isinthe onginall text cjlied by Of the 
a generall nameV v ^, which may fignifie any thing which is things now/ 
fpread abroad ', or fir etched farre andwide, according to theetymo- crea:c ^» 
logieofit. For the Hebrew verbVp"\ of which it is derived, 
in all Scriptures wherefoevcr it is ufed, doth fignifie the acl of 
fpreading any thing abroad, & ftretching it out,and laying it wide- 
opento vkw^sExod.^.^ Numb.\6 38. and Ier. 10.9 it figni- 
fies beating out of gold, (ilver, or brajft into thinne broad plates^ 
that is, fpreading them broadby violent beating, Exod. 40. 
1.9 It is ufed to fignifie the fpreading abroad of the tent over the 
Tabernacley Pfalme 130. 6 and Ifa. 42,5 .and 44. 24. It is ufed 
to fignifie the firetchiug out of the earth above the maters farre and 
•wide, lob 37, 18. it fignifies the fpreading out 0} the shie and of 
the thinne cloudes; and 2 Sam. 22. 43. it is ufed to fignirie 
fpreading abroad as a man J pre ads clay by (tamping it With his 
feeti and, by a Metonymie of the effect, it is ufed to fignifie ftam- 

ii8 Qm'tdns about the Jigmfication of f/;£>W Firmament. 

ping with the feet as men ftamp clay and fpread it abroad, 
Ezcch. 6. n. and 15.6. 

Thcfe are the places of Scriptures , in which onely that 
word is uied. So then this word U'fn, being derived of if, 
muft needs lignifie a thing which is ftretched out like a tent or 
canopie, or fpread abroad as plates of gold and filver are by bea- 
ting, and clay by (lamping. The Grceke Septuagints tranflate 
this Word every where septet, that is, a thing which though 
it bee txctzftntehedout, yet it is iojurcly eftablijhed, that it abides 
f till in the place which God hath appointed for ir. And the 
vulgar Latine, with divers later tranflaters , following the 
Greeke Septuagints, tranflate it Firmament urn, the firmament , that 
is, a thing rirmely let and eftablifhed in a place, which cannot 
fom thence bee driven cut, and leave the place empty. And al- 
though this word may, according to the notation of it , fignifie 
tiny thing ftretched out or fpread abroad , or laid wide open, 
and is once onely ufed to lignifie broad plates of braffe beaten 
out for a covering , and that in the plurall number JV#/#. 1 6. 3 8. 
yet in all other places of Scripture it is ufed in the Angular num- 
ber for the skie, which God hath from the beginning ftretched 
out over the globe of the Earth and the Sea, as herein this 
Chapter, and Pfalme 19. 1. and 150. 1. and "Dan. 12.3. and 
~£z.ech. 1. 22. and 10. 1. Now what this skie or firmament is, 
that is a great queftion among the learned. Divers oftheAn- 
cients,as Baft/,^ml?rofe } Beda,znd others, doe by this firmament 
understand the ftarry heavens. Firft, becaufe it i$ faid in the 
8.verfs that God called this firmament heaven. Secondly, be- 
caufe it is faid that, when God made the Sun, Moone,& Starres, 
hee fct them in the firmament of heaven, verf. 17. Thirdly, 
becaufe they doe imagine that there is a watery heaven above the 
itarry heaven , which confifts of water congealed like to 
Criftall,and doth temper the heat of the Sun, Moone, and Stars; 
and out of this heaven they conceive that God poured the wa- 
ters which drowned the old World ,becaufe it is faid,GV#. 7.1 1. 
that the windowes of heaven were opened, and God rained on 
the earth. 

But others doe hold, that by the firmament here is meant the 
whole heavens ; that is, b jth the firft heavens, the fpacious re- 

What meant by Firmarrrnt. 119 

gions of the aire; and alfo the middle, that is, the firk and ftarry 
heavcns;and the third, that is,the higheft heavens. Eirft,becaute 
it is laid that God called the firmament D'££*, Heaven^ and this 
word is ufed in the Scriptures to fignifie ail thefe three heavens. 
And as the higheft heaven is called by this name, Vfdmew. 4. 
the Lords throne u in haven , zndTfa/me 148. where it is laid, 
Praifi Him } haven ofbeavcnsSo the middle and ftarry heavens, 
as (/*».: 2. 17. where wee read of the Starres of heaven, and 
alfo the airy or lowed heaven is thus called % V**fi 10. and 26. 
where it is faid, Let thsfowles fiie in the open firmament of heavenly 
and Tfalme 79. 2. and Hof. 2. 18. and many other places, 
where wee read of the fowles of heaven. 

But the beft learned of later times have for the mod part The ifa'e 
held, that by the firmament is here meant that vaft and fpacious meajM by 
element and region or the aire, which is extended and ftretched the firma " 
out, not onely round about all the Earth and die Sea ; but alio ' * 
reacheth from this globe of the Earth and the Sea, to the ftarry 
heavens even to thcfpheareoftheMoone: and this is without 
doubt the true fenfc and meaning of the word in this place, 
as appears by divers reafons. tint , the Hebrew name O'.-V, &*f* 
( by which Cod called this firmament or large region, being *• 
compounded of OV> which fignifies there , or in that place, -and 
D'O, which fignifies waters) notes out unto us, that this fir- 
mament is the place where waters are engendered in the 
clouds , and which from thence defcend and water the earth, 
and that is the fluid and water ifh element the aire. Secondly, 2* 
there is no other firmament befide* the aire ftretched out be* 
tween the waters of the Sea, which are below andtheunder- 
moft, and the waters above in the clouds heaven-ward , and 
from thence diftill and water the earth, and did defcend 
in great aboundance, and drowned the old World, when God 
diffolvcd the clouds,& fo opened the floud -gates and windowes 
of heaven: The aire is the onely element which divides be- 
tween theie two waters of the clouds above , and of the Sea 
and Rivers below, Thirdly, the airy region is that m which 
the Sun, Moonc, and Starres doe fhine and give Light to the P 
Earth, and in which their beames and light appeare to us on 
Cffth. The light of the ftarry heavens, and of the Sun, which 


\ i o What meant by the Firmament, 

alwayes ftiines in them, even at midnight as well as atnoonc 
day, is not fecne or us as it is in the heavens, but as it is in the 
aire; for, by multiplying their beames in the aire,thc Sun,Moone, 
and Starres are fcen otus, and give light uponthcearth. And 
therefore it is not faid, that God made the Sun, Moonc, and 
Starres in the firmament, orfetthem to have their place and 
being in it; but gave them to bee lights in it, that is,fet them above 
to fhine through it, and , by multiplying their beames in this fir- 
mament the aire, to give light to the earth ,F«/* 15. 

Fourthly , the fovvies which rlie in the open face of the 
aire, Mt&id.tofiiein the firmament , which God called heaven, 
Verff 20. 

Fifthly, the highest heaven was created in the beginning in 
the firft moment of time together with the Angels. And the 
(tarry he wen is the light created in the firft day ; therefore this 
heaven here called firmauent is the aide region or loweft 

Sixthly, in all places of Scripture wherein wee finde this 
word i? , p1, which is here translated firmament, wee may very 
well and with good reafon underftand by firmament, the large 
extended region of the aire ; and it cannot be proved by any 
one place that the word fignifies any other then the airie heaven 
cnlightned with the beames of the Sun and the ftarry hea- 

Seventhly, they who here by firmament do underftand the 
ftarry heavens, are forced by the words of the text (which fay, 
that the firmament is in the midft of the waters, and divides 
the waters above from the waters below) to imagine that there 
are waters above the ftarry heavens, there pl»ccd to mitigate 
the heat of the Sun , and the Starres , and that thefe waters 
drowned the old World ; which is a ridiculous conceipt,groun- 
ded on palpable miftaking of divers Scriptures, and contrary 
to all reafon. For the places of Scripture which fpeake of wa- 
ters above the heavens, intend no other waters but fuch as are 
in the clouds in the middle region of the aire , and above the 
lovvc'l region of the firmament or airy heaven. Firft, the He- 
brew phrafe (&$?> ?I/B O'Band DW tyD, ) that is, above 
the firmament y or above the heavens-, fignifies no more but waters 


What meant by Waters above the HeaVensl 121 

that arc above, heavenward. Secondly, the Scriptures doe 
plainely expound this phrafe, and in many places fhew , that by 
waters above the heavens , they doe not rneane either the multi- 
tude of heavenly Angels, as Origsn dreamed; or any Cryftall 
orbe or naturail waters above the ttarry heavens , as Bafil, Am- 
hrofe> Bcda y and others imagined; or the matter ofTpirituall and 
fnpercdeftiall fubftances different from the matter cf ear 
creatures, as Anften thought; but that theie waters above 
the waters in the clouds above in the middle region of the aire, 
even ra:nc 3 and haile, and fnow, and fuch waters as How from 
thence in great abound ance when it pleafcth God to open the 
bottles, windowes , fountaincs, and floodgates of heaven, that 
is, the clouds; for the clouds are called the bottles of heaven, 
lob 3$. 3 7. and the fount aines of the deep, Prov s 8.2?. and the 
watery roofe of Gods chambers > Pfa/me 104. 5. and God is faid 
to bind up his waters in the thickjlouds^andthe cliud is not rent 
under tlxm y lob 26. 8. and when God openeth the clouds and 
lends downe raine to water thecarth,& to give to it the bleffing 
of fruitfulncfTe , hec is faid to open the windows and flood- 
gates ofheaven, Gen. 7. 1 1. and CAUL 3. 10. And the loweft: 
region of the aire, in which the dew is engendered of vapours 
andmifts diffolvcd into fmall drops , is called heaven^ and the 
dew from thence diftilling is called the Dew of heaven, Gen, ij r 
2 8. Pfa/me 133.3. an( * Zach. 1 2. 8. 

So then wee fee that the firmament here called heaven, is 
the wide and broad fpread aire reaching from earth to the ftarry 
heaven, and comparing the globe of Sea and land roundabout; 
and by the waters above the firmament, the waters in the 
clouds are meant, which are above the lowed region of the 
airy heaven or firmament. And thus much for the opening 
of the fir ft thing in my text, to witj the thing created. 

The iecond thing is the creation of this firmament, and the 
manner of it. It is faid,God made the firmament, that is, framed 
it, as hec had done the light theftarry heavens, out of the rude 
matter before named , which was without forme and void, 
ferfi 1 . and this hec did by the fame power and after the lame 
manner,as he did the light, (aying,£rt there be a Firmament , that 
is,by his eternaliWord the Son,by whom he doth exercife all his 

X power, 

1 1 2 Why tbt Fimmmnt Tcm made. 

power , and performe all his works according to his eternal 
Counfell , and by whom hec fheweth outwardly his etcrna^ 
purpofe and will , as a man by his word doth openly profcff c 
and declare his mind and purpofe. And thus wee fee the Son 
ftill workcth with the Vacher and the Spirit in the creation 
of every thing in the World, and without him nothing is made 
and created. 

The third thing is a maine ufe for which this firmament was 
made to ferve; namely to divide the waters from the waters, 
that is, the waters which are below in the Sea,and Rivers, and aro 
mingled with the earth, from the waters which are above in 
the clouds; for weefinde by experience, that there is no other 
thing,which divides-between thofe waters,6ut onely the loweft 
heaven, the airie firmament. There is alfo another ufe here- 
after mentioned , Verfe io. that is to convey the light from 
the Sun, Moonc,and Starry heavens to the earth. 

The fourth thing is the name by which God called the fir- 
snament, that is, Q S £V. heaven. Indeed, according to the com- 
mon etymologic and notation approved of all the learned, 
this name moli properly exprefleth the nature of the aire, the 
place of waters and wateriih clouds* and the ftarry and higheft 
heavens are fo called by reafon that they appearetous, in our 
light, to be one, and the fime common body ; or elfe by a me- 
taphore, becaufc there is a great fimilitudc between them and 
the aire, in refpeel of their purity and brightnefle; or ( as I have 
formerly noted)this word D*E& when it is the proper name of 
the highft heaven,may have another derivation of DIP, which fig- 
nifieth there doubled, or made in the forme of the duall number; 
and fo it is as much as if one fhould fay there >t here j&Mt is,there is 
the place of all places,thcre is the beft being in the heaven of hea- 
vens :and here wee may obfervc, what manifold and wonderfull 
wifedomc there Is in the names which God hath given to crea- 
tures which hce himfelfe named . 
Mew a day % The fifth and laft thing to bee considered in this text, which 
without is a point of greateft difficultie, is, How by the framing and 
the Sun* continuance of this worke , there came in an evening and a 
morning, which are the fecond day. The Sun was not yet 
created to fhinc and to give clear day light, fuch as wee now 


HoV> there could tee a day before the Survs creation. \ i 

have, and therefore how could there bee a day or a morning? 
And the light, that* is, the bright frame of the fuie heavens 
being extended over all the infer iour malTeofthe inferiour ele- 
ments, not yet formed, how could there bee an evening or 
night, andfoa whole civill day, as the text here lpeakes? All 
that the learned have deviled and written for the- removing of 
thefe doubts, is this : Some hold , that the light which God 
created fubfifting without a fubjeft, did, for the fpace of 1 2. 
hourcs, mine and tend forth beanies, and make the morning; 
andagaine, for the fpacc of 12. hourcs, was contracted and 
withdrew it fclfe, and fo made the night or evening. This 
is the opinion of 2?*/*/, and Damafcene. Others think that" 
light created the fkft day, being a bright cloud which moved 
about as the Sun doth, did (hinc like fire one while, and £3 made 
the day ; and was like a thick cloud of darknciVe for^another 
while , and fo made the night; as the pillar o£ cloud which lead 
Ifracl ; {oBecU holds. Others thinke it was the light of the 
Sun created imperfect at the ririr, and moving about with the 
heavens, did make a difference between day and night equally « 
But certainly the light which God created being good t that is, 
a perfect creature in his kind, and fb approved of God , as the 
words of the text mew ; cannot with any reaibn bee held to bee 
any imperfeit thing , which afterwards was altered, or any 
fuch mutable and corruptible light as was kindled and quen- 
ched ; for God, feeing, and approving k for good, would not to 
quickly alter iu 

Wherefore I take the evening or night time of the fecond 
day , to bee the time wherein God by his word and power was 
feparating the aire and purging it, by cauling the thick wate- 
ring and earthy part to defcend and fettle downevvards to- 
wards the center. "For all that time, the vaft and fpacious wide 
region of the aire,being not purin*ed,remained dark and duskiili, 
becaufe the light of the ririe heaven did not mine thorough it,and 
that was the evening or night of thefecond day :but the aire being 
made pure &perfed,and fettled in his naturallplace,rcceived the 
light of the heavens into it for the fpace of 13. houres, before 
God began to create the other elements , which were thefirft 
works of the third day. And this was a day of light clearc 

K 2 -enough 


124 §od created tbe Word inWif dome andOrder. 

'*— r- ' — — -, 

enough for the creatures then made, though not fo light as when 
the Sun was made; and this evening and morning made the fe- 
cond day , as the text faith. And thus we fee the true fenfe and 
meaning of the text, and what is the fecond day and the work 
thereof : from whence wee may obferve fome points of Do- 
'Doclr t I. Firft wee hence learne, that God proceeds mod wifely and 
Allcrea- orderly in the creation of the World, declaring manifcftly that 
& or^cr/y. ^ QC nothing in vainc, nor makes any thing before it is ufe- 

full and neceffarily for the communicating of his goodnefTc to his 
creatures; but doth ai! for the benefit of others , and addes no- 
thing to himfeife , neither hath need to receive. glory from any 
creature. If God had made the Sun and Starrcs before hee made 
the aire or the earth , men might have imagined that hee had 
made the Sun and lights of heaven not for the ufe of men and 
other earthly creatures; but either becaufe hee had need of thern 
in the heavens to adde glory tohimfelfe; orelfetoremainefor 
a time without ufe and in vainc. But in that hee made not the 
glorious lights at the fir ft before the aire, through which they 
might fhine and give light to the earth , Hereby hee fheweth 
that hee created , all things wifely and orderly ; the mod need- 
full things in the fir ft place; and nothing before there was ufe of 
it ; nothing which remained unprofitable for one honrc ; and 
that in creating the World, hee neither fought nor needed any 
addition of glory to himfcife ; but made the glorious Sun and 
lights for to iliew and to impart his glory to men, and his good- 
neffe to other creatures. 
7 fc. Let us all fee Gods wifedome and goodnefle, and labour to 
imitate him in them; and as he doth all for our ufe, not his o wne 
profit, foletus not feek any thing in the World for ourowne 
vaineends : but make the fctting forth of his glory, the end of 
all our labours; and drive to doe his will and pleafure, notour 
own:; nor the will and commandementof any man, when wee 
perceive it to bee contrary and not according to the will and 
word of God. 
VoUr. 2. Secondly, in that the light of the fecond day which fhined 
onely in the aire, and through it to the earth and deep, was 
not a clearc bat obfeure light in^comparifon ofthe firft day, and 
"~" ""*'"' " ' " ~ the.. 

The Aire is the place ofSatans IQngciome* n* 

the daycs after the Sun>Moone,and Starres were made^rrnucrT"" 
brighter then the night of the three laft dayes; Hereby God 
did forefhew, that the aire and this lowcft World is the place of 
Satans Kingdomc, wherein hee doth rage and tyrannize with 
great power after his fall, untill hee be caft into Hell at the laft 
day; which alfo other Scriptures (hew, as Eph. 2 2, where Satan 
is called the Prince of the aire, and Revel. 16. 17. the Kingdomc 
of Sat an is called the aire, and loh. 14. 30. our Saviour calls him 
the Prince of this World. 

Wherefore let us not place our felicity here in the things yr € \ 
of this World , nor hope for peace and reft in this lowcft airy " 

heaven where Satan rulcth and rageth. Hee who preacheth 
for things here, hee fpeakes into the aire, 1 (for. 14. p. Hee 
who wraftleth for a prize here, heebeatcth the aire, and drives 
for uncertainties, 1 Cor. 9.26. Let usiookeup higher to the 
Heaven of heavens, to the Country and City, which is above^ 
and where Chrift is, there let our heart bzzJVerfeg. 

Chap. VIII. 

The third dayes wrke. Of Water and Earth ,dijlinel elements, of 
the names of Earth and Sea. Of Herbes, Plants , andTrees. 
All earthly things, nothing to God. Wee are Pilgrvmes on eaph: 
Vfes. God ruleth the mofi tumultuous creatures : Vfe. 


Nd God '/aid, Let the waters under the Heaven hee gathered Verfe 9 . 
^together unto one place, and let the drie landappeare\ and it was 
fo y Verfe 10. And God called the drie land Earth ,and the gathering 
together of the Waters called hee Seas, and God faw that it woe 
goody Verfe 1 1. And God f aid, Let the Earth brtng forth graft, 
htrbejeelding feed; and the frwt tree yeelding fruit after his kind \ 
whofe feed ts in it filfe upon the Earth ; and it was fo , Verfe 1 2, 
And the Earth brought forth grajfe, and her be yeelding feedafter his 
kind, andthetreejeelding fruit, whofe feed was in it felfe after his 
kindiand God faw that it was goody Verfe 1 3 . *And the evening and 
the r&ermngy were the third day. 

K s The 

1 26 # ' Of the place of the Earth and Waters. 

TJie third dayes worke, is the creation of the Earth and the 
Seas , and the feparating of them one from another in place,and 
the calling of them by their names ; alfo the creation of the 
Herbes, Plants, and Trees out of the Earth, all which made up a 
third dayes workc. 

In the p. verfe, wee have the creation of the two grofleft 
and loweft: elements, the Water and the Earth, laid downe very 
briefely , and withall the feparation of the Water from the 
Earth into one place, and theappearance of the earth above the 

The firft words, {And God/aid J (hew, that God by his eter- 
nall Word the Son , created thefe inferiour elements, and ail 
thing in them ; and ftill the Son works with the Father in all 
the works of creation . 

Thefe next words, (Let the waters under the heaven bee ga- 
thered together unto one place , and let the drie land appe are) fee me 
not to ipeake at all of the creation of the waters or of the earth; 
but onely of the feparation of the waters into one place, and 
caufmg the dry land to appeareby it feife. Some Expositors 
gather from thefe words, that the earth, and the waters were 
created before, and that the earth being made perfectly round 
in the lowed place, and framed of the heavieftand grofreft part 
of the rude matter, whun fettled about the center, was all co- 
vered with the waters which were made of the purer part of 
that rudemafie, which remained after the creation of the fpa- 
cioiis firmament the airie heaven, and the naturall place of the 
waters was above the earth, betweene it and the aire. I eafily 
bclceve and acknowledge, that the earth, being made of the 
heavieft part of the rude matter, doth occupie and poiTefl'ethc 
loweft: place about the middle center of the round World ; and 
that the naturall place of the water which is a purer and ligh- 
ter element, in which place God firft created it , and gave it 
being, is the place next above the earth compafllng it round on 
every fide; and if the element of water were in quantity more 
then the hollow places of the earth could conteinc, it would 
overflow all the upper face of the earth: or if God fhould bring 
the earth into a per feci: round globe without rifings upofhiis, 
or hollow vallcycs; the waters of the Sea would ftand in the 


Of the motion of the Elements. i it 

upper place next above it , between the aire and the earth. For 
wee fee and find by daily experience , tfut ns heavier elements 
dodefcend downwards when they are in lighter elements, 
and doe by siaturall motion tend to the lower place; as for sam- 
ple drops of raine- water, being ingendcred in the aire, defcend 
downward ,and the earth and every part of it, whether a ftone/.c 
lump of clay or clod ofearth,will (take do wne & move towards 
the bottom in a lake of (landing water, and m a vefTell full of wa- 
ter. So alio the lighter and thinner elements doc naturally 
afcend above the heavier, and feckc the higher placeyind cannot 
but by violence bee kept under them , or in the lame place with 
them; for wee lee, that {parks and flames or. rire being in the aire. 
will continually afcend upward till they come to the place 
above it; and if aire be clofed up inabla;d.r,and b y \jp.: weight 
held downe in the bottom of a pond or lome great vcfleli of wa- 
ter; if it bec let loofe by opening or burfting the bladder, it will 
prefently flie up and make fpeedy way in bubbles to the top of 
the waters; and if waters bee either ingendered in the earth 
under the ground , or, byfecret conveyances, bee driven from 
the Sea into the earth, it will continually fpring up till it cometh 
to the top of the earth ; andhen t eit is, that wee have fo many 
iprings of water riling out of the earth. But 1 cannot bdeeve, 
that the earth and the waters of the Sea were created diftinel 
elements before the third day; becaufe no words in this Hiftoru 
of the creation, doe, before this day, mention any creation of 
water and earth as they are elements perfectly formed and d£» 
flin:t one from another. Indeed the rude made, which was 
without forme and void, is called Earth, and the Deep , and the 
Waters, not becauf: it had the forme oi' thefe, or was any one of 
them; but was onely the matter, of which they were made; and 
becaufe it was like earth,for the groiTnefte of it;and like water or 
a deep quagge or muddy lake, for ti.e inflability of it. And al- 
though it is laid, before that God made the airieheaven, to di- 
vide between the waters above in the clouds, and the waters 
below under the aire in the Sea and the Rivers; yet it doth not 
follow that theic waters were created before, or that then im- 
mciiatly it did divide bctweenethem,but that it was made K> 
divide between them afterwards when they were created. Yea 

K 4 it 


i 1 8 Oft he creation andfitu ition of tfa earth and waters. 

itis plaine,that there was no raine in the aire,nor cloud«,nor mifts, 
nor vapours afcending up from the earth, till after the earth was 
furnifhed with herbes,plants,and trees,t?%>. a. Verfe 5 , 6. 
Of Water Wherefore ( omitting to mention divers needlefTe queftions, 
andEar:h, and unprofitable opinions railed and held by former writers 
diQmd: e. and expofitors of this text ) I will in briefe fhew what I con- 
icmenw. ceive, and what I gather out of thefe words. 

1. Rrft, I conceive that thefe words, tAndGodfaid, Let wa- 

ters from under heaven bee gathered together y (for 16 they run in 
the originall ) doe implie two things: Firft, that God by his 
creating word brought the waters and the earth into being, and 
made them perfect and diftincl elements one from another; 
and the water being the lighter did at the firftttand above the 
earth, and compaffe it round, & that is the naturall place of it. 
Secondly , that God immediatly after, when the waters had 
covered the earth almoft for the fpace of a night, and had kept 
it in darkneflc from the fight and light of heaven,then I fay,God 
did bring the earth into thatformeand {hape which it now hath: 
in the round globe of it he made hollow valleyes, deeper in one 
place then another; and hee raifed up the hils and mountains fc 
much in height above as thofe valleyes arc deep and hollow 
below,* and the earth being a firms and d ric clement and flan- 
ding faft in this fafhion; and the waters being of a liquid and 
flowingiiibftance, and more heavy then theatre, did (for the 
avoiding of vacuity, which nature abhorreth, and to fill up thofe 
hollow places, which other wife would have remained empty, 
unlefle the aire could have defcended through the water) 
defcend downe from the hils, and through the valleyes of the 
earth, until! they came into and filled the great hollow valleyes, 
where the waters of tbc Sea remaine , and which is the place 
of the Sea to this day; and fo there is as much water in the Sea, 
as there is drie land appearing above the waters ; and the depth 
of the Sea is equall to the rifingofthe Earth,and the mountaincs 
above the banks of it, as fomc learned men have obferved. And 
for proofe hereof wee have the plaine word of God. The word 
$"}p>, ufed in the originall text, fignitics gathering together into one 
follow place, and Tfalme 104.5,6,7,8, David fpeaking of 
thenxit foundation of the earth, faitb 3 that God covend it with 
" "*" "" ~" ' ~~ " " " ike 

Of the name of the earth, 1 2 9 

the deep as with a garment , axd the waters flood above tbebils: at 
lots rebuke thej fled, at his thundering voice they hafted away: the 
hilsdid rife up to their height, and the waters we* t downetbeval- 
lies,unto the place which God founded for them: and there heefel 
them a bound which they cannot pajfe, nor returvc to cover the Earth. 
And the earth was firft under the water; and after by Gods 
making of the great hollow vallies, and railing up the earth 
and dric land, caufed it to ftand out of the water, and fo toap- 
pcare above the water as it it did ftand in the water, and were 
founded upon the Sea, and cflablijhed upon the flouds, the words 
of Saint Tcter (hew, 2 Pet. 3. 5. compared with this text, and 
the words oi D avid, Ffalme 24. 2. Thus much for the opening 
of the firft: words, wherein the creation and fituation of 
the earth and the waters are laid downe in the 9. Verfe. 

The next thing is the naming of the waters and the drie of the 
hnd . 1 1 is laid, that God called the drie land Earth, and the gat he- name of 
ring together of the waters called he the Seas , and God flaw that it I,3C Eauh, 
was goody ferje 1 o. The names, which God gave to the things 
here created, are full of wifedomc; the drie land now appea- 
ring firme above the waters God called WW* Eret^ok which our 
Englifh name Earth is derived , and hath the fjundofit. In 
the Hebrew, the word may bee derived of the verb 3H , which 
tigmfcthrunning fpeedtly, or running a race; and JVC, which is 
a negative particle & fignirtcth not-Jor the earth is made to {land 
firme and neither to move from thenaturall place ofit,nor to run 
about in the place. The common opinion of the belt" learned 
is, that God called the earth 2HN, of »N. which fignifieth where, 
being an adverb of place, and 3D, which fignifieth running, be-' 
caufc the heaven and the aire move and run round about it; and 
becaufc it (lands firme and isafure footing for men and other 
creatures to run upon, and neither linkc,as in waters jnor fall and 
ftick fa(t,as in waterifh bogges, myres,and qtuckfands;to which 
I may adde another and more divine reafon, to wit, becaufc 
God made the earth and drie land, that man and other creatures, 
which arc made for mans ufe might live and move upon it t and 
that it might bee the place wherein man fnouid run his race 
towards heaven and happineffe; in which hec would not have 
us to fettle our reft, as if wee were to live hcic for ever, but 


j o Jbegathering together of Water stalled Seas , 


to run towards the better Countrie, which is above. 
And of she The gathering together of the waters, God calied D>0"1, the 
Sea, Seas. Firft this name is of the piurall number; becaufe, though 

i» there is but one maine ocean Sea, through which men may 
faiie to all parts of the Earth ; yet there are many inLets, 
creeks, corners, gulfes, and breakings in, between fcverall Coun- 
tries of the earth; as the mediterranean Sea, the red Sea, the 
Per (Ian Gnlfe, the Gulfc of Venice, the black Sea, the fouth Sea, 
2. and divers others. Secondly, this word is derived either of 
r\OH, which (igniiies to. rage and to make a noiie and tumult, 
or of wDH , which r (igniries to ihake, and to call downe and lay 
proftrate all things before it. And indeed wee finde by expe- 
rience , that the waters of the Sea, being gathered together, and 
detained in the hollow place of the ear th^doe, partly by a naturall 
difpofition and inclination to afcend to their naturall place above 
the earth, and partly by windes and tempers lying violently 
upon them , rage, roare, fweli , and make the mountaines as 
it were to fhake with their rage and noyfe. And when they 
breake through their bankes into the drieland fas fornetimes 
it happensj they beare downe all before them; as the flood in 
iVWj'sdayes did over-run, and cleftroyed the earth, when God 
brake up the fountaincs of the great deep. 

But howfoever the earth is made to bee a place of running, 
and oftoiie,and travell, and the gathering together of the wa- 
ters into the Seas makes a great noyfe and tumult, and rageth 
terribly: yet God faw that this his workewas^W^nd that both 
the Earth and the Sea fhould bee of great ufe and profit to man 
both for neceffaries of life , and alfo for magnifying of Gods 
dreadful! power, wifedomc and goodneffe in mans eyes, and 
therefore Mofcs here faith,God faw that it was good. 
Ofherbes, Another maine thing followcth in this third dayes worke, 
plants, and that is, the creation of grade, herbes, plants, and trees; Where 
trees. n ote onely thefe two things : Firft, what were thefe things 
created. Secondly, how they were created and brought into 

The firft is grafle, or greene herbe,Nt£H, which ifjthat 
which of it felfe fprings up without fctting, or fowing. The 
iccond 2&y , herbe, bearing feed, that is, all herbes which are 


Oftbi mmntr of dealing Herbs, Flmts.and Trees, 1 3 1 

fet or fowne,and incrcafc by mans induftry. The third SV,that is, 
trees and plants, which are of a woodie lubftance, which beare 
fruit and have their feed , which turns to fruit in themfelves; 
they are not multiplied onely by lowing of feed, but live all 
the year, and many yeares lowing, and multiply by 
rooteSjflips, grarfes, and the like. Theft were the things, which 
God is here faid, by his creating Word and power , to bring 
out of the earth,every one perfect in their kind. 

Secondly , for the manner of creating them; they werenot 
created immediatiy of nothing, nor of any other element be- 
sides the earth , and then put into the earth there to grow: But 
God by his power full Word, without any help of mans tillage, 
Raine,or Sun, did make them immediatiy out of the earth, and 
every one perfect in their kind; grafle and heroes with flowers 
and feeds; and trees with large bodies, branches, leaves, and 
fruits, growing up fuddenly, as it were in a moment, by Gods 
Word and power. And thus much I gather not onely from 
the words of the text , which run thus, God faid ; Let the Earth 
tring forth grajfe, herbes, and trees: but alfo from the wor dSyChap* 
2. 5,6. where it is faid, that God formed everj plant when jet 
it rvoi not in the Earth; and every herb, when a* jet it grew xot up; 
that is, before they had any feed , or roote hidden or fownein 
the earth from whence they might fpring and grow up; 
and alfo without help of raine or dew r , or any culture or til- 

Now all thele things being thus formed by the word of 
God , were approved by God fcr good and perfect in their 
kind. And fo the evening , that is, the time of darkneile over 
the earth ("while the waters covered it, and before the drieland 
appeared aoove the waters, which was about twelve houres,a 
nights fpace Jand the morning ("that is, the time of light after 
the drieland appeared, and the light of the hric heavens fhined 
upon it through the aire, which as yet was mod pure and cle-are 
without clouds, milts or vapours, which time of light was 
other twelve houresj made up a third day. 

Thus we fee, that in the three firft daies before the creation of 
theSun, Moon, and Starres,thc night was a time of darknes, and 
the day a time of light in all that pa*t of the World whsje night 

5 % Ihe times of Light and Darkneffe make the third day. 

and day arc faid to have been, and in refpecl: of which part 
of the World they are called evening, and moming;as for exam- 
ple, After that the light,the firie heavens were created, and made 
out of the rude maffc, full of darkneffe, there was no more night 
or darkneffe but all light in the heavens ever (ince (ior they are 
a day and light to themfelvcs) and that which is night and day, 
with us, is all alike with them, cvenclcare day rl^ht. So like- 
wife after the creation of the light , all was darkneffe in the reft 
of the rude maffe which was not yet formed; and the time that 
it lay in darkneffe before the airy heaven was perfe&ly puriried 
and made, is called the evening or night: but after that the fir* 
mament, that is, the fpacious element of the aire, was created 
and brought into perfect being and puritie , it received into 
it the light of the rTric heavens which ihined through it* and the 
time of that iliining into the aire is called the morning or day 
light; and this daylight fhines ftill in the higheft region of the 
aire, above the afcent of the clouds; and there is no more night 
of darkneffe in that region, but as clcarc light as that ofthefe- 
cond and third day; onely in the reft of the rude maffe there did 
f ermine darkneffe, untill God created out of it at once the two 
lo weft elements, the waters and the earth; and the time while 
the waters covered the earth; and kept the light of heaven from 
it ,is called the evening or night of the third day; but when the 
drieland, andthehiis and mountaines of the earth were raifed 
up above the waters, and the great vaft hollow valley, which 
is the place of the Sea and receptacle of the waters, was made 
in it, then the light of the heavens did ilune through the aire 
unto the upper face of the earth and of the waters, and fo con- 
tinued untill the herbes, plants, and trees were made:no clouds, 
or mifts, or vapours made the lower region of the aire darke; 
and this was the time of morning or day light on earth the third 
day. Thus much for the opening of the third dayes work of 
creation, and how the times of light and darkneffe, that is the 
evening and morning,did make up the third day. 

From this dayes work, and from the things created, and the 
manner of creation, divers things may bee obferved for our in- 
■fiiBr, I. Firft, wee fee that the two lowcft elements, Earth and Sea, 


All c&thi) things Vanity in refpeft of i od* 1 * > 

though they appcarc tobeegreat and huge vaft things, yet t& AH earthly 
God, working by his etcrnall Word, the making and ieparattng r ^ n S $ ao - 
of them was but a pcece of adayes work, and ah the grade, £r"° t0 
herbes, plants, and trees, which are Enumerable and full ofall 
admirable variety,they were but another pcece of a dayes vvorke; 
they were not oncly made and brought into being , but alio to 
1 perfect growth, full of flowers , feed ana fr'uite in a little 
time, as it were in. a moment: Hence we may karnc, that all this 
Id here below, wherein the fonnes of men live together, 
with all creatures which le vcfor their Life,* it is as nothing In the 
hand of God, and of iinall moment. All the herbes, planes, and 
trees , which Solomon with all his wifedome could feared? 
come to know, were with the Earth, Sea, and all Waters, made 
perfect in one day. This is that which the Lord piroclaimcs 
by the Prophet,//'**. 40. 15, 17, where it is laid, that all nations 
are as a drop of a bucket, and are co-untedas the fmall dttfl of the 
balance before him; J 11 nations arc before him as no nhh^and they 
arc counted to him lejfe then nothing and vanity. 

Which Doctrine ferves to admonifhus to defpiic all earthly VfiJ. 
riches and poiTeiTions in companion of God, who ; s the portion 
of the godly and faith full; alfok ferves to confound and put ro 
fhame all proud carnall worldlings, who glory and boaft inn 
little nothing; and to make glad, and fill with joy Gods people,. 
who have a true right and interelt in God by their fpirituall 
union and communion, which they have with Chri't by one 
Spirit, even the holy Ghoft, dwelling in him as the hcad,and in 
them as members of the fame myllicail body. 

Secondly, from the name of the earth, we learne, that this Doclr. 2 
\\ 7 odd is a race and pilgrimage, and a place of travell, and Weefir-to! 
warfare, and here is not the reft of man, neither is here hisjabi- g«s here, 
ding place. This the Scriptures proclaime every where. Jacob & . ,n a K'-- 
the Father oflfracl, who had the land of Canaan promifed to him S rim ^'" 
and his feed for an inheritance for ever; he? counted his life as 
a pilgrimage on earth , and faith in his old age, Few and evlll have 
my dayes been, Gen. 47.0. And David faith, Pfalme 119. iq. 
I ana ajhangcr upon earth, and Pfxhn? 39. 12. 1 am a (hanger 
and fojvptrner rvirhthee, as all my Fathers were. Job calls mans 
\ifez few d*jes *rdf*lF of trouble 7 whiclifketh as a jOtadoW»atxl 


1 3 4. Mans life on earth and pilgrimage. 

continneth not, lob 14. 1,2. Saint PWcalsita refteleffe >•*<*, 
like that of men who ruraic for a prize, 1 Cor. 9. 24. 26. and 
Beb. 1 2, 1,. Wee are here like Noah's dove, which being Tent 
out of the Arke found no reft for the foale of her footc till (lice 
returned thither againc. Here wee have no continuing Citie, 
Hebr. 1 3 1 ^.neither is here our refi, Mich, 2.10. till oar Souks re- 
turne to God who gave them wee (hall alwayes be in a pil- 
grimage and never find quiet reft. 
Vfe 1. This Doctrine is of good ufe to keep and rcftrainc us from 
dreaming of fetled reft here on earth, and from fecking to build 
our nefts furein the taps of earthly rocks for many generations, 
and to ftirre us up to put on rcfolution and courage to labour, 
and travel!, and ftrive, and run as men doe in a race, and for ma- 
il erics, while wee live on earth : For our life is fhort and fleeth 
away ss a madow, and the art and divine skill of gaining heaven, 
and getting the Crownc of glory, doth require much ftudie, 
fvveating,toile, and induftrie; and wee cannot attaine to it, but by 
hearing, reading, ftudying, and meditating in Gods Word day 
and night. 
yje z. Secondly, itdifcovers worldlings to bee dreaming and doa- 
ting fooles , who put truft and confidence in things of this 
World , and build great houfes, purchafc lands, and large reve- 
nues, and think that their houfes (hall continue for ever : The 
Prophet juftly comparcth fuch men to a dreamer % who being 
hungric doth dreame that hce eateth, but when hee awaketh 
his foule is empty;& in his thirft he drcameth that he is drinking, 
but when he awaketh hee is faint, and his foule hath appetite, 
If*. 29. 8. This is the cafe of foolifti and brutifh worldings, 
who fee how the forme and ftfliion of the World paffeth away, 
and yet feeing will not fee; but (till dreame of fetled reft and 
dwelling on earth. 
Doftr.%* Thirdly ,though the Seas are fuch as the name fignifieth which 
Godruleth ^ 0( * § ave to tnem ■ ^ lat ls > troubdous and tumultuous, and doc 
the moft dreadfully rage and roar; yet feeing, God is above them as their 
tumultuous Lord and Cratour , and when hee made them fuch faw that 
cf cadres, they were good and uiefull and profitable for man, this teacheth, 
that Gad ruleth over the moft tumultuous creatures of the 
World , and makcth the moft outrages roarers work for the 

i good 

In time of trouble relic upon (}oJ. i j 5 

good of his people. Firft, hce makes them fcrve to fhew the 
power ,drcad and terrour of him their creatour, that all may feare 
and ftand in awe of him : for if the creatures be fo dreadfull and 
terrible , much more God the Creatour, who gave them their 
being. And as God makes themworke feare, foalfo admira- 
tion in men; fo David fheweth, Pfalme 46. and Pfalme 107. 14. 
Second ly,hec makes them worke for the good of his people, and 
for the fatety of his Church; by deftroying and devouring their 
wicked enemies, perlecutors, and oppreflbrs; as wee fee in the 
red Sea drowning Pharaoh and his hoft ; and as wee have lecne 
in the year 8S. when the Sea, wind and flormcs fcattered and 
devoured the Armadoofour bloudy enemies, who came en- 
raged with fane, and furnithed with all weapons of cruelty , and 
inttruments of death, todellroy our Land and the Church of 

The conlidcration whereof ferves to make us caft our felves 
upon God in all times of trouble , and to comfort our (elves 
in him, knowing that as hce is the Lord mighty above all, and 
a terrour to the mod terrible, and hath in his hand power to 
lave us from all troubles : fo hee is gracious and willing to fave 
us; And though hee fometimes fuffers the fwelling waves to 
rife, and the tempeftuousftormes and Seas to threaten , and put 
us in feare and danger, yet it is not in wrath but in wife- 
dome, becaule for the prefent hee fees them to bee good for 


Chap. IX • 

'The fourth dayes roorhe % Of the lights, fubfiantiall bodies: The 
place of them: Their Vfe\ F0- fignes>feafons> dayes, and yeares. 
Of the StMyMeonejind Starres. No inflruments nfed in the crea- 
tion. Note \the great vpifedome »f God in the order of creation, 
This World not made to bee the place ofonr immutable perfeUiov . 
Tfes of each ofthefc* 

ANd Godfaid , Let there bee Lights in the firmament of the „ ~ 
heaven, to divide the da] from the night: and let them bee for e * 

, > ■ Ihe fpickllufes of the Liqkts* 

jiqxcs, and for feafons, and for dayes , and for ye ares. 1 5 . And let 
them bee for lights in the firmament of heaven, to give light upon 
the Earth; and it wo* fi. 16. ^dnd God made two great lights , the 
crcater light to rule the day, and the lejfe light to rule the night; 
bemad? alfothe Starves . 17. And God fct them in the 'firmament sf 
1 ' c&vcn, to give light upon the Earth. 18. And to rale over the day 
and the night, and to divide the light from the darkg&jfei and Godfaw 
that it was good, 19. And th; evening and the morning were the 

Thde words containc a briefe Hiftorie of the fourth dayes 
work win. the creation: in which wee mayobferve,* Firft, Gods 
pjqwerfull commanding the worke , to bee done by his eternal! 
Word, in the 14. and i>. p'erfes. Secondly, his bringing of the 
ke to pfi([e by that eternal! Word, in the 16. iy 9 i£yerfes. 
Thirdly, Gods approbation of the worke, and fo perfecting that 

Firft 3 wee fee God ft ill proceeds in the worke of creation 
by his powerful! Word,and faith ,Let there be Lights, The things 
which hce commands to bee done are two. 

Tirft, that there frull bee lights in the firmament of heaven, 
that lSjthc Sun, Moone, and Starres, which arc the lights created 
out of the firft element, even that light which was made the firft 
day,that is, the body of the vifible rlrie heavens. 

The fecond, that they ihall bee for fpeciall ufe: 1. To divide 

the day from the night. 2. To bee for fignes , feafons, dayes , and 

ye ares, 3. To bee for lights 4n the firmament of heaven to give light 

upon the Earth. 

Of thefe That thefe lights are not bare lights without a Tub jecl, but 

lights, that bright fhining fubftantiall bodies , which have light in them- 

t hey arc f e i ycSj a nd fend forth beames of light into other pure elements 

bodies* and clearetranfparent bodies, no man can deny; for the Hebrew 

word here in my text is, rVHNB , which figniries lamps, torches, 

or other things which fhine forth and give light; and the words 

following, ferfe 16. (hew plainely , that thefe lights are the 

Sun, Moone, and Starres, which rule the day and the night by 

the light which they give to the earth. 

, The greatcft doubt here is about the place where God com- 

-?£'*• raacded them to bee, to wit, the firmament of heaven. For if 


What meant by the Firmament of Heaven- 1x7 

wee take the word firpwtment of heaven for the fpacious re- 
gion of the aire, as wee have expounded it before, Vcrfc 6,7,8. 
then men will conceive that the Sun.Moone, and Starres, have The place 
their place in the airi: region, and not in the fine region of the of tkcm, 
vifiole heavens; which is a thing contrary to rcafon and expe- 
rience, and to the common judgement of all the learned, and to 
the hcly Scriptures. 

For clearing of this coobt wee have two anfwers ready at^/^ • • 
hand, cither of which may fstisric. Thefir(t,thatasthe word J 
Q'CD, heavsn, fignirics not or.cly the airy region, wherein the 
fowles doe file, Vcrfc 20. and above which there are waters in 
the clouds, as appeares Vtrfi 7. but alio the highefi heaven, Vtrfi 
1. and the flrie heavens, which arc called the fiarrj heaven, 
Gc». 15. f. and the (ramified heaven, lob 26. 13. and which 
ire the heavens ncxtunto the highelr, and in comparifon of 
which the higheft is called the heaven of lx*ven: : \ Kings S. 
27. and the third heaven, 2 Cor, 12.2. So alfo the Hebrew 
word JPp'lj w r hich is here tranflatcd firmament , and fignifies 
xereadfpreaJinjr, or a thing which is broad fprcad and ft retched 
outtarre and wide may very well here in this place bee uied 
to figrufrc the firie region of theftarry heaven, fprcad abroad 
&rre more large and wide , the 1 the airy region, and then this 
is the meaning, that God commanded lights to bee, and made 
lights, and fet them in the firie region or firmament which is 
above the airy firmament; in which fen£ the word firmament is 
uled, Tjalm; io. 1 . and Da;*. 12.3. 

Secondly ,if any fhould not bee fatis fled with this fir (I anfwere, A>-fw. 2i> 
which is clearc and fufficient, but fhould ftill hold,that the word 
firmament is here ufed to fignifie the airy heaven, as in the 7. 
and 20. Verfes: Then this may fervc for a iecond anfwere, that 
God commanded /i^r/ to be, that is,thc Sun,Moon?,and Starres, 
to have aheing, and created them out of the firie heavens^ m 
which they have their place of being: but hec gave them bright 
light for this end and purpofe, that they might (nine through 
the region of the aire, and might multiplic their beanus mit 9 
and fo bee therein for lights to the earth. The words of the 
tsxtinthc onginail doenotcxpreflely affirme, that God made 
them of the matter ofyhe airy region the firmament, or that hec 

L thsre 

*^ The bun > Moonc > 4«aScarrts c giV£'«roitZ.g//5. 

there-placed them: but onely that he gave tkm to be lights^nd to 
fnme through the aire upon the earth: & though the bodie & fub- 
itance of Sun,Moone,and Stars be fet and placed in the ftarry hea- 
ven or firmament ; yet they arc lights in the airy firmament, and 
through it give light to the earth. And this I prove by ade- 
monftration gather J from the text it felfe: For where the 
Snn,and Moone, and Starres, are given to divide bet-went (Uyund 
night , and to bee for feafons, days' andy cares, and to rule over the 
day *nd over iti night -, there God gave them to bee for lights. 
This is mod certaine and manifest >r theStw doth no other way 
rnk life <&/,nor the Lftfoons the mgh:,h\£ onely by their light & by 
appearing one while & not another in thefeverall hemifphxres 
of heaven to the earth below*. Now they divide the day from the 
jught, and make difference oi feafons, dayes and ye ares onely in 
the lo weft heavens- and in. the earth : for above, in the ftarry hea- 
ven,the Sun, Moone, and Starres tfoemineaU alike continually; 
there is one perpetuall day oflightandno night or darkeneffe 
from the beginning to the end of the World: It is the funs ap- 
fearing to one fide of the earth for a time, once in 24. houres,. 
v/hich makes the day; and the abfence and not appearing of it 
for the reft of th 224. hour es to that fide of the earth , which 
makes the night there; and both day. and night make a civillday, 
and feven fuch dayes a Wee\^ y and four weekes a Moneth, and 
2*a. moneths a 7V*r,and the feafons of Summer, Winter,Spring 3 
and Autumne, have place onely on earth, and in the loweft airie 
heaven,not in the ftarry heaven. Therefore God gave them^and 
fet them to be lights , that is, to give light in the aire and to the 

And thus the doubt is fully cleared; and the firft thing opened ? 
to wit 7 Gods commanding lights to bee in the firmament of hea- 

The nf€ of The fecond tiling commanded is the nfe of thofe Lights. 

skcKii The firft uf e is , to divide the day from the night, that is, the time 

of light from the time of darkneflc. For clearing of which point 
wee are to consider , Firft, what is here properly meant by day 
and night , and how the lights divide them one from another. 
Secondly^ ow there could be a divifion betwecne day and n'gh y 
Uforethefe Lyksfih* Sun ? Vcone. and Starr cs were made. Vrrft 

«- ■ — 

What meant by Day and Nighr. 1 3 9 

. — — — - - ■' 1 

by day we arc here to underftand net the fpace of the SunrMoone. 
and Starres, compading the earth, which is the fpacc of 24. 
houres; for that day confifb of an evening and a morning, and 
comprehends in it one night ; and ibme call it a ntturall, and 
ibme a civilly and fome an efironomicall day. but here by day 
wee are to underftand the time while (he Sun,the greatcft light., 
(hincsand gives light upon the face of the earth : And by tight 
the time while the Moonc and Starres doe onely appeare and 
givctheir dimme light upon the earth, which fome call an**-- 
tificiall and c will day and night y but others doe more properly 
call it a naturall day , and a tuttvraH night. The day in this fenfc 
hath no night in it, and the night in this fcnle is no part of the 
day;but thefe two, being the one the time of darkneffeor dimmc 
light,& the other the time of clcare light,arc fo oppofite,that they 
cannot both bee at once in one and the fame part of the World* 
Now as the vifible World confiltsof divers inaine parts or ele- 
ments; and the motions of the Sun, Moone,a:id Starres arc mod 
variable among thcmfelves; fothe day and night taken in this 
proper ienfe arc .mod; variable. 

Hrit, the day, as it is a time cf light, doth in refpect of fome 
parts of the World comprehend in it the whole time from the 
firft creation of the Sun and of the (tarry hesveas, the making 
of which brought in the firft morning or day-light; as for exam- 
ple,Evcr fince the flrie heavens were made and created a bright 
fhining fubftance, they have retained their light continually, ani 
fo there hath becnea continuall day in them, and no night nor 
darknede; although the light of them, by reafon of thcvaftdi- 
ftance, doth not make day here on earth. Alfo ever fince the 
Sun was created, itfhineth moftcleare in the fine or ftarry hea- 
ven from EafttoWeft, and from the North to the South-Pole; 
when the Sun fcts in the Weft from our fight, it flruncth bright 
in the face of the full Moone, which is then rifing in the Eaft 
part of heaven, or elfethe Moone would bee darke andenclyp- 
fed: All the fhadow which the earth makes in the heavens, by 
-comming betweenethc Sun and that part of the heaven wluch 
is moftoppofite, is very little, ncarc about the compatTo of the 
body of the Moone, as in every great eclypfc of the Moonc 
may cafily bceiccnc and difcerned. Like wife th^t li^ht which 

L 2 xfii 

140 Oftbeufe of Lights. 

was the day light of the fccond day, continueth dill in the fiipe- 
riour region of the aire, and in the lowcit regions alio when 
there are no clouds, mifts, or vapours : And the light or* the 
Sun alfo anpeares continually in the moil: part of the highell 
regions of the aire,cvcn under omHemifphtre &n& hi o^r Horizon, 
when the Sun is futtheft from our light. And as there is al- 
wayes day "right in the middle heavens, fo there is al waves night 
and darkneiTe^intlTcmiditof the earth, and through all the body 
of it from the upper face to the center, which is the very middle 
and heart of it» 

Secondly , in thofe places of the World winch are direfrly 
under the North and South poles, the day, that is, the time of 
the Suns being in theirfight, is juft halfe a year; and the night 
alfo,that isjthe time of thebuns abienc^ from their figh^'is another 
halfe year. 

Thirdly, under the eqwmUHall line, which cats the licavens 
cqmlly in tlic middle betwecne the North and South poks, 
the day and night are alvvayes equall each one 12. rrourer, 
becauXe the Sun , and Moone, and Starres doe appcare fo long, 
and are hid y jft fo long againe. And thus dayes and nights 
varie according to the ieverall parts of the World, and divers 
elimats of die earth. And ever fince that God did make the 
lights in heave.i,the Sun,Moone,and Starres; they have rmdethc 
divifion betwecne the darknefle which wee call night, and the 
light which wee call day, as God here appointed. For the time 
while the Snnflrunes and rules, by giving grcatcft light in any 
part of the World, that is called the day light; and the time while 
the Sun is out of fight , and the Moone and Starres oncly fhine 
an 4 rule, that is called the night, becaufeit is a time of dimme 
light , which is darknefle in comparifon of the Sun light, as 
appeares in the words of the 1 6. Verfi. 
3*. The fecond thing, which comes to bee confideredin the fTrft 

•fife of thefe lights, is the divifion and diftincTion bctweene day 
and night iff ore this fourth dajesuvorke, when thefe lights were 
• made for this ufe. 

For clearing of this point, wee arc to call to minde fome- 
things which I have opened before, and withall adde fome 
few things more, which will make the truth inanifcft. Firft wc 


No divifion of Day and Night in Heaven. 1 4 1 

arc to know and pcrfwade our felves, that thcrcis no difference 
ordivilionbetwecne day and night, but onely in this inferior 
vtfibU JVorld y which wee fee with bodily eyes : For in the hea- 
ven of heavens , which is above the yilible World , there is 
no darkneffe, neither can bec at any time; but there is the in- 
heritance of the Saints in light , and the light thereof is fpirituall 
and to us fupernaturall. And in Hell, whercfoevcr that is, there 
is nothing but blacknejfc of darknejfe for ever, z^pct.i, 17 .IhJc 
13. Secondly, the time of day -light , which is called the 
morning, and the time of night and of darknefic, which is called 
the event**, in the three firft dayes did much differ from the eve- 
ning and morning x that is, the time of darkneilc and light, m 
the reft of the dayes after that the Sun, Moonc, and Starres were 
made. For the evening, that is, the time of darknefleor night, 
in the firft day was onely the time while all this inferiour 
World remained in that rude informed made- without forme 
and void, which was all over-fpread with dar%nejpr,md had no 
light in it: And the morning, that is, the time of light and of 
day, was the time after that God formed the light, that is the 
riric or ftarry heavens; for they were in thcmfelvcs full of light, 
and had cleare day in them without the Sun, before the light 
of them was united in the Sun, Moone,and Starres : I fay from 
the forming of them, untili God began to create thefpacious 
airie firmament , it was cleare day in fo much of the vifiblc 
World as was perfectly formed , that is, in the firie heavens, 
which are called light ; arrd that was twelve hourcs at theleaft. 
But when God began to create out of the rude mafle full of 
darkneffe the lowcft heavens, the aire, which is a fpacious re- 
gion, while the earthy and watcrifli. parts were fetling down- 
ward, and the aire was a purging and growing into purity ; 
untili it became pure and cleare , there was a time of darkneilc 
and dimneffe in it; which I conceive to bee the fpace of a night 
about twelve hourcs : And the time after that it was made pure 
and received into it the light of the heavens mining clearly 
in it , W3S the morning or time of day-light i urhcient for fo 
much of the World as was then created, which was twelve 
hourcs more,and made up the fecond day. 
Then God begin to create, the water a and thedric Un&, ar.i 

L 3 v hiTc 

14* Of the (j cation of CloudSjMifts,*^ Vapours. 

while the earth was fetling downward to the center, and the 
waters, being made of the thinner and lighter part of the matte 
which remained, did cover the face of the earth which was 
created round in the middle of them,this was the fpace of twelve 
hourcs, and it was a time of darknefle upon the earth which lay 
hid and covered with all the waters which are now in the Seas 
and Rivers, and this was the night of the third day upon earth. 
But after that God made the great and hollow vallies, which 
are now the receptacles of the waters, and made thehilsand 
drie land ftand up and appeare above the waters, being gathered 
into that hollow place; there was a time of day- light for 
the light of the heavens, which then had in them all that light 
ty'hich is now gathered and united in the bodies of the Sun, 
Moone, and Starrcs, did fhinc upon the face of the earth for the 
fpacc of twelve hcurcs; in which God made the grade, and the 
herbes bearing feeed, and the trees of all kinds bearing fruits jand 
this was the third day. 

Now after this day ended, God created clouds, and mifls, and 
vapours; which ,afcending up into the middle region of the aire, 
did make a time of darkneife, and a nijht upon the face of the 
Earth and the Sea ; and this was the evening or night of the 
fourth day. But when after twelve houres God had made 
the lights in the firmament, the Sun, Moone, and Starrcs, then 
came in the morning, that is, the time of light; in which the Sun 
fiiining bright upon the earth made the fourth day; and ever 
fincc that fourth day, the divifion betweene the day and night is by 
means of the Sun, Moone, and Starrcs. For all the while that 
the Sun appeares and (hines upon the upper face of the earth, 
that is the day-time in that place; and while the Sunisabfcnt, 
and the light thereof is not fcen,and there is no light except 
of the Moone and the Starres, that is the time ofdarkneffcand 
of the night. 

This is the flrfl ufe of thefe lights expreffed in my text, even 
so divide betweene the day and betweene the night. 

The fecond ufe for which God made thefe lights and ap- 
pointed them, is to bee for figncs, and for feafevs, and for dajes, 
4,nd for jeares . 

lirltj, they are ioxfgnes to men, both of things jupewatttrt^, 


Lights create J for dtftinHion offta/ons/tmes^c. 1 4 3 

that is, to fhew the glory, the wifcdome and the power of God 
and his admirable love toman, in making fuch great, and glo- 
rious fhining lights for his tiie;and alfo they are iignes of things 
ruturall, as of faire, foule, and feafonablc weather, and fuch like; 
for the Mu^/arifiug,arefignes q*l fweet Jhown % which make 
the earth to fpring, Iob$$. 31. The dogge-Starre arifing, is a 
fignc of fcorching heat; the Moone alfo by her change, and rlii! , 
and middle quarters, is a f ignc of high and low tydes,and Row- 
ings of the Sea ; and the divers colours of it , fhew divers 
changes of weather. , 

Secondly, they are for feafons. For the Suns declining to the 2 * 
South tinty makes the fhortelt dayes to thern who live North- 
ward from the equino&iall, and the Autumns and Winter fea- 
ion; but when it comethback tothcequinocliall, it makes the 
fpring feafon; and when it comethtothe northerne Tropic^, it 
brings in the hot Summer, and declining againe to the equmo- 
ftialf, it brings in Autumne and the harveil feafon. 

Thirdly, they ferve for d/tjes andyeares. For the motion of the j J 
Sun, Moone, and Starres, round about the heavens in 24. honrcj, 
makcth a day in the large fenfe, that is, a chill day ; And the ap- 
pearance and fhining of the Sun upon the face of the earth, mahes 
a day of light, that is, a natwdl day,- and the fctting and abfence 
of the Sun make the night. 

The motion of the Moone in her proper courfe thorough 
the twelve fignes oftheZ^'^from change to change,and from 
full to full, makes a moneth of fourc weeks ; And the proper 
motion of the Sun thorough the fame twelve fignes, makes a 
yeare of twelve diftincl folary moneths; And the Moone by her 
foure quarters , makes four Weeks every one of feven dayes: 
And the concurrence of the Sun, Moone, and Starres, returning 
to their fcvcrall places, make fet times for civ ill and EcclefiajH- 
call ufc, as for feafts of Eafter, Pentecoft, and the like, which are 
appointed by God and his Church to bee obferved yearly for 
Gods honour and for remembrances of fome great works of 
mercy performed by God and by Chrift, for mans deliverance 
and falvario . 

Thclaft and maineufeof all is, to give light upon Earth*, for, 
by giving of light and fhining in, and thorough the aire, they 

L 4 cauic 

1 4 4 The lights made to divide the Day from Night. 

caufe heat, and moyfture, and drienefie; and by their feverall 
degrees, afpc&s, and reflexions of beames and light,they yeeld 
their influence and chenfh and worke upon things below; they 
alio make all things vifible to men and other creatures , and by 
their light wee come to lee an J difcerne all things here vifible; 
without which fight and vifibiliiy , no man can pcribrmc the 
worksfbr which God created and placed him on earth. 

And io much for opening the firft maine thing in my texr„ 
to wit, Gods commanding lights to bee in the firmament of hea- 
ven for the fpeciall ufes here named, laid downe in the 14. and 

The fecond mainc thing, is his bringing of the worke to 
parte bjhuf wverfull 'Word, and making it to bee in allrefpe&s 
according to his counfell,will and word. This is laid downe, 
hrft fummarily,in the laft ciaufeofthe 1 j. Verfe, in thefe words, 
and it watfo; that is, as Ged laid a id commanded, £o it was done 
prefently. Secondly, it is more largely defenbed in the next 
Words, Verfe 16,17,18. And God made ty*o great lights ,ths grea- 
ter to rule tbedajytheleffe to rule the night; hee made alfo the Starres. 
And Goi fet them in the firmament to give light upon- the Earth, 
avdto divide light anddarknejfe. 

Firft,of whatfoever God fad, Let it be, it was made, & for the 
fame ufe as here we read:For as he faid,Let there be lights , and le^ 
them be to divide the day from the right; fo he made lights, and 
gave them in the firmament of heaven to divide day from nighD 
and to ferve for the ufes which hee appointed. 

Secondly, it is here faid, that God himfelfe made thofe lights; 
no Angels, or others befides himfelfe were commanded to 
inakethem,nor had any hand in creating them. 

Thirdly* the lights, which were before generally mentioned > 
arc here more fpecially and particularly rehcarfed and exprefTed, 
and the feverall orrices of them all. Two of them are faid to 
bee great lights, one greater, that is, the Sun to rule the dav; the 
other lejfer , that is, the Moone to have dominion in the night \ 
the reft of the lights are faid to bee the Starres . 
Of tbc Firft,for the Sun, that is called the greateft light, and that moft 

Sun* tm iy an cj properly; both for the body and fublhnce of it, and 

alfo for the bright neffe and aboundance of the light which is m 

Of tbt Sun aud Moone. 1 4 5 

it; For the moft skilful! Mathematicians have obferved and 
demonftrated, that the very body of the Sun doth exceed the 
whole earth in bigneffc 166. times; and our owneeyes arc wit- 
nclTes of the grcatneflfe of the light in it , farrc exceeding all 
bodily lights,and dazling our weake fight. 

Secondly, the Moone is alio called * great light (though lefler Of the 
then the Sun;) not for the bignefle ofthebodieofit, but be- Mocnc 
caufe it is the loweft of all the Planets^ and ncarcft unto the earthy 
and therefore appcares biggeft of all next unto the Sun, and gives 
to the earth a greater light then any of the Starres, which arc 
brre greater in fubftance , and brighter in light, for the 
moft skilfull Mathematicians have found by their art, that it 
is 39. times letter then the earth, and the lead of all the Starres 
except Mercury , which is the Planet next above it : And 
thole Starres which are (aid to bee of the fir ft Magnitude y zxc 
ibme of them obferved to bee 18. times bigger then the earth. 
And although the. Moone, being the lowclt and neareft of 
all the heavenly lights unto the earth, and therefore more 
dimme in it felfe, and of a more impurabodie and fubftance, as 
appearcs by the cloudy fpecks in it, (Lining very little ofit felfe, 
may in that rcfpecT: bee called one of the leaft lights : yet becaufe 
it borrows tight from the Sun, fhining in the face of it as in a 
looking glaile, and becaufe* it is 18. times lower then the Sun, 
and nearer to us then the earth is; lower then it, as Mathemati* 
cians have obferved, and foit is nearer to the earth then the 
Sun almoft 18. hundred thoufand miles ; therefore in our eyes 
it appeares the greateft of all the lights next to the Sun: And 
Mofes. here fpeaking according to the capacity of the vulgar, 
and our outward fenies, and the fenfible erfefts of light which 
the Moone gives to the earth, cals it one of the two great lights. 
And as hee gives to the Sun the office and prerogative of ruling 
the day , becaufe the fight and of the Sun makes the 
day light, and fmoothcrs and obfeures all other lights in the 
day time: fo hee gives to the Moone the oirice ot ruling the night, 
becaufe when it appeares in the night , it giveth more light 
to us here on earth then all the other Starres, 

Thus wee fee, that as God faid, fo every thing which w T as 
mndw in the fourth day came topaffc;God himfelre made every 

1 4 6 Gsi u/ed no injlmments in the Q cation, 

thing by his eternal! Wordy according to bis owne ctcrnall Coun- 
fell/minde, and will. And therefore no marveil though hec 
gives approbation to this dayes workealfo, which is the third 
ftiaiue thing in the text, exprefled in theie words, And Godfax* 
that it was good. And fo the Sun, having ihined for the {pace 
of twelve houres, till it had pa &sd- through one Hemifphxre or 
Julie of heaven; that time or morning of light, together with 
the evening or time of darknefle going before it, and caufedby 
clouds, mills and vapours over-lhado wing the Earth, is called 
the fonrtbdaj. 

Now this Hiftory of the fourth dayes worke, as I have ex- 
pounded it 3 affords us fome points of mftru&ion. 
:< x . Firft, in that herbes, graiTc,plants, and trees, were made per- 
N )in'.Uu. feft in their kinde before any Raine, or Dew, or Sun, Moone, 
ulcd and Starrcs were created; Hence wee may lcarne, that God ufed 
in the area- fjctlnflrumentSy nor helpe of any creatures in the creation of any 
thing; but made and formed every creature himfelfe by hiseter- 
vali Word and Spirit , who are with him one and the tame Ieho* 
vahj infinite, almighty and omnipotent. For further proofc 
whereof, there are many teftirnonics in the holy Scriptures, as 
I fa. 40. 3i t 22. and 66. 2. where the Lord appropriated to 
himfelfe y and to his ww hand, the creating and making of heaven 
and earth, andloh. 1.3. and Colof. 1, 16. where all things arc 
laid to bee created by the ctematt Word the Son\ and aifo by the 
Spirit j P fa/me 3 3 . 6. 
y, e This Doctrine admonifaeth us to give all the glory of the 
wifedome, power, and goodneffe, (hewed in the creation, to , 
God alone; and to acknowledge that all things created, even the 
whole World and all things therein,*/* the Lords; alfo to make 
us admire his rich bountie,& to render all thanks to his holyMa- 
jefty for all the profit, benefit, and comforts, which wee receive 
from any of Gods creatures. 
Do fir. 2. Secondly , wee may hence learne and obferve, the ytifedome 
Great* and wife providence of God, in making every thing in due fcafon, 
wifedome and nothing before there was need of it for the creatures,which 
of God in were next in order to bee made; for hec did not create the lights 
the Oca- of Sun, Moone,and Starres, together with the flarry heavens, 
which is the place ofthem, untill hec was about tolerate living 

""' things 

Tkfs World not the place of mm immutable fwfcftbn* 5 47 

things which could not well bee, nor move according to their 
kindc, without fuch lights gaining in the earth and in the wa- 

Which wife providence of God, is 1 pattcrneancl direction f ' 
to us to doe all things in order: in the rirtt place, thingsVecel- 
iaric and fffefull for the well-being, and bringing to pafle of 
things which arc afterwards to bee done; and nothing which 
may bee and remaine without ufe and profit. As God would 
not make the Sun, Moonc, and Starres, together with the firft 
light, the firie heavens, on the firft day, becanfe then there w 
no ufe nor ncceflfitie of them; but deferred the creation of the . 
untill the fourth day, when there wss ufe and ncccility to m 
a cleare day-light/ and living aeatures endued with life, ienie, 
and fight were to bee made in the two nextdayes following, 
whofc life without (uch cleare day light would have becne but 
like the lhadow ofdeath; provide 
things necellary and ufcfull, when wee fee and perceive that wee 
(half have preicnt ufe of them, and not bee like foolifh prodi- 
gail and fantafticail 6uilders, w r ho build (lately houfes like pa- 
laces with large barnes, ftables,and ftals, when neither they nor 
theirs are in any way or poflibility to furnifh them with come, 
horfcs orcattell, or to make ufe of them for fit and necellary 

Thirdly, though the glory of God doth more appcare in Do^r a y. 
light of day thcn,indarkneflc of night; and it was and is in Gods 
power, to make more great lights and divers Sunnes in feverall 
places of the heaven, tofninc in all the World at once, and to 
make a pcrpetuall day on earth : yet hce made them fo, tli3ton 
the earth, in this lower and inferiour World , there (ho aid bee as 
much night as day,and darkneiTe as light; whereby hee tetcheth 
us even from the creation, that this earthly World was not made 
to bee the place of mans immutable perfection and bleUedneflc; 
but a place of changes and alterations; whtrsin, by region of 
darkneffe, the Prince ofdarknefTe may rule, rage and tyrannife 
by himiclfc and his wicked inftruments; and drive us tofceke 
a better reft, and an incorruptible and undefifed inheritance referved in { p 
htavtMi in the place of pcrpetuall light. The whole bookc of 
the wife Prcwh;r is an ample tcltimony of this truth, and a large 


1 4 8 r Perfect felicity net to bt found in Earth 

commentary upon this Doctrine; for it w holy tends to make 
men loath this infoiour World under the Sun* wherein there 
is nothing but changes , and vanity of vanities ^ and all is va- 
yr Wherefore let us not fceke for immutability nor ug changablc 

peace and profperity here on earth, left wee bee found as fooiifh 
as tho(e builders who build and fet up goodly houfes on a fandy 
foundation, which may eafily bee beaten downe, and ruined 
with every wind, wave, and temped. They who fettle their 
reft on earth , and here fceke perfect felicity and immutable 
'ion, 4» bkffedncffe; they truil undertheihadowandihelterofa^W, 
vvhichmay grow up in one night, and in the next night wi- 
ther away> and perifh, and bring much griefc and forrow to 
them, which will vex them, and drive them like Ionah toim- 
patiency and anger agaimt God their Creatour. Let us looke 
up to heaven where is light without darkncfTc, and an ever- 
iafting day without any night ; and bend ail our courfe to that 
countrie above, and long for everlafting light and glory, which 
the blclTcd Saints and Angels there enjoy in the prefence of 
God, and at his right hand, where are pleafnresfor evermore. 

Chap. X. 

The fifth dayes -work*. Offices and fowles; All wade in perfeB 

ypifedomefVfcs. Two notable properties of fijhes : their fenfitive 
foule, and matter. The matter of birds. Of other flying things, 

Of whales. Of the fruit fttlnejfe of fijhes. Cods infinite power 
jioyned with infinite wifedome : Vfits. All is made by thrift, and 

I kewifc befiowed on us ; Vfe. Cods great providence for mankind?: 


Vsife 2 0. A NdGodfaidy Let the Waters bring fbr aboundtntly the mo* 

XA ving creature which hath life : iAnd let the fowle fiie above 

the earth in the open firmament of heave*. 21. i^fnd God created 

great whales 3 & every living creature that moveth y which the waters 

brought forth aboundantly after their kinde } and every winged fowl* 


(jcd bath created ail tbinos tn H>tJedou:e. i 4 9 

after his kind? ^ and God few that it was good. 22. And GodiUf- 
fsdtlxm ,f*}i*g, Bse fruit full and m:iltiply y and fill the waters in 
the Sca> and la ferric m%ltiplie in the Eartk % 23, And the even wg 
and the morning were thcfijth day. 

In thefc wends Wee have the Hiftory of the fifth dayes worke, 
which was the creation of all living creatures which live and 
move in the two moid elements, .the water and the air?, to wit-, 
fifes md moving creatures which live and move in the waters; 
and all kinds of fowlcs which flic in the open region of the aire, 
which is here called the open firmament of heaven. Firit, wee 
have Gods powerful/ Word and commandement given for the 
bringing of 'them into being, in the 2c Verfe. Secondly, wee 
have Gods creation of them and bringing them into being by 
his mighty Word; together with his approbation of them m the 
21. Verfe. Thirdly , Gods bleffing of them with the blefling 
of frm\ tfti In:- Jfe andtnereafe, Verfe 22. Laftiy, the time wherein 
all things were done, to wit, in the (pace and compile of the 
fifth day, Verfe 2?. 

Firif, as in all other works Godfaid, Let them kt*\ f > here hee God dot* 
dill proceeds to create every thing h his eternal I fVord:$o muci al - on good.; 
thisphraie lignineth^as I have before mewed, it alfo intimates aavlcc * 
thus much unto us, that God did not fuddcnlyand unadvifedly 
create any of thefc things , but according to huset small CoHnfU* 
as hee in h.s infinite wiiedomc had pttrpofediwd determined in 
himfeife from all eternity. For wee rinde by experience among 
men,that when any workman doth fay before hand of the vvorke 
which hee goeth about ;Thut I mil make *>,and Thus let it bee y it 
is a cleare evidence that hee doth it with advice, as hee hath 
framed it in his mind, and determined it by his will; and there 
fore Mofes here ufed this forme of fpcech, that God-faid firfi t 
Let things bee, and then hee created tkem^X.0 teach us, that God had 
from all eternity framed them in his decree, and determined 
them in his Counfelland Will to bee fuch as hee made them in 
the creation. 

Whence wee may gather this Doftrine : That God hath crea- Don-. 
tedall things in w ijedome^ and never doth any worker ajljly, without 
connfell or cciifidcTAtioni fat orders and brings to paffc every thm<r % 
ft as he hath pwrpofed } with ftrfeU knowledge ami u*dsrpmutng t 


150 Gods wifedome mawfifitd in allhis*toorks. 

This is that which the Prophet David doth preach and pro- 
claime with admiration, Pfi.lme 104.. 34. faying, O how mam* 
fold are thy works ! in wifedome ahd haft thou made them all. And 
his wife Son Solomon, Proverb. 3. 19,20. faith, the Lord by wife* 
dome hath founded the earthy by under funding hath hee cftablijbed 
the h?av?ns, by his knowledge the d?pths are broken up, and the chads 
dropdown? dew. And ler, 10. 12. and 51. 15. The Prophet 
arfirmes,tkat God hath made rhe earth by his power, and hath 
cia'Tillied the World by his wifedome ^ and ftrctched out the 
heavens by this difcretmn. Yea the actions of revenge upon ene- 
mies, which m-ndoe for the moft part rafhly, and run in to 
them head-long without difcretion, God doth in wifedome, 
and understanding, and according to his wife Counfell ,as holy 
lob tcitifieth, Ub 16. 12. faying, He divide th the Sea with his 
pewer^ and by his undsrftanding fmiteth through the proud. And, 
in a Word , that God hath made all things wifely and wi:h 
good understanding , b that in every creature his wifedome 
and counfell appeares,wcemay plainely fee by dayly experience, 
and by that which lab faith, chap. 1 2. 7, 8, p. to wit, that if 'wee 
ask? the beaftsy they will teach; mdthefowles of the aire y t hey fhall tell 
pss : or ifweefpeak* to the earth >it /hall inftruth tu; or to the fijhes of 
the Scajhey /hall declare unto ns-jvho hnoweth not in all tbefc things 
that the hand of the Lord hath wrought thii? that is, wee may fee, 
and read Gods wifedome in all his works; for, as it folio wes, 
Verfe i^.With him is wifedome and ftrength, he hath counfell and 
underftanding; and thefehec fheweth manifeftly in all his works 
and doings. 
yj e I# firft, this Do cTrine fcrves for direction to all men in all their 
lee fol- works and doings, how to doe all things according to the pcr- 
lowecs of feci: pater ne and true rule of all well-doing . The rule of all mans 
God as actions ought to bee the will of God> who created him and gava 
jv^ e "him his whole being; and the perfect paterne whom the Sons 
of God ought to follow in all their works,is, God who formed 
them after his owne image; fo that the perfe&ion of man confifts 
in his conformity to God; and the more or lefTe hccrefembles God 
in all his waves, the more or leffe perfecT hce is, and the nearer 
or further from perfection and true happineffe. Now here this 
■Doftrinc tcacheth , that God hath created all things in wife- 

dwne 3 


M.M mujl imitate fyd m all Us Tbayes and 'Works. 1 5 1 

dome, and doth all his workes according to his determinate 
couufcil,and with perfect under [landing, and nothing rafnly 
without condderatioru Wherefore, as wee deftre to order our 
wayes aright, and vrdUc in the right and ready pathes which 
Lead unto peric&ion • and as wee have a minde to doe all our 
works fo as that they may bee profitable and comfortable to> 
our felves and others : io let us imitate G.d in all our wayes and 
works ,and never doe any thing rafhly without confulting with 
his word; want of this marres all : when men follow their 
owne lulls and head-ftrong will and affections, and confult not 
with Gods Word; then they follow their owne wayes, and for- 
fake the wayes of God; then they doe their owne worlds, not the 
works of God ; and thoic wayes and works of their owne will, 
procure all evils and mifchiefes unto them, according to that of 
the Prophet, Itr. 4 18, thy wayes and doings have procured thefe 
things tmto zhcc\ tht* %s thy rvkkcdmffe becaufe it is bitter , becattfc 
itreacbeth tmto thine heart. Whereas ,on the contrary, they that 
waike after Gods wayes, and take his counfell along with than 
in all their doings, and doe nothing rafhly, but fo as God by his 
VVord puts into their heart ; they shall bee holy and wile in their 
degree , as God is wile and holy; and by holineflc (hall come ta 
ice God, and the reward and end of their doings Hull bee glory, 
honour,immortality,.and eternal I likyRom. 2,7, 

Secondly , feeing God hath made all things in wifedome, and ffc *> 
according to his cternall Counfell; this ferves to ffirre us up How [• 
fo to behdd and confidcr all things created by God, as that wee Y1C * l | ie 
may ice and difcernc his wifedome in their very frame; and 
if wee doe not fee and difcerne the image of Gods wife- 
dome and goodneffe in them all , and a good ufe of them 
all; let us blame our owne blindneflfe and ignorance, and 
not vilifie , or dif-eftceme any worke or any creature of 
God : But if wee findc any creature which feemes unprofita- 
ble, or hurtfull altogether, and ferving for no good- ufe; 
let us know, that it is mans fin which hath made the crea- 
tures ftibjeel to vanity, and hatefull and hurtfull to men; And yet x Q *n g . \ %] 
in the meanc time Gods wifedome appearcs in ordering aod 
difpoling to a good u(e, even by the enmity, hOrtfulncffe, loath- 
<mc poilbnand ukhincflc which is in them, to chaftife and 

1 5 1 Of the creation c/Fi flies. 

corrcd his owr.e people , and to put them in remembrance of 
their (infulnefle and corruption, that they may fbrfake and mor- 
tific it by repentance, or to punilh the impenitent, and execute 
juic vengance on the wicked in the day and timeof his vifita- 
tion. And upon thefe confederations, let us all, fo often as wee 
ice or remember the unprofitablerxiTe,loathfomneiTe and poifon 
which is infome creatures, bee ilirreckip to repent of our finncs 
which have brought them under this corruption for a fcourgc 
of ourdif-obedience; and let us firmely bcleeve, that God in 
wifedome ufcth them to punifh the wicked and to correct his 
people, and bee willmakeusfccin all his wifedome fnirung 
clearly at the lath 

But now, from the Word of God, I proceed to that which 
bee fet himielfe to doe by his eternall Word , according to his 
will and purpole ; this is in thefe words', Let the waters bring 
forth ah oundantly every moving creature that hath life , and let the 
forv le flic above the Earth* The things which here God lets him- 
felfe to create are of two ibrts ; Firft, all creatures which live 
and have their being in the clement of water, all fifhes and other 
creatures, which live in the Sea, Rivers,Lakes, and ali other wa- 
ters ■ Secondly, all/<w/«, birds , and flying things which flie above 
the Earth in the open region of the aire. 
O c fifties. ^ ie ^ ^ ort are a ^ ca ^ C( * ty thi* gcncrall name V W Avhich is 
Their two ^ crc tranflated , the movmg creature, and m the Hebrew fignifieth 
notabk a creature which is molt notable for thefe two properties: 
properties. Firft, that it is a living crcature,which moves,not by going upon 
1. feetonely, or by flying with wings; but by creeping or jlidingi 
and moving forwards, as wee fee fiihes doc m the water, and 
creeping things doc in and upon the earth. Secondly, that it breeds 
and brings forth young in great aboundance, more then any other 
creatures doe ; as wee fee the fiihes, which by the multitude of 
ipawne would increaie beyond all meafure and number ,if by one 
rneanes or other the ipawne were not devoured and coniumed. 
For the Hebrew verbe 2DU? , of which the word 1T/CJ , which 
is here tranflated the moving creature, is derived; isufed as in my 
text, fbin other Scriptures frequently, firft to iignificow^/w^, 
cr moving forw/trd without feet, zsGeu.j. 21, and Levit. u. ip« 
and izconily alfo to bring forth abowndantly as here, and alio, 



Fowl's V>ere created o>i the fifth d*f. i ft 

„, — -^~ — ■ ■ ' » 

Exod. 1.7. where the children of Ilrael are faid /<? ;*f >***/* a- 

But le r wee fhould thinkc that this moving creature was 
fuch as did not rrovc it felfe, but was moved by fome outward 
caufe^s things without Ufc arc, it is here called HT1 1903, that is 
a living Soul; and this ihewes that all fillies and moving crea- 
tures in the Sea and Waters have a fenfitive Soul and life in them 
created by God, which h.«h no being, neither can liibuit but 
oncly in and with thebody, iu which God creates it. This is 
the defcription of aU creatures which live and move in the 

Now for the matter of which they were made; The text 
herefeemes to expreflcit to bee the water / ; Let the waters bring 
forth: Which words (hew, as alio the words of the next verfe* 
That all creatures living and moving in the waters were made 
of 'water , as the Learned generally hold, or at leaft of fome wa- 
tcriili and (limy ibbibnee in the Sea and m other waters , for 
the waters brought them forth in aboundance. 

The fecond fort of creatures, which God let himfclfe to create Of Birds, 
on this fifth day, is the jW/d- which flieth above the earth in the 
open firmament of heaven. Our Englifli translation fciltfwfog the 
Septuagints , the Caliie ParaphMe , and the vulgar i-atine, 
f'eemes to favour an old crrour and grofte opinion, to wit, 
that fowles were created and made of the element of water; 
For thus they render in ourtonguethc words of the text, Let 
the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature , and the 
fowle which m.11 jWfl above the Earth) whereas the words in the 
original! Hebrew text are, *p"y> *\ty\ that is, and Lit the fowle 
fie upon or above the Earth. Wherefore wee ixfctfl not con- 
ceive, that God laid, Let the waters bring forth the fowle t as 
our tranfhtion runncs : for that is- contrary to the expreflc 
words of the text, fi*f. 2. 19. where it is frid, thuc Cod formed 
out of the ground every beafl and every fowle, and th it the earth 
was the matter of which they were rrjade. 

The Hebrew ramcW, which isherctranftated/W^ figni- 
ficth in general! evsry living thine, -which by helpe of wings rlieth 
above the earth in the aire! to that not oncly bird s, but al fj bees, 
waij^homctSj and ail other winged things nf where beeurs 

•M da loud, 

God fy bis pomtrfull l>vrd tjftHed i*b*tem he Killed. 

-derftood. And whereas fowlcs which were made. of die earth 
are net e (aid to file Above the earth in the open firmament of heaven^ 
or upon the face vf the firmament; here wee fee plainely that the 
firmament which God made on the fecond day and called it 
heaven, is the fpacious region of the atfe; in the open face aad 
lower part whereof row lea doe flic, and which in the Scriptures 
is called CZV2&, heaven , as well as the Harry and the higheft 
heaven are : And wee truly call ft f^jSr/^rr^bccaiiteitis 
neareft to us here on earth. 

The iocond thing which I observed in the Hiftory of this 
dayes workers Gods creating and bringing into being the things 
which bee commanded to bee; this is in the tin ver. Avd 
G*d created great whales , and <very moving creature, and every 
winged fowle. Jn thele words hee ihfcwctb, that what God fee 
himieifc to create by his powerfull word, that heeas power- 
fully effected and brought into being; $«ir(r,etwj wov'mgerea- 
utre, which Uveth and movcth in the waters, according to their 
leverall kinds, from the great whales, which are the great huge 
favouring dragons of the Sea, as the Hebrew name Dj'^D , here 
ufed doth fignifie, unto the icaft uhrimp or creeping thing which 
nioveth in the Waters. And all thofe God made and created 
ent of the witters, is the text here iaith, which the watirs brought 
forth in ahonndanec. And here obfcrve that the things which 
the waters brought 'forth arc (aid to bee created by God: which 
ihewes, that *he watcrhrotight them forth, not as one living 
thing is bred and brought forth by another, by fomc,vcrtuc, and 
power, and iced which is in it; bufronely the water was the e/e- 
rmnt in which God created them all inftantly, or at -molt the 
matter eut of which God formed them by his infinite power; 
and fo they all, and every &ind of them , have their whole being 
.from God, Sec©ndly/as ^GedfoidytAtxt is purpofed and willed, 
and let himfelfe to create fowlcs ilying above the earth: fo it is 
here laid alio that bee created them, even every winged fowle 
after his kinde , that is, every creature which meth with wings, 
and all the leverall kinds of th«m. Arid in the creating orall 
thefc there wasnoerrournerdefcir, but every living creature, 
Bih and fowle of every fort and kindc, were in every refpect an- 
* werablc to thtldt* &p*#r»c which was in the ira^e,ptirp©fe, 


CfodgaVe th bkfiirg offruitfuinefle to ail his (natures. i j < 

decree, and will of Qod : m Ood pur po fed and willed cv*y 
thing to bec,fo it was in every refpeft, and fb the Lordy*n>, and 
approved it to bee; ai the laft words of the verfe fhew, And Cud 
Jawtbat it nwjfo&l. . 

The thirdrthmgis God* bkfli*g of the creatures, made, wi A 
fruhfttinefc for increafa and multiplication, in the if. f'erfi* 
Where wee mny note two fpcciall things: 

Fir ft, that as God made and created all thefe things by his 
word , (o hce by th: fame word gave them thebiefling of fruit- 
fiilncfle ; that is, bee save them a naturall power and inclination 
to breed, and being .forth many others, every oneofhisownc 
kind , even to the replenishing oftheSeaand the waters, and 
to the multiplication of fowles in the earth. And this blcf- 
firg God ^\'zthtmbyiiyii^yBtfrmf»ll and multifile] which 
words imply, that by his eteruall Word the Son, hec bleffed. 

Secondly, wee-may here note, that the fruit fulneffc ofthefe 
creatures, and the increafecf them, was at the fkft in the crea- 
tion and ftate or innocency, not apaincfaU travcll and lab^ur^ 
nor a puaiikinant ; but a Uijf*£j a pteafure and delight to the 
creatures thetnielves,,and afpeciall token and pledge of Gods 
love and favour to man, for whole uie they were made, and 
who was the next day to bee created. 

Now, God having thus created and brought into being all 
kinds of creatures which liverand movemtrie waters^ and ail 
fowles and flying things which live and fiie above t be Earth i,i 
theatre, and having fl faJ Swl thctn with power, fbength, and 
de(ire of procreation, this dayes worke wasfmifked, and the 
evening and the morning were the fifth day, as it folio weth in 
the 2 3. r^. And this is the.lait thing in this dayes worke, 
even the time in which God made the creatures before named, 
that is, the fifth day. I need not here mew how tbti cveriingand' 
morning werediftinguifhed, for now the Sun having moved 
round aboot the heavens, and having now patfed through the 
Hoyt^m in which id was JBade the fccond trrne,mihie up another 
whole day. Aivdthusl hsVc opened the whole Hiftoryofthis 
davTs. worke ^from- which wee may obicrvc divers • inftiu- 

M a Fir ft,. 

5 6 Qcdi power mamfejkd'm the Lreaimi of fyb&es. 

T>oUr. i. Firft, wee m a^' hence learne to know and difcernc tbeinfi- 
G ds in- nit: powei* and omnipotency of God joyned with infinite wile- 
k p ' itc ? *'- domcand knowledge, who in one day made the great whales 
v fhHf, of the Sea, altogether with them all creatures, which nil broad 
rihewife* a«14 Wide Sras, £nd ali/W^ W wlttged^ creatures, which flic in 
dome, the aire. In the booke-of lob, chap* JplS God himfelfe doth dc- 
inonitrate his owne power and omnipotency, by the creation 
of the great ivhale the Leviathan of the Sea, which hee there de- 
(cribcs"to bee an huge, ftrong, and- dreadfuil creature, the very- 
tight' of which' is able to*-caft one downc,. Verfe 9. and none Ufa 
fierce, as that hee dare ft irre him up, Verfe 10. Hu breath kindle th 
coales, and a flartje goeih out of his mouth, fcrfe 21. when hee rai- 
feth up ktmjelfe the mighty are affraid , Verfe 2$. Hee eftcemeth 
iron as f haw, and 'bra fleas rotten wood, Verfe 27 » tAnd he ntaketb - 
the deep to Ivi leglike a pot. And as for the multitude and variety 
of other living creatures in the waters, and of fowles ana 
winged creatures which fife in the aire above the earth, they 
are more then any fraile man can learne to know all the dayes 
Whales in. of his life j and yztinoxedaj God made all thefe by his power- 
drcdible full word. I need not adde any thing oat of hiftories concer- 
greajneffe. n j n g fa huge greatnefle of Whale*,." which have bcene feene 
fomeof 600. fbotelong, iomeof the length of fbure acres of 
ground, fomelike mountaines/and fome like Hands, as divers 
Writers report; that which God himfclfehath faid of the great 
Whale is Sufficient to make us fcc in him the mighty power of 
God the creatour. 
Vfi U Let us therefore hereby bee* admonished to feare this G*d, 
tb tremble with awefull reverence of his Majeity; to beware 
of driving, or fctting our felves againfthim, or any under his 
fhadow , and protection; to bee aftraid of committing finnes 
which may provoke htm to wrath againft us : And, if hee£*<? 
with us ^ to allure our felves and to bee confident that none fhall 
prevaile againft us, but hee will bring all our enemies to con* 
ffc 2* Secondly, in that God is fo infinite in wifedome and know- 
ledge, joyrtcd with omnipotency, and caii make fo' many kinds 
•f creatures at once,- and allof them mod perfect in their kindct 
Let u^ know, that, if wc bee in want, it is the boil way toftco 

h to 

(Blejsings from Qoiare fS befougbtfor by Chrift. i }? i 

to him. If wee bee befefc wither.cmies, and a thou&nd dangers, 
w eenecdenot fear c, hce can fee and know and prevent thein 
all; no multitude of buifineffe can draw his mindeor eye from 
us;' for asheefceth all things at once, fo hce can in a moment 
bring innumewibLe things to-palTe. 

Secondly, £S God made all things Oj his eternal? JVord the pa&r.ll 
Son * fo in, by, and through the Son Eke befrowes all his favours Ali made 
artd'bletfings. Vor here wee iee,* that as ,7 hu yVordhcQ made, iad be- 
ibbjThis'Word'hec bkffed t& rirfthvi ng creatures which, hee* owc * °» 
made; and otter Scriptures prove this pl'aiiKly,for his pto'nuie",*? 
is that all nations md families rf the earth /bail bee Uejfed in * 

hi*f> Gen. n. 3.andi8.i8.and 22. i&and 28.14. Al ^ the 
Aoottle tcftirktb, JEpbef. 1. 3« that XjodbUjfetb us with all fori- 
tuali bleffmgs in heavenly things in Clsrifi. 

The conlideration whereof fcrvxs to ftirre us up to leeks ya\ 
aU bleflings from God the Pathcrby the Son and in his name, 
and to aicribc and give all glory ,praife and thanks for all bfefi 
{ings to God in him, and to rejoyce in his name, acknowledging 
that ali hope of good which wee^have from God , is from God 
as hee is become our Father in his Son Chrift. 

Thirdly , in that God created fo many kinds of Fi&es in the Dcltr. ? # 
Sea, and Vowles in the aire to fcrve man, and bleffcd them with Gods great 
frmtfulmfie for mans uic, before toon was made: Hence wee learne providence 
how carefuli and provident God is for mankinde, providing f? r , maH * 
things needfull before-hand, to welcome him into the World, c * 
and there to give him gracious and bountifull entertain- 

Which ought to provoke and ftirre us up, to bee on the o- yr e4 
ther fide , for our part , carefuli and diligent to provide before- 
hand all things which may tend to the glory of God, and. may 
fiwnifn us and fit us to glorifie his holy Majcfty; And alio tc» 
reprove and convince of hatcfull ingratitude ail people who 
alter many provocations by fo many bleilings have no provi- 
dence nor care to ufc meanes, which hereafter may promote the 
Gofpeil for the glory of Chrift, and the advancement of his 
Xingdomc: Alio all them who with the prefent fight of 
evill times areio dilcouraged and dejected, that, as men with- 
out hope or cxpeftation of goed hereafter, they utterly neglect: 

M 3 XA 

158 Of "the fixtb dayesVorfe. 

m n - • • 

to provide for the future glory of God, and of Chrift in his 
Church, advanced among their children and pofterity in fiiccse- 
ding ages. 

^- Chap. XL 

'JEJxji'xtb'iifWs mnkt.\ Of CSkUtlii Beafts, and creeping things. 

^AUniadeof God .byGhrijl the Word. Therefore abufe- them not, 

s fort ft the Lard of all. All" kinds of living creatines, made of 

Gcd'.even the meanej}^ and y&orft; Vfcs* All ready made for man % 

before btmfclfe wo*, made: Vfi, Mans food in innocencj , -what: 


Verfe «4* \. NdGodfaid, Let the Earth hrmg forth the living creature 
£\ after fell kind, Cattell And creeping things and Beafl of "he 
Earth after his kind^ and it was fo. 25. And God made the Beajl of 
the Earth after bis kwie , and Cat tell after their kind, and every 
thing that creepeth upon the Earth after his kind, and God faw 
that it teas good, 16. And God faid^ Let us make man in our 
smage , after our hktnefie : and let tjoem rule over the fijb of the 
Sea, and the finale of the aire, and over the (fattell and overall the 
Earph , and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the 

In the laft part of this Chapter id thefe words and thofc 
which follow to the end of the Chapter, wee have the fixth 
dayes workc of the creation briefely and fumrnarily laid downc 
il Firfl:, C\fofis here fhewes, that by the fame power, and after 

the fame manner as God created all other things in this vifible 
World; fo hec made and brought into beingthe creatures which 
live and move in and upon the earth. For hee faid, Let the 
earth bring forth the living creature, and it wasfo. And hee iaid 3 
Let us make man, and fo" he created man. Veffe l6, 27. Hee made 
ail things by his cternall Word , and according to the Idea and 
patterns; which hee had in his counfcll and decree. 
£ Secondly, He firft names the three forts of the living crea- 


QfQtttliJbufli and creeping things. \ jp 

tnres which God .framed out of the earth bciides mankind e; 
to wit, i. Cat tell thatiskine, flieep, goates, and other crea- 
tures which are commonly bred , and kept tame for mans i pc- 
ciall ufc. 2. creeping things iuch as Serpents, and Wormesofthc 
earth. 3. Beafts of the Earth, all iorts-of wiin beaifc* which 
live wild in the woods and.deferts, as Lyons,- woive^foxei, 
and the like. Alltheic God made by his mighty Word, every 
fort, andkinde according to his purpofeand the counfell of hi* 
will; ib that, when hec looked upon them being made, hec law 
them to bee as hec would have them, and approved the crea- 
tion of them for good. Afterwards hee relates ths creation 
of mankind in Adaimx\\Evah % how they were- created, after 
the image of God hrmfelfe and in his Hkfnejfe male and fema/e, 
and what prerogatives God gave to them , together with the 
bieffing of fruitfulnefle and incrcaie, ferfe 26,27,28. 

Thirdly, hec (he wes what God gave to man fer foed in the ?a 
ftatc of innocency , even every- herbe - bcaringfetd> and evtrytree 
Rearing fruity r"erfe 20. and w r hat hee gave for meat to the 
beads and fowles and all other earthly creatures, even the green* 
jpfrbfix 'graft* of 'the Earth , Verfi 30. 

Vourthlvyhee fheweth, that all creatures bcing.thus framed, ~ 
a»$Ltbc whole World and every;part thereof being thus brought ' ** 
into being, and ordered by God, they all in general!, and every 
particular didappeare perfect and £<W in Gods eyes,and were 
approved of him for good, and fo'the evening and the morning 
were the fixthday. 

I will firft begin with the living ctieaturcs, which God crea* q/ y ivifit> 
ted out of the earth before he made man; &n& then will I pro- creatures* 
ceed to the creation of mankind in ojur firfl parents, and to the 
image of God in which they were created. 

In the creation of all living creatures, which live and.move 
in and upon the earth, wee mayobisrvc divers things for oar 

Firft, that God continued to create all things, from the firu: ^ „ , 
tothehft, by his ctcrnall and omnipotent Word ; all Beads, Al f m ^* 
Cattell, creeping tilings , and all other creatures in the World* ofGod.fc^ 
as well as man, and ib all creatures have Gad tor their maker CUnit, 
and were all framed by the fame hand and power, this truth 

M 4 is 

1 6a Alt omms^mait by ths band and polfrer of (/od. 

is rooft pkmely here in (his ^HiRory laid doWne and affirmed 
by Mtfes % For, as in ail the former dayes works, To here alio in 
-the works of the- laft day^ in making all living creatures ort 
earth, heufeththelamephrafe, Gedfaid, Let ikemfo , audit was 
fei Ar4-inth'j^rcation , cfnr!an i lie laid, Lcturmdhermnin cur 
.jswgJjlhatisybyhis eternal! Word, and according* to the pat- 
tern inhxs'bwnerninde, and inthecouriiellofhis will, fohee 
snadc them v So that without further teftimony of Scripture 
this Doctrine As plaine and manifeft; but yet the Spirit d^th 
giva&ili and irequewt teitknonies to tkis truth by the month 
mSfihrnxdyto the Prophets, & the Apo'ftles & Evangelifts,/'/*/*** 
U4 # t, 2. and gp 6. and 1 04, 24, and 148, Jft Tjfc 40.26. and 
4S.-7v : 8, 18. and Joh.i. 3. and C<?/^ 1. 16. and Hebr. 1. 2, 
In which places aU things which can bee named in the uni- 
veriall World, are affirmed t© bee the handy worke of God, 
crested by his Word and Spirit , the heavens with all tht hoft of 
xhem y the earth And' the fulness there 9} \ the Sea and' all creatures 
therein , things vifiblt and things invijible y how mawfold/o ever they 
Vfe. i. Which Doctrine fcrves, firft, toaamoninS us to relpccl and 
Abuic nctcfteeinc all creatures which have being, as the workmaniliip 
the <fta. f God., made and framed by the fame hand which formed^; 
and to take heed, and beware that wee doc not in any cafe abuie 
any ofGods creatures to iin and vanity, to feed ourownevainc 
appetite, to,£uishe our iinfull delircs and plcaftH-es, and tolervc 
our corrupt flefhly lufts. If any creature of God bee at enmity 
with us, and hurtfiill and pernicious to us, it is for our owne 
lins, becauic io wee- have broken the peace,, and are at enmity 
with God by our finM rebellion; therefore the creatures made 
for our ufe,are become our enemics,3nd they by our tranfgrelfion 
are made fubjz'de to vanity and corruption, under which they 
groanc together with us* And therefore though it is lawfuil 
tor man in his owne defence, and for his owne fafety todo- 
ftroy Serpents,'hurt£illbeafts and noyfome creatines; yet to doc 
it with cruelty , and with pleaiure, delight, and rejoycing 111 ' 
their deftruction , and without fcoic of our owne fins and re* 
inorfe for themi, is a kird.of iconic and contempt of the work- 
manfhip of God eiir Creatour, and of the works of his hand 


Supply for alt tWints tofa/ourkfor of Gad in (Jbrijl. 161 

wh ; cb made 115,5: an injury which reflocTs on his Majefty : And 
wee hereby give jnft occafion to God, and as it were invite, 
and provoke him to jadgc lis by our ownc mouth, and to pro- 
ceed againft us according to the example of our owne doings,, 
and to mete out to us by the fame meniure as wee have done to 
his creatures,the living works of h ; s hands. 

Secondly , feeing all creatures were created by God and yr € u 
framed by his etcrnall Word the Son, who in fuinetfe of time chnft t*« 
was made fielh for us, that nee in our Hell* might redeeme and Lord of 
reconcile us to God ; this makes it clearc3ndmanife[t, that the all. 
Lord Chritt (not oncly as hee is the etcrnall Son of God by eter- 
nal! generation , and fo heireofall things in heaven and earth; 
but alio as hee is the power full Word, by which all things were 
made, and without whom no kind of thing in heaven or earth 
was made) is the Lord of all things, and the proper right and 
intercft of th^n all is in htm ; and the Father gives us the 
free ufc of no creature but by the Son; neither can wee have any 
true right to anything but in and by the Son, nor enjoy any 
thing as a ££///*£ but by die .Spirit fent from the Father by the 
Sen to dwell- in us, andto worke in us true union and fpiritualt 
communion with Chrift , and grace to u(e the creatures with 
comfort after an holy mariner. Wherefore, if wee want any 
thing or doc defire the ufe of any creature, wee muftfeeke it 
from God the Father in his Son Iefus Chrirt, and that by the 
inward- motion of his Spirit r inwardly moving and guiding 
our hearts, and all our ddires, and affections, and prayers: wee 
rriuit follow and obey that heavenly and wholeiome couniUl 
ofChrilt, lob. 15. 16. and 16. 23. Even ask? the Father what^ 
fht ver we have need of in his Sous name, and we jhall receive n\ and 
we miift (till rcmcmber,that in and through Cbriii onely we have 
accefte unto God tloe Father by one Spirit, Eph°f 2. 18. But as 
fjr rhem who -fit in darknefle and in thofhadow^? death, and 
know not Chrift, nor ever heard of him; and them aifo who 
having heard of Chrift doe hate and reject him and refufe to 
bclcevc in him, yea blafplieme his holy name, and periccute Chri- 
stian religion, as Turkes and Iewes doc, and other rebellious 
inridcis; and them who with An*i and other Hcreticks deny 
thrift to b«c ihv Son of God by etcrnall generation, one /^y/f/» 

v\ ith 

i6t All aeatms moVinguponEarthcreatedthefixtbday* 

with the Father, and the eternail Word by whom all things 
were made, they can never receive from God as a favour or 
Welling any thing created nor the nle of any creature: they may 
enter oy a wrong doore into poffeftion ofmany worldly things, 
g$ Lands, Riches, Catteil, and other, of Gods good creatures in 
aboundance; but howfoever they have got poiTeflion other- 
wise- then by feeking them of God in Ch rift, and by acknow- 
ledging e£ their right to them in him , they are ufurpcrs and 
have no true right unto them before God; and at laft in the 
great day of account,, they (hall anfwer for their ufurpation, 
2nd . [}&''& receive the reward of theeves , robbers, and ufurpere 
of Gods creatures without .any pretence or claime of right laid 
to them in Iefus Chrift. 
D ottr, 2> Secondly , w r ec may here obferve, this general! name of every 
Ail kinds living crextHre after his kind , and the fubordinate names of 
°f lmn ? Catul/ y creeping things % and keafts of the earth,$which is 
m^deTcf* ^ erc WtP nia ^ c ^fter their k^ndffy doe comprehend under them 
God. every fpeciall kinde of creature which liveth in and upon the 
earth, from the great Behemoth the Elephant, unto the kail 
\yorme or creeping thing whatfoever is or canbeefeepe ana 
knowne o£*the Sfrns $>i rrrot.. ■• From whence this Dpclrinc 
arileth, that every kind of living creatures which liveth or -nio- 
veth on earth, was created by God on the fixth day of thecrear 
tion, and is workmanship of God, formed in wifedome by 
his mighty hand and power. As this Do&rine is mod clearly 
laid do wne in the text, and proved by the proofes of the former 
Even the -Do&rinc: fo by other Scriptures, lob intimates this much chap. 
meancftof 17 • J 4« where hee calls corruption h* Father, and the tvorme ht4 
faou Mother a*d Sifter ; for hereby hee acknowledged , that the 
wormes and other creatures , which are now engendered of 
corruption; were in the beginningGods creatures as well as man; 
and man by finning is fubjed to be turned into the fame corrup- 
tion cf which they are engendered, and fo they are his Sifters; 
and as hee is made of that corrupt flcihpf his Fathers, which 
alter their death is turned to corruption, of which wormes 
ch c bred , fo corruption is called his Father , and wormes his 
Mother and Sitters. 'David alio Pfalme 148, 10. by his ipcech 
uiizftcd to ths Drtgoxs on ear tb, md to all Beafts , Cattell and 


Serpents hurt f nine f]e cans' d by ium\ fwu 165 

creeping things and to all fct^TfdforvIes, and by his calling upon 
•them to praifetheLordis theirCreatour, for his creating oil them, 
and giving them their being, doth fhe vv plaindy, that God made 
allkirids of them, and gave to them a good being at thcrirft, 
for which they are bound to praifc him in their kind. 

Bat hero ib-mc perhaps will, move a doubt; whether hurt- Ob, 
full, venemous, and pernicious creatures, filch is fell Dragons, And the 
cruell afpes, viper* and other poiionfuli Serpents were made vvolft; 
at the fitft by God; and whether mixed creatures of mungreli ow * 
kinds as Mules , which are engendered of AiTcs, and Mares; 
Leopards, which arc of the Libbard and Lioncfle;thc Linx, which 
is of a Wolfe and a Hind ; bee Gods workmanfhip. There 
fcemes to bee good reaibn of this doubt, becaule creatures which 
arc venemousand hurtfull as Dragons, Vipers, and inch like, are 
for the punilTiment of mans fin, and therefore could have no 
being in the ftateof innocency before mans fall. 

• To this doubt I anlwer: Firft, that as fin, corruption, and ^ n r-# 
malice were not created in man by God at the h>ft,but entered * - 
in by mans fall, and were breathed into ourtirQ: parents by the 
Divell,when he by the Serpent reduced th:m;fo likewife poifon, 
vcnime,and hurtfulnefle were not made in the creatures; but 
did enter in by mans fall; And then they which were made for 
mans ulc and pleafure at the firft, became corrupt by his cor- 
ruption, and pernicious and hurtfull to him for a juft punilh- 
ment of his iin. What creature can bee more venemous, or 
more at enmity with mankind then the Serpent? And yet the 
text fheweth plainely, that the Serpent was made by God be- 
.fore mans fall, and being a imrefubtle bead then any other which 
Gcd had made, was uied by the Divcll as an inftriunent to 
tempt the Woman to cate of the forbidden fruit. Gen. 3. And 
there upon God hath put enmty betweene him tad the Wo- 
man, bctwecne his feci and her feed, Verfe 15 . So then it is 
clcare, that the creatures which are now moft bun full and vene- 
mous , and cur fes , plagues, and cruell inftnmacnts , to punilh 
men, were created harmelcffe and fcrviceable to man at the 
rlrft, and by the Divdl, and mans fin are become hurtfull and 
hatefull enemies. Secondly , for creatures which are mixt of 
two kindts , as Mules and Leopards, and all iuch lij^they are no 


td 4 Minjiert are natures errourjiot §ods bdHdtTHtke. 

one kind of living creatures made by Godatthefirft; for God 
mnde every creature after his kind, a»d none inixt of two kindes, 
as the pUine Words of the text faew : The rirft generation of 
ftich mungreli creatures came from corruption of nature, and 
\s a part of that confution which entered into the World by 
the Divcli and ill"!; and henca fpring menfters, and ftrange de- 
ft r med fiiapes, which are not of Gods framing in the creation; 
for God made every creature after his owne kind , and very 
good and comely; butthefe are two kinds mixed, ugly, ioath- 
ibrae, and deformed. 
Ob]cV * If any Object, that all things have their fobftance and being 
from God, for he is Jehovah, the author and giver of ail being; 
and therefore thefe creatures becaufc they have a being, mult 
Anfw, needs-bee his handy-worke. To this I anfwere, that the fob- 
{Iavc* of which mungrels and monitersare made, and the natu- 
Vali power by which one kind of creature begets themofano- 
r.heryare of God, and fo farre they may bee laid to have thtu 
being of God ; but the mixing of two feeds and fubftances of 
divers kindes in one, and the confufion, and deformity of mixt 
bodies and fhapes from thence proceeding, that is of the pivell, 
and of the corruption, ill difpofition, and perverfe appetite and 
affeftion of the creatures which mix thcmfclves together for 
the generating of them. And therefore in no cafe ought any 
man, fo much as in his thought, to charge God with the crea- 
tion of monfters and mungrell creatures, which areerroursof 
nature, corrupted by the malice of the Divelland mans fin. The 
firft mungrels of this kind mentioned in Scripture arc laid to 
bee Mules ', invented by Annh^ *ne of thecurfed brood ofCanaanJ 
who caufed he- Afles to couple with Mares while he kept his 
Fathers AfTesin the Wildernefle, Gen. 36. £4. And that fuch 
mixing of creatures of divers kinds is a perverting of the order, 
and breaking of the law ofnatare, and mod hateful! and abo* 
minablein the eyes of God, appeares by his owne Word and 
commandcm:nt in the law ; where hee forbids his people to 
plow with an Ox y & anAffe together \& all mingling of feeds, Deut % 
2 2. 10.& by the curies denounced in the law againft unnaturall 
Infls^U cnt. 2 7. 21. and by the dreadful! curies and wrath of God, 
^vhich are recorded to have fallen upon fuch doings,and to have 


- - * ' ' m i * ■ ■ ii. 

The Vhell labours to deface Gods band- work?. 1 6 5 

beerie revetted from heavcrt> for fuch imgodlincfle and filthinefie, 
'Rom. 1. 18. 24. 

Mow, this Doctrine thus proved, and all doubts removed, Vft T? 
ferves, firft to teach us to put a difference betweenethecrea- Dittiaguifli 
tures made by God, and the pervcrfc difpofition of them brought of aea - 
in by the Diveiland fin; betweene Goas handy worke, which uircs ; an( j 
isalwayes initlelfe good, and the worke of the Di veil, which ^h^ " 
is but a poiion breathed into a good creature, and theconfufion 
and putting of Gods good worke and creature out of frame. 
Dragons, Serpents, and all vc«emous and hurtfuil beads, as they 
are living things, which have life and breath and iubftancein 
thcm,are Gods worke, and fo farre are good,* but as they are cor- 
rupted, dif-ordered, and confounded by the Di veil, and the true 
naturall temper of them changed, fo they are hurtfuil and full 
of enmity againft man, and this is- not Gods handy-workc; 
onely hee by his wifedome and goodneife permits,over-rulcs, 
and turns this evill to fomegood at laft. And here wee may 
behold as in a grarTc our owneface and frame, and may difcerne 
what wee have of the gift of God, and what hee workesinus; 
and what wee have of our felves, and from the malice of the 
Divell. Our whole iubil-ance, Soule and body, with all powers, 
and faculties of Soule, asreafon,underftanding, will,memory and 
the like ; and all outward bodily fenfes and abilities , as life, 
ftrength,and motion, are Gods worke ; wee have all thefe of 
his gift, and all power to excrcife them •• but as for that fin full 
corruption, .diftemper and perverfenefleof cur nature, by which 
our understanding is darkened, and cannot fee clearly that w T hich 
is good; our will averfe from good, and prone to evill; our ap- 
petite changed from defiringthat which is according to Gods 
will, and bent to the contrary ; our affe&ions forward to em- 
brace evill and wicked things , and to hate good things and 
godly actions; all this is uf the Divell intruding himfelfeinto 
Gods worke, and fighting againft God with his owne wea- 
pons $ And the frowardncfle, perverfenefle and ill difpofition 
of man, by which hee makes himfelfc worthy of Gods jufi 
hatred, is from his witting and willing yeclding of his Soule 
and "Body to bee weapons of wickednefl'c, to fcrve Satan and 
his own: finfulUufts. Whaeforc though God is our Crea- 


1 66 Man fin caufe of the a mures evllL 

Coi oo tour, yet let not us make God the author of our fin and malice 
*ml»orof nor lay any fault or blame on him; Let us not thin&e, that be- 
ftn » caufe wee are his creatures, therefore hec hath reafbn to beare 

with us,and to fpare us,and not to punifh our ofrcnccs;for in that 
wee who received our being from him arc fallen from our tn* 
tegt ity in which hee made us, and are turned to right againft 
him with his owne weapons, and toabuisthe power and abi- 
lities which hec hath given ?nd continueth unto us, even to 
provoke him, and to ierve Satan his great enemy'; finely wee 
kave no cauie, nor any juft colour to prefume ofGods mercy 
and indulgence upon this ground that wee are Gods creatures; 
for that isajuft caufe that God fhouid more hate us and punifh 
us, as rebels rifen up againft him out of his owne family, and 
turning his handy- worke in defiance againft him, and feeking 
to fmite him with his owne fword. 
yu 3j Secondly, this Doctrine ferrcs to ad monifli us of oar finncs 

2nthe "' and evill delervings, and of our fhamcfuil appftacy, and rebel- 
crcatarcs Hon againft God, and falling away after the Divdl,Gods enemy, 
evil! fee thy f often as wee fee the venomc* poifon, and evill difpofition 
•wacfon and cn{a jty f any bcafts or creeping things, or of any other 
creature which God hath made. For God fas this Doclrine 
fteweth) madeajl thofe creatures every one after his krnde, 
and whatsoever bee made was good; the evill therefcreis not 
«f him } but of mans fin; mans yeelding and giving way to the 
Divels temptations brought in all this eviil and confufion. 
And therefore if wee hate, fhunne, fearc and abhorrc devouring 
Lions, Wolves, andTygcrs, fell Dragons, and craell Afpes, 
and Vipers; Let us much more hate, feare,fhunn« and abhorrc 
fin, which wos and is the caufe of all; and if wee could mortiHe 
our fins , and bee fully fanc^tfied and renued, v all poifon and en- 
mity fhould ceafe to bee in the creatures, -they fWiid bee at peace 
with us, and foould bee reft ored to the hbtrty of the Sons of GoJ, 
Ifa. n.d.and 65. 25 £<?;». S. 
Z>cfir 4 3. ' Thirdly, wee here obfervc in this Hiftory, that God, before 
Gods great nec would create man and bring him into being, did provide 
boumyin |L ^ a Kingdome wherein man might raigrre and rule , and 
r lOV c u n tor m^itudc offub/eelp which arc the honour of a King, and all 
mm be- other things which might fcrvc for his ufc and profit, or for 

forehand* h~? 

— - — 1 — 

Gods bounty to man msnifefted in the creatures. \ 67 

his delight and pleafure : Hw created the lurks and trees ta 
yeeWhim meat, as appcares Verfe 2 8. which were made the 
third day, Verfe il, Hcc created all kinds of fifths and imvtng 
creatures in the Sea and the Waters, and all thzfowles which flic 
-above the earth in the open firmament of heaven; and all living 
things of all forts, Cattcll, creeping things, and all hafts of all 
kinds, every one good, fit and ready to fervc and obey matt 
as their Lorcl. Whence wee may Icarne, that God from the 
beginning liath bcene wondcriull bountifuli to mankind, and 
moft provident, providing aU thing* which the whole World 
could afford for the profit, pleaiure, honour and preferment of 
•man. This is that which David did plainely fee, confidcrani 
call to mindc with admiration, and open proclaiming of Gods 
glorious goodncfle and bounty, Pfidme S. 4, faying, Lm-dwbat 
uman, ilxt thou urtfomimifHlJ of bitnl znd 31. ip. Hew great h 
thj goodnefte which thou haft laid up in ft ere? and Tfalme 107. 
8. &c. Where hec cries out foure fevcrall tiaics, O that men 
muld pratfe the Lord for his goedncjfe, and declare the wonders that 
be* doth for men. 

This ferves to ftirre up ail men to acknowledge Gods bounty Vfe 
with all thankefulneife, to bee care&lltoferveGod, and provi- 
dent to provide all meanes which enable us to promote his 
glory; to bec rich i» works of pietj, and aboundant in works of 
charity; and to bee aihamedofour unthankfulnsffe and rebet 'lion 
againlt this God , by diftrufting his goodneflc, and beleevin" 
SatansLyes; and of our uiggArdlmejfe towards God in rcfufin^ 
toferve and honour him, and to relieve and comfort his Saints 
With our wealth and riches. No evidence can bee greater to 
convince man of monftrous ingratitude, then this rich bounty 
of God to man, and this providence for man (hewed in the 
creation. All creatures made for his ufearc witncflcsofGods 
bounty and ofmans unthankful nefle. 

Thefcurth thing is, That, in theftatc of innoccT»cy s nckhcr DoOr 4 
man did feed upon the flefti or body of any living creature, Mans fi c *4 
nor one living creature upon another ; but mans food which ia ,n *<*- 
6od allotted to him in the creation, was onely herbes yteldini ccncy 
feed ,aud fruits of trees, Verfe 2$. And grafewzs the food of all * h ** 
tf her livingcrcaturcs, beafe, tewte, and keeping things, Vcrfe 


1 6 8 7be creatures muitwl cmicordin theftate of innocency . 

30. Thoagh ever fince the confhiion of the World and corrup- 
tion of creatures by mans fail, many beads are become ravenous, 
and devour other living creatures, and feed upon their fk/b; as 
Lyons, Bears , and fuch li£c : Yet in the creation and (late of 
tnnocency, they did like oxen feed on greene graflb, and on fuch 
like fodder; as the words of the Prophet doe intimate, Ifa. 
ffe 9 This difcovers the true ftate of innocency, wherein all crea- 
tures lived together in love and concord among themfelves; 
and ip obedience to man; no bird did raven, nor beafl: devoure, 
»one did offer violence to the body, life or blood of another; 
there was no fearenor hatred, no hunting nor abhorring one 
of another, no lamentable clamoia* or crie to bee heard, by rea- 
ibn of one perfecting, tearing, and opprefling another : Tho 
Wolfe and the Lamb, the Leopard and the Kid, the Cow and 
the Beare, the Lion and the Calfe and Fading, did all lye downe 
and feed together, there was no hurt nor deftruftion upon ail 
the earth. And blefled fhali the times bee, when God mall re- 
store the creatures againe from this bondage and corruption to 
thcgl rims liberty of the Sens ofGed,& bee hath fore- told by the 
holy Prophet Jfaiab, £hap. 1 1 . 6. 

Chap. XII. 

ef the creation of man fpecially. Of the confutation held in making 
him. Three reafons for it. Man the chiefefl of creatures. Of 
the name , Adam: Vfed two \ 7* ayes. Woman capable of or ace and 
glory , afwell as man : Vfes. ^Man was made by God alone : ;. 
Vfes. His body made in wonder full wife dome: becaufe of dufi: 
Vfe. Man at be fi a duftie fob fiance \ which teacheth humility and 
thankful™ fie. Opinions of the creation ofmrnsfouk. Nofupr- 
natur all gifts in it : Vfe s m 

Hitherto, I have infifted on the creation of other living 
creatures, which God made on this forth day. Now I 
proceed to the creation of mankind, which was the laft worke 

' ©f 

Of the cretticn of mankind. 1 69 

of the creation which God wrought , and by which hee made 
the whole frame of the World pcrted and complete, and every 
way fully furnifhed. This laft worke is defer ibed by Mofes % 
firft generally, briefely and fummarily, in the 26. Verfe, and 
from thence to the end of this tirfl Chapter ; And fecondly, 
the creation of the Woman is more particularly related , Chap. 
2. from the 18. Verfe to the end of that Chapter. 

Verfe z6 m AndGodfaidy Let tts make man in ohy owne image , Creation 
and after otrttkenejfe, &c. 27. So God created maninhis ownc °f ? an " ? 
image, &c. 28. And God blepd them and faid, B^frHttfrlUnd-^^^ 
multifile, and replenifh the earthy &c. 

Ih this Hiftory of the creation of mankinde, wee may obfertfc 
tVieie fpeciaii things, which are mod notable and worthy to bee 

Firft, Gods confutation about the creation of mankind in j? 
the i6,Verfe* 7 And Godfaid y Let us make man m onr image. 

Secondly, Gods creating of mankind according to his ownc *• 
eternall Counfell; which is laid downe fummarily and more gc- 
nerally,that(7tfrf made them, 1 in his orvne image ; 2 male and female, 
Verfe 27. 

This creation of mankind is more plainely and particularly 
laid downe in the next Chapter;where Mofes relates, Firft, how 
God made the man of the dufi of tlx ground ', and breathed into his ■ 
noflhrtls. the breath of life, anX Man became a living foule,Verfej. 

Secondly^ how God made the female, the Woman , to bee an. 
helve meet for man , and that of a Rib taken out of the mans fide in 
adeepjleep, Verfe 21.12. ^.Thirdly that they wrreboth naked* 
and were not ajbamed, Verfi 25. Thefe things are to bee noted 
in the creation of mankind. 

The third thing is the bleffmg, wherewith God blefled them g. 
joyntly together, the Man and the Woman; and it comprehends 
in t ittwo things : Firft, the blcfling of fruitfulnefle, that they 
Should multiply and replenifh the earth with mankind. Se- 
condly, the honour, dominion and prerogative which God 
gave to them to fubdue the earthy and to have dominion ovsr all 
other living creatures ; this is exprefled ,C hap. 1.28. 

The fourth is the meat and bodily food which God nffigned 4.' 
to ma.i in the creation, Verfe 2p.but with limitation & reftramt 

N from 

' " ■'■' ■■' I , .... - I ■ • 1 — —————— 

1 7 © In the creation of Mankind (jod calls a councelL 

m .... — _____ — — — ~~* — ■!>. 

from the fruit of one tree, Chap, 2. 16,17. As for other crea- 
tures , which live on the earth, hee afligned the greene hcrbe or 
grade to them for food, Verfe 30. 
j I The fifth thing, is the place of mans habitation, thzgardenof 

Ede», the earthly paradife, which is defcribed, Chap. 2. 8, 9y&c m 
6. The laft thing is Gods viewing ot all things, which hec had 

made, after the creation of the Man and the Woman, and his 
placing of them in paradife, which was the accomplilhment 
of the creation and the 1*9; w*6rke$ and his approbation of every 
creature for very good and perfecTin his kind j this is cxprcfled ia 
the 31 .Verfe. 
Of Ac The firl't thing is Gods confutation concerning the crca- 

confalta- tion of mankind, wherein wee are to confider thefc particulars; 
tioninma- uyh$\x is that faith. Let us mdke. 2. With whom hee doth thus 
corrfult andconferre. 3. what is the thing confulted about ,even 
the making of man in their owns image , and after their hkeneffe, 
to bee Lord over all other creatures, the fifties 6f the Sea, the 
fowles of the aire, and all living things on earth. 

In the creation of all other things God faid onely, Let them 
hee 9 and fo they were made*, but in the creation of mankind hee 
calls a councell as being now about a greater worke, and faith, 
Let us make Man; wbkhisa fpcciali point not lightly to bee 
paffed over without due confidcration! Firft, hee who thus 
fuhf COn " enters into confutation is faid to bee E/ohim y that is, God the 
Creatour , wh© is more perfons then one or two, even three 
Terfonswoneeffence (as the Hebrew word, being piurail doth 
imply). And hee who here faith, Let us make man , and in the 
next verfe is faid to create man in his owne image ■, hec is the fame 
God which created the heavens, and the earth, Verfe 1. and the 
light, and the firmament, and all other things mentioned before 
in this Chapter. 
^vith They with whom hee conferres, are not the Angels as fome 

whom, have vaincly imagined •. nor the foure elements which God 
here calls together, that hee may frame Mans body of them being 
compounded and tempered together, as others have dreameeL 
Tor the text (lie wes plaincly divers ftrong reafons to the con- 
trary: Firft,it is faid,that God created man not by the miniftcry 
t>f Angels or the elements, but by his ewvefelfe, as it fcilowes 


Who ccn- 

(fod con/uhed about Mam creation: md 7»by. \y\ 

in the next Verfi y and Chap. 2. 7. Secondly , God created man 
in/;/* Qwne image, not in the image of Angels or elements; and 
therefore it is moft ridiculous to imagine that God fpake to 
them, or of making man inthcir image. Thirdly, it is (hewed 
that man was made to rule over the earth 9 and the fowl es of the air?, 
axdthefi/bes of the *SV<*;and therefore it is abfurd to thinkethat the 
earth, or any elements were fellow«-makers of man together 
with God, And laltly, it is both ibolifh and impious to thinke, 
thatGod who made heaven,carth ; &the heavenly hoft,theAngels 9 
of nothing, mould call upon others to helps* him, and to mare 
with him in the honour of rnans creation , feeing hec doth lb 
often in Scripture challenge this honour of creating all things 
to himfelfc, and profefleth that hee will not give thisglorj to ano- 
ther : Here therefore God the Creatour is brought in by Mofes, 
as it were confuting within himfelfe, even the eternali Father 
with the eternali Word the Son ("who is called r/* brightness 
of his glory ) and the expreffe image of his Per/on, by whom hee mads 
the Worldtf which^man is a part, W?^.x . 2. jand with the eternali 
Spirit. And here hee brings in God confulting about mans crea- 
tion to bee Lord over other creatures, for 3 . fpeciall reafbns,and 
to teach us three things , which arc reafons of confutations" 
among men, when they are about a worke. 

Thefirft is to (hew, not that God needed any advice or hetpe. It was for 
but that the worke which hee was about was a fpeciall worke, 3« reafons. 
even the making of man, the chiefeft of all viftble creature s- t one *• 
that fhould bee Lord over all the reft, being made in Gods oypne 
image t indued with reafon , undcrftanding,wifedome, and liberty 
of will- 

The fecond, to (hew that man was to bee made a creature in ^; 
whom God mould have occafion given to mew himfelfe a 
mighty and wife Creatour and Governour, a jutt. Iudge and re- 
venger of wickedneffe and fin , which doe provoke him to 
wrath and revenge; a mcrcifoll Redeemer and Saviour of ftnners 
induced; and an holy Cm&irkr of them by his Spirit. If wee 
confider man as a creature which might fill, and have Gods 
image defaced in him, and by his many provoking fins might 
give God caufe to repent that hec had made him , as is (aid,G>>:. 6. 
then there appearcs ibme reafon why God fhould as it were 

N 2 $on- 

ijz tf$zaf<ms why C od conjklted about Mans creation. 

confult whether hee fhould make him,or no. Alfo, if wee con- 
fider that man being fallen, and brought under the bondage and 
flavery of death and theDivell, aniunder eternal J condemna- 
tion, conld not poffibly bee redeemed but by the SonofGodun- 
dertaking to become man, and to fufFer and fatisfie in mans na- 
ture; and that man cannot bee made partaker of Chrifts benefits 
for redemption, without the holy Ghofi, the eter nail fpiritofGod 
jnfafed into man,and delcendingto dwell in man as in an earthly 
rabernack: There will appeare to us great caufc of confutation » 
that God the Fsther fhould confult with the Son, and the Spi- 
rit; and this confulting about mans creation doth intimate all 
thefc things : But in that this confutation is with a refolution 
(fall things confideied) to make man with a joynt confent; this 
ihewes that God fore/aw how mans fall and corruption, and 
all the evils which by it were to come into the World (how- 
foever, to our underftanding and in our reafon, they may fecme 
juft impediments to hinder God from creating mankind) yet 
snight by his wifedome bee turned to the greater advancement 
of his glory^ and might give him occafion to (hew all his good- 
Bcffc, wifedome, power, perfect purity and holineffe in hating, 
fin ; his infinite juitice in the deftrudion and damnation of 
wicked reprobates, and in exacting a full fatisfaclion for the fins 
of them that arefaved; his infinite mercy, love, and free grace 
in giving his Son toredeemc and fave his elect from finjdeath, 
and hell; and his unfpeakeable bounty in giving his Spirit to 
fort&ifie theod, to unite themtoChrift, and to conformcthem 
to his image, and fo to bring them to the full fruition of himfelfe 
in glory. God in confulting within himfelfe, and thereupon 
refolving to create mankind , and faying* Let us make mm v 
and then immediatly creating him (as the text fheweth) did in 
the creation of man fhew before-hand, that in mankind hec 
would manifeft and make knowne all his goodnefle, more then 
in all other creatures. 
3. The third reafon of Gods confultation, is, to manifeft more 

plainely in mans creation then in any other creature, the my fiery 
eftheblefiedTrimty , that in the one infinite eternall God the 
Creatour there are more , even three. Perfons of one and the 
fame undivided nature and fubftance. For fuch confutations 


h one Qod are three ferfons. 1 7 j 

and refolutions, as arc cxpreflcd in this forme of words, Let 
ms matte ma* in our image y and after our Ukenejfe t ioz ncccflarily 
imply that there arc more Perfons then one contenting, and con- 
curring in the worke. And that thefe three Perfons arc ail but 
*ne and the fame God , it is manifeft by the words following* 
which fpeake of thefe Perfons as of one God; for it is faid, that 
God created man in his owne image , and not tbej created man in 
their image. 

Thus much for the intent and meaning of the Spirit of God 
in thefc words, Let us make man in our image, and afur our like 
neffe. From which words thus expounded, wes learnc, 

Firft, that the creation of mankind was a focdall worke of Dotir. 1. 
God, and that man is by nature the chicfell and moil excellent Man the 
of all creatures, which God made in all the vifible World; chiefeftof 
which point the holy Pfalmift openly proclaimed; faying, Iam CI ™ iW:tu 
feare fully and wonderfully made, marvellous are they works, Pfalmt 

13P. 14. 

Secondly, Gods confutation (heweth, that in the creation .OcJrr.2.' 
hec confidercd mans fall, and did forefee not oncly that man 
in his nature and kind is a creature fubjeft to fuch evils as might 
make it a matter queftionable, whether it were fit for God to 
create him or not: but alio the great good which comes by his 
creation and fall, anil that man is a fit objed, wherein God may 
make manifeft his wifedome, power, and all his goodneflc 
more then in any other creature, and in that refpeft mod wor- 
thy to bee made by the counfell, joynt confent, and concurrence 
of all the three Perfons in the Trinity. 

Thirdly, here wc may obierve, that in one God the almighty Dc&r.£ 
Gcatour, there are more Perfons then one manifefted by Afofes 
in the HiLlory of the creation. And therefore the Doctrine 
of the Trinity is no new and lately deviled opinion fincc 
Chrift , but a mod ancient truth revealed from the firft founda- 
tion of the World. 

Thefe Doctrines I here onely name, which will come to be 
handled more fitly in the next thing which foiiowes, to wit, 
Gods creating of mankind according to this his counlell and 
rcfolution *. which aft ofcreationislaid dovvnc firft more ge- 
nerally and confufedly in die 27. Verfe, And more diftindly 

N 3 aud 

174 Oftbefigmficatknof tbelbord Adam. 

and particularly by way of recapitulation in the next Chap- 

Firft, it is hcre&id, that as God upon confultaticn refolved, 
fo hee created man in his ownc image, and male and temak crea- 
ted hee them: wherein wee may obferve two things generally 
laid downe; Firft, that God created man in his owne image* 
Secondly , that hee croated them male attd female. 

I will not here enter into a diicourfe concerning the image 
•/G^and the fpcciall things wherein it doth confift; that {hall 
kavc a more fit place hereafter , when I fhall come to de- 
scribe the excellent (tate of man in his innocency before his 

The thing which' here comes fpecially to bee confidcred is 
Oi tbc the true meaning of the Hebrew word Adorn, which is tranfla- 
nam* A- ted man in this prefent text. This word is in the Scriptures 
4a», ufed ^^ twowayes : Firft, as z proper name of the firft man, evea 
iwow3ycf, our g^ f at ^ cr Adam ; thus wee muft underfbmd the word 
- Chop ai. where it is laid, that Goddidcafi tsf dam into a deep 
fieepe, and Verfe a a. brought the Woman to Adam when hee 
hsd made her of his Rib ; and chap 4. 1 . and many other 
places^ where Adam is diftinguiihed from Bvahhit wife, and|Ls 
called the man. 
** Secondly, it is ufed as a common name of mankinde,and in- 

cludes in it both male and female > Man and Woman, as Pfalma 
144. 4. t^UnU like to vanitj , and G*n. •>. 1. where it is faid s . 
that God called the Man and Woman > and all mankind in thfim 3 
both male and female by this name i/fdam. 

Here in this text, this word Adam is ufed in this latter fenfe 
as the common name of mankinde, comprehending in it Both 
mole ond female; asappeares by the words folio wing, Mole and 
female created hee them ; that is, this Adam whom God created 
in his ownc image was male and female, of both Ccxcs 9 Man and 
Woman, who are both but one kind of creature . Whereby it is 
manifefl: , that here is laid downe in generall the creation of 
all mankind in our firft Parents Adam and his wife Evah; and 
that they both were created in the image of God; and that the 
d ifferencc of their fexes, and the creation qf the Woman after 
the Man, of 4 Rib taken out of mans fide, doc not make any 

Woman as capable ajubittt g [grace as Man. i y c 

difference of their nature > and kind; but both arc of one kind, and 
both made in the image of God and after his iikcricflc : And 
Women as well as Men arc capable of the fame grace, and fit 
to bee heircs of the fame glory in Heaven, where there is no 
difference of male And female > but all (hall bee like to the Angels , 
fft marrying nor given in marriage : as all members of the iame 
Chrift, and partners of the fame fpirituall grace here ; lb all 
fellow-citizens of jthc heavenly Citie there , raigning with 
Chrift in glory, as our Saviour himfclfe aftirmcth in the Gofpell. 

Hence then wee learnc , That the Woman as well as the Man DoSrl 
wss made in the image of God, and is by nature as fit a fob/eel, Woman as 
and as capable as man of grace and glory. Which point is coo- "pable of 
firmed by divers Scriptures; as by the words of our Saviour. S" ccln <* 
Matth 22. 30. where hec faith,that Women and Men in the Re- £^ ai 
fcrrc&ion arc at the Angls of God in the laft RefHrretiion > not 
marrying nor given in marriage ; And 2 £V. 6. l %* 1 vill bee 
* Father unto yon, and the [hall jeemy Sens and Daughters faith 
the Lord almighty; and Gal. 3.28. Male and female are all one 
in Chriftpnd 1 Tim. 3.15. the Apoftle amrrnes,that Woman may 
bee, and /ball be faved by continuing in faith, charitie, and holi- 
nefic with fobriety; and 1 Pet. 3.7. mention is made of holy 
W<Mw»,andWives arc faid to be heires together with their Husbands 
of the grace of life. To which teftirconies the examples of many 
holy, godly and faithfull Women , mentioned in the Scriptures, 
may be added; as our firft Mother Evan* who, through faith in 
the promifc, obtained the title of the Mother of life % Gen. 3. and 
the virgin Marie the Mother ofthebleffed fe:d is csMzdbleffed 
in all nations: Sarahs Rebecca, Hannah, Deborah > R»th 3 Dorcas, 
Mane Magdalene, and many others . | 

But, 1 Cor, 1 1. 7. Man is called the image and glory of God, Ofjeu, 
the Woman the glory of the Mm. 

The Apoftte doth not here fpeakc of the image of God as AnPwl 
it conftfts in perfeel nprightnefe 2nd indowments of nature; or 
in hohnciTc and fopernaturall gifts of grace; for (0 the image of 
God is one and the fame in bo rh, and common to the Woman 
with the Man, and they both have equali dominion and LoroV 
(hip over the creatures given in tic creation : But here hee 
fpeakcs©f Ma;: \s hec was rirft created before tk iVom**, and 

N 4 the 

j 6 Womam/ubteBwn excludes her not from f*ithj&c. 

the Woman as fhec was made to bee a meet klpe fir Man , and 
as it were his fecondfelfe here on earth, and of a BSb , which is a 
part of mans fubftance, and in all things like man 0$ the fame na~ 
tare andkinde; and in thefc refpe&s man hath a priority , and a 
kinde of power and authority over the Woman in outward things, 
which concerns Ecclefiafticall and C will order; and mans glory 
even the image of his authority appeares in the Womans fuh- 
je#/0»tohim ever fince the fall, upon which God made her 
defire iubjed to man; and tooke from her power over man, and 
the cxercife of jDubiike offices in the Church and common 
wealth: And this fi/bjeftioH doth not exclude her from faith, 
charity, and holinejfeveith fobriety > or any other part of Gods 
image need full toialvation, as the Apoftle teftifieth, I Tim. z m 
15. In a word, common fcnfe and rcafon teach us, that, if the 
Woman be made in the image of the Man, and the Man is made 
InGedsim.xge^ then Women mufl needs beare Gods i>magt and 
fikettejfe: But the truth is, God being ft ill the fame, both in the 
creation of the Man and of the Woman, and creating both by 
the fame wifcdome and power j hee needed not to take Adam 
for his paterne whereby to make the Woman, but made her in 
his owne image as hee did man, and fb in all things like to man, 
the different fexe onely excepted. 
yfe 1. This ferves to admonilL and ftirreup women to bee careful!, 
diligent and induftrious fo to beare themfelvcs as they that are 
made after Gods image, & fo to order their lives & conversion 
as they who expect the glory of heaven, and muft, by palling 
through the ftate of grace here, and by conforming themfelves 
to Chrift both in his death by mortification, and in his life by 
P iandification, come to the fulneffe of glory in Heaven, and bee 

made conformable and like to Chrift in his glorious body, and 
coheiresof God with him. 
Yfe 2. Secondly, it ferves to reprove the wicked and profane men 
of the World, whofc wickedncftc is tranfeendent , and their 
profanenefle moft horrible and impious, m that bafe eltecme 
which they have of the female fexe, and the vile account which 
they make of woman-kind , who thinkc and fpaake of women 
that they have no Joules, nor any part in Gods image, and are 
utterly uncapable either of grace in this World, or glory in ttoc 


Mm formed of the Uufl of the ground. 177 

World to come. Like and equallunto which, in their profane 
impiety,are common {trumpets and Tvhorifh women, the (haute 
and ftaine of womankind, who proltitute them {elves to all 
filthineli'e , and lV-livc as if they were made onely to ferve 
the luffs of uncpafonable men of bruitifh luft. 

I proceed to the more fpeciall things , which arc more di- 
flincrly laid downe concerning the creation of mankind; where 
I will fir ft infift upon the creation of the male and female,and 
the matter of whkh they were made, and ofthe manner and 
order in which God formed them : Which that wee may di- 
ftinctlyunderftand , wee muft looke forward to the 7. ferft 
ofthe 2. Chapter > where the creation of mankind is more par- 
ticularly rchcarfcd in thefe words, and the Lord God formed 
man of tije dufi of 'the ground \ and breathed into hU no fibrils the 
breath of life ^and man became a living fonte. In the Hebrew text, 
the man is here called Adam , not as by bis proper name^ but as it 
is the cowmen name of all mankind ; for, io much the article 
which is prefixed before it doth ihcvv ; and therefore as the 
Greekc, fo alio our Engl ith Tranflators, doe tranflatc this word 
not Adam, but Man; God formed man of the dufi ; For in the fu It 
creation, the man comprehended in him ail mankind, even the 
Woman who then was a Rib in his fate, and afterward was 
taken out and formed into a Woman. 

The matter of which God formed Adamis faid to bee tlx 
eitift of the ground; and here he ufcth another word not ufed be- 
fore in the creation of other things, that is, the word formed; 
for hec doth not fay, that God made or created, but formed man; 
and true k is , that whole man was not made of d Lilt, but onely 
x\\zfu(? fiance of his bodie^and therefore itis iaid,tiiatGod/pr^W 
man (to wit, in rcfpccl of his body, ) of the dufi of the grittn t % 
that is. hec framed aad fafhioned it of duh\ as a potter formes 
a pot of clay j and brought it into that forme and ihape which 
ail perfect bodies of mankind doe beare untiii this day; And 
isthefirit beginning ofthe being both of the Mail and alio of 
the Woman, who was created here a Rib at the firftinMans 
iide,and afterwards taken out, and made into a Woman. 

Firft,in that Jehovah ■■■ Ehhim, the Lord God, is here laid to 
form' muf 9 that is, to frame his body of duft >.and to bring ir i 

2 7 3 Cjod mxdt u/e of no creatures in Alans creation. 

Dottr. the forms and fUape which it bcarcs in ail mankind : Hereby 
Mm was wee are taught, that God did neither confult with Angels about 
made by mans creation, nor ailume them, or any other creatures into the 
* oaai0ne4 feilov/ihip of this worke- but God himfelfe alone who is Ieh*- 
vah, one God in eilencc and fubftance, and yet Etohim, that is 
m«re Perfons,even three Perfons,in that one undivided cflcncc, 
did forme the very body of man, and brought it into that forme 
and temper , that it might bee a %t fubjed of the fbule, which is 
pirituaji f Libit ancc. And this all other Scriptures confirmc, 
which attribute the creation of mankind to God alone; asZ)r«t. 
4. 3 2 . and Jfa, 4 s . 1 2 . with many other places, where thc.crca- 
t loo of man upon earth is aicribed unto God ondy , and where 
holy and faithfuli men, fpeaking as they were moved by the 
holy Ghoft, confeflc themfelves the worke of Gods hands, as lob 
10. 3. and God their maker and former, lob 36. 3. and Malm,, 
2. 1 o. and God the jotter and themfelves hit formed worke, If*. 
64 8. 
y/ e T> This Doctrine well weighed is of excellent ufc: Firft to 
make us afcribe all our excellency and all our well bein^to God, 
that wea may give him the glory of them, and that wee may 
beare our fclves before God as before our crcatour, and may ever 
icmcmber, that whatfoever fcrvice wee arc able to performc 
cither with our fouies or bodies, it is wholy due to God, and 
none other butonely in him and by commandement and war- 
rant from his holy and infallible Word, Seeing God alone hath 
created us and given us z\l out being, even the forme and fhapc 
of our bodies, wee mud not thinke it enough to keepc our feives 
to God, and to fervc him infprit oncly, but wee muft ferve and 
worilijp him with our bodies alfo , and with all parts and mem- 
bers of our bodies. Although God many times makes men 
inftrumentsandntcaues to convey hcalth,life,being,and well being 
tons; as natural! Parents, to bring us into being and life, and to 
nourilh and bring us up; and as Kings, and Rulers, and wife Ma- 
giftratcs to bee Saviours of our bodily lives from death and 
other dangers, and to procure fafety , peace and well being to 
us ; and in this refpect andforthefe C3ufcs wee doeowelove, 
honour, and for vice to them in, and under God: yet kino cafe 
may wee in things which tend not to the honour, but difiwnpur 


Cjod rather then M*n u in be obeyed. \ 7 p 

of God, and arc contrary to his Word, and Will, and ofcufive 
to his Majcfty, ©bcy,.fcrve and honour them. In fuch cafes, let 
us fay as the Apoftlcs did to the high Pricits and Rulers ofthc 
Icwes , We ought to obey God rather then men; and whether it fa 
tight and lawfull to obey you more then God judge yee. Aft, 4. 19. 
and 7. 29. All Potentates, Kings and Rulers, becaufe they arc 
men and have no power but from God, muft not looke that my 
(hould fcrvc and obey them rather then God, or in things which 
they command contrary to Gods comirundemcnts; Yea they 
mull remember that they are Gods creatures and handi-workc, 
and ought to employ all their power and authority to the ho- 
nour of God. W otherwife they abufe the uknts, which God 
hath lent them; let them know, that God will one day call them 
co a reclining, and give them the reward ofevill , unfaithfully 
and unprofitable fervants , even cternall deilrudion and tor- 
ment inHell, where (hall be howling*and wayling,and gnafhing 
of teeth. 

Secondly, this ferves to (liew, that whofoever offers wrong Vfi 2 1 
*nd injury to any of mankind by cutting, mangling, or any way Danger of 
defacing their image , and deforming their bodies ; by af- chcin tiiac 
flicling or fome way corrupting their foules^ or by taking away wron > 
their lives and mturall being , without fpcciall warrant and maa * 
commandement from God; they are notoriously injurious to 
God himfeife ; they fcorne, defpife, mif-wfe and deface Gods 
Workmanfhip; they provoke God to wrath and jealoufic, and 
hec furely will bee avenged on fuch doings* And here wee 
have matter, as of dread and terrour to all crucll Tyrants and 
unmercifull men; fo of hope and comfort to all who fufftr in- 
jury and wrong at their hands: As thefirit fort have juftcaule 
to feare and tremble fo often as they thinkc on God the avenger 
of fuch wroug ; fo the other have caufe to hop- that God will 
not wholy forfake them, being the worke of his ownc 
hands, nor leave them to the will and luft of the wicked, his 
enemies; but will in his good time fave them, and fetal them dc- 

Thirdly, this difcovcrs the abomination and filthindfe of all VJi Jt 
Idolaters, who being the workmanQiip of God, the Lord and The imofc 
wifc creator of all things, doc moft bafcly bow downc toima- ulolatc "- 


I 8 p Cods infinite powtr in creating man ofVujl. 

ges,and altars ;and de'oafe themfclves to w or (hip humane in- 
ventions, and the worke of mens hands, which are dumbe I- 
dols of wood , .and (tone, and lying vanities. Itisjuftwith 
Cod. to caft out and cxpofe all fuch people to ignominy, fname r 
and confufion in this world, and, in the world to come, into 
that place of darkneffe, where the Divell and all fuch as forfake 
God, and rebell againft the light which from the creation fhines 
to them, {hall be punifhed with evcrlafting dcftru&ion from 
face and prefence of God , and from the glory of his 

Secondly, in that God is here faid to -for me man of the duft 
of the ground, not of clay well tempered and wrought, but of duft t 
which of it felfe is mod unfit to be compacted and made into 
a ftedfaft fnape ; and which is counted lb bafe, and fo light, 
that every blaft of wind drives it aw ay; and in Scripture the ba- 
led things are refembled to it : Hence wee may learne two 

Krftjthat God in the creation,even of mans body, (hewed 
& °r r ^\' his infinite power and w r ifedome in bringing duft of the earth, 
bein* of y w ^ ucn * s * c bafeft thing of all , into the forme and (hape of 
du(t^w?t mans body, which is the mofb excellent of all vifibic bodies, 
wondrouf- and a fit houfe and temple not onely of a reafonable living 
ly made, fouie, but alfo of Gods holy fpirit ; ( as other Scriptures plain- 
ly affirmc.)This point appeares fo plainly in the Text , that I 
need not fpend time in further confirmation of it 5 the word 
Hy" , formed , here firft uled , implies an excellent forme , and 
the upright face of man : Here therefore I will adde,for illuftra- 
tion fake, the words of Ddt//W, which are very pertinent to this 
purpole, Pfal. 1 ^9.14,15,16. where,fpeaking of Gods forming 
and falhioning him in the wombe of the living fubftance, even 
the feed, blood, and flefh of his parsr.ts, faith he,/ will pray fe thee, 
f?r I am fearcfully and wonderfully made* A farvelous are thy worhes^ 
and that myfottle knoweth right we/l: My fubftance was not hid from 
thee, when Iwas madeinfecret % and curiou fly wrought in the loweft 
parts of t hearth : Thine eyes did fee my fubftance , yet being im- 
perfect j andi* thy book? were all my members written, which in con- 
tinuance were fa/hioned > when as yet there was none of them. Here 
we fee with what fearc, admiration and aftonifament David 


Qods tyorkwanftvp iriMms creation admirable. 


conddcrs mans frame,and the curious workmanfhip of his body, 
when God forms it in the mothers womb by lively inftrument*, 
and of a lively matter and fubftancc : How much more may we 
conclude, that Gods creating of Adorns body, which was the 
moft curious naturall body that ever was made , is moft ad- 
iDirable,and deierves mere reverence, feare, and aftonilhment at 
our hands, being made without initruments out of the bafeft 
nutter and fubftance even duft of the earth I Surely in this God 
fhewed wiiedomeand power beyond all admiration. 

The Vfeofthis do&rineis to ftirreus up,fo often as we yr t t ^ 
thinke of our creation in Adam, to laud and praife Gods wife- 
dome and power, to feareand reverence God, and to admire 
his curious workmanfnip. And although the matter of which 
<5od framed mans body was the bafeft cf all , even daft of the 
ground; yet let us not thinke ever a whit more meanly of our 
creation ; but fo much more admire Gods workmanftiip in our 
bodies. For,to make a curious workeingold,filver,oroffome 
bcautifull, precious, and plyable mettall, is not rare, nor fo ex- 
cellent : but to frame of the bafeft mat \.sxj\\zduftofthe $rom&\ 
the chiefeft worke, and even the Mafter-piece of ail works 
in the vifible world , that is, the body oi Adam in the ftate of in- 
nocency ; this is worthy of all admiration, and is a juft motive 
and provocation to flirre us up to praife, and to extoll with 
admiration the wifedomeand power of God;efpecially,if wee 
confider the moft excellent forme of mans body and upright 
ftature, together with the head, comely face, hajids, and other 
members every way fitted and compofed to bee instruments 
of a reafonable foule,and to dulc and keepe in order and fob- 
je&ion all living creatures. 

Secondly, in that the daft of \he ground, the bafeft part of the j) ^ r% 2v 
earth, is the matter out of which manshody,the beautifull Pa- Man ac 
lace and Temple of his Soul, was formed in the excellent ftatc bettadu- 
ofinnocency ; Hence wee learne, that manis by nature, and in ftyM>- 
his beft naturall being given to him in the creation , but a dufij , ftancc - 
tartby fubftance in refpttt of bis body* and,in refpecl: of his Seul, 
an inhabitant of an nottfe of clay, the foundation wherec/is in 
the du!h 

But lorne perhaps, will objeft ag€nft the collection ofofytk 


1 8 i Man in his heft nalurail king hut a clu/ly fubftoHce* 

r-JI' .n — i 'H M - » ■ i ■ — | . ' 

ifftis Doclrine, from the bale and fraiic matter of which mans 
b<*iy was formed; and will thus argue, That the ftate and con- 
dition of creatures is not to bee cfteemed by the matter of which 
they were made , but by the forme and being which God gave 
to them; as for example, the Angels, together with the higheft 
heaven, were created immed^at I j of nothing, as well as the rude 
unformed maife which is called earth , and yet they are mod 
glorious fpirits , and the rude maifc is not to bee compared to 
theiii; s Yea man was created according to his inferiour part the 
body, of duft, which is a created fubftance better then nothing) 
of which the Angels were made; and yet theAngels in nature tar 
excell man : Therefore mans creation of dnfl doth not prove 
him to bee fo fraile a creature, feeing God gave him iuch an 
excellent forme* 
'Anfa. To this I anfwer, that to bee created immediatly of nothing 
u is in it felfe a more excellent worke, and ftie vves greater power, 
then to bee made of a me me inferiour matter: For when things 
arefaidto bee created of nothing, the meaning is not, that they 
are made of nothing as of a matter - y but that they arc made of 
no matter at all, but have their whole being fro?n God, and his in- 
finite power, and fo may bee, if God will, moft excellent: But 
when man is faid to be formed of daft, the meaning is, that dull: 
isapartofhtsfxbftance even the matter Gf which heeconfifts* 
and that his body according to the matter is a dufty , earthy 
fubftance; and his Soul, though a fpirituall fubftance created of 
nothing, yct,d welling in that body,is an inhabitant of an earthly 
5s Tabernacle and houfe of clay founded in the duft. Secondly, 
though the frame of mans b ody is$n it felfe mod excellent, and 
furpaffeth all bodily formes, and his Soul is a fpirituall fubftance 
endowed withreafon 5 yet all thefe were of mutable excellency 
in the beft naturall eftateofinnocency, and could not continue 
in that excellency but by dependance upon God, and cleaving 
fall to him; and by his hand and power fuftaining them con- 
tinually, which by promife hce was not bound to doc in that 
cftatc. And therefore wee may truly gather from the matter 
of which God formed mans body , that hee was in his beft na- 
turall being, in refpecT; of his body, but a dufty iubftance, fuch 
as might returns to duft, by falling off from God by fin, and 

Mm in his bcji mturall being fraik and vnutabk. 1 8 $ 

di {obedience ; yea undoubtedly as God in framing man his 
chiefeft vifible creature of daft, intended to {hew his wife- 
dome and power, and to gloritie his goodnefle: io alfo hee 
teacheth man thereby his owne natural! frailty and mutability, 
how unable hce is of himfelfeto abide in honour and excellency. 
And this bee fhewes molt plainely, Gen. 3. 19. where hee faith 
to man, alluding to his creation, Daft thou art, and to daft thou 
fljrt/t return?: Wcchwc alio an excellent argument to this pur- 
pofe, lob 14. .18,19. and 15.15. where the Lord is faid to 
charge his Angels with folly , and to lay no truft in his few 'ants ■, 
and the heavens are not cleare in hts fight ; how much lejfe can hee 
find fteadf aft nejfe in men, who dwell in houfes ofclaj^vhkh have their 
foundation m the duft f that is, feeing the heavenly fpirits are 
not immutably pure in Gods fight , but fomc of the Angels 
hath God charged with folly, to wit, fuch as did fall^nd to ^he 
reft hee hath added fupcrnaturall light of his Spirit, and fo hath 
made them Saints immutably holy, much leflcis man immutably 
pure and Lteadfaft: by nature, whofe better part the Soul is by 
creation made to dwell in an houfe of clay, a body made of duft. 
To this purpofe ferve thofe Scriptures of the Prophets and 
Apoftles, which compare man in his firft creation to clay in the 
hand of the f otter, Ier. I 8.9. & Rom.9. 21. & which affirme that the 
fir ft Adam was of the Earth earthy ; 1 Cor. 15, 47. that is, in his 
tirf t crcaxion hee was of an earthy and dufty fubftancc. Vfe & 

Firft, this fcrves by difcovering unto man his frailty and mil- For hu ™ 
tability in his belt naturall being, to humble every man in his l ? y f"f, 
owne eyes, and to make him lowly 3 an# to withdraw his heart i£<L* 
from pride and all high conceipts of any worth in himfelfe, 
and to teach us all to afcribe all the uvchangable purity which 
wee flnde in our fclves , and all our fteadfaftnefl e to thefrre grace 
of God in Chrift, and not to any power of our owne free will, 
or to the excellency of oar naturall frame and being. Jf man 
in his firft creation and beft naturall being was but of earth and 
duft, an earthy and dufty crearurejand, before that death entered 
into the World , while hee had yet power of free will to obey 
God, ani to depend on him, was mutable and might fall into 
im, and dilbbedience, and by fin might bring and did bring 
death upon himfelfe and all his pofterity ; how much more now 



1 8 4 Of (he creamn of mm Soule. 

in the date of nature corrupted is every Son of man, a very mafle 
of corruption and frailty, yea vanity and abominable filthincfJe, 
who drinketh iniquity like water as it is written, lob 15. 16, 
Wherefore, Let no man glorj in any naturall power or preroga- 
tive, nor hope to ftand by his owne ftrength, much leffc to merit 
or purchafe by any works of nature or power of free will, the 
kail grace fupernaturall, which tends to bring him to heavenly 
happineffe and glory unchangeable : For man , as hecisflefh and 
blood % that is, an earthly creature, cannot poflibly come to 
Vfi 2* inherite the Kingdome of God, I Cor. 1 5. 5 o. 
A^ainft Secondly, this discovers the madneffe and defperateblind- 

Pelagians ^efie of Pelagians and Papifts,who teach, that a man by the right 
and Pa- u feofhis natwrall power and free-will may procure fpirituall 
^ * s# grace from God, and even the Spirit of regeneration, and faith 
working by love, by which hee may merit and purchafe to him- 
fclfe eternall life , and heavenly glory and felicity, as a /uft and 
condigne reward of his works. If Angels cannot bee made 
fteadfafi and trufty without fupernaturall light added , to them; 
much leffe can earthy man, who by fin is become filthy and abo- 
minable , worke out his owne falvation by meriting and pur- 
chafing the heavenly reward. Oh let us all hate and abhorre 
all fuch conceipts, which wholly tend to the frustrating and 
evacuating of Chrifts merits and iatisfa&ion, and to make them 
feeme vaine and needlefTe* Be not deceived , God is not mocked; 
they who fow fuch tares 9 and feed like fwine on the huskes of 
their owne works, and on things which nature teacheth, they 
are enemies to the grace of God, which is given oneiy in 
lefus Chrift,and togcthcrwith him by communion of his Spirit. 
The crca. After the creation of mans Body of duft, immediatly fol- 
tion of lowes the creation of his Soule; which is to bee underftood 
mans j n thefe words : And breathed into hit no fibrils the breath of 

e * life, and man was a living Soule; For no fooner was mans body 
brought into frame,but God breathed into him the breath of life ;th2t 
is,caufed him to breathe with the breath of life, eventhofevi- 
tall fpirits which are the band of union by which the Soule is 
united to the body; and in the firft inllant wherein he created 
the vitall fpirits,he alfo created the fpiritual fublhnce of hisSoule 
in his body immediatly of nothing by his omnipotent band. 


Gofo image in which Man wm created, naturall onely. \ 8 

Some arc opinion, that mans Soulc was firft created a Spirit, Opinions u 
fubfifting by it felfe before his body was formed ; and when \ A 
the body was formed a fit fubjecT for it, then inltently God 
infilled it into the body, and by it did give life and breath to the 

Some thinke , that the body was formed , and the Soule a. 
in the famcinftant created together with it, as Damafcene lib. 
i.defide,cap. n.tAquinas, and others : And Qrill thinks, that 
Gods breathing into mans face the breath of life, was the info- 
fion of the holy Ghoft into man; and that man in the creation 
had the holy Spirit given to dwell in him, and was ian&i- 
ficd and endowed with fupernaturall grace and holinefle. 

Some thinke, that Gods breathing into mans nofthrils was 5^ 
his infpiring into man a reafonable Soule, as a part of himfelfe: 
fo Rabbj Mofes Majmonides. 

But by breathing into mans face , I doe not underftand any 4, 
materiall breathing or blaft, but that God, in caufing breath of 
life to breathe through mans nofthrils , did withall create the 
Seule in the body, and by meanes of this reafonable Soule crea- 
ted in the body, and united to the body by vital! fpirits and 
breath, man became a living Soule, that is, a living reafonable 
creature, living onely a perfect oaturall,not an holy fpirituall life* 
The Apoftlc expounds thefc words in this Senfe, 1 Cor. 15. 
and doth make this a mainc difference bet weene the firft man 
Adam y and Chrift the fecond Adam, that the firft Adam was 
ondy a naturall Man endowed with a naturall living Soule; 
but to be a quickning Spirit, that is, to bee fan&ified by the holy 
Ghoft, and endowed with fpirituall life, is proper to Chriifc 
in his creation, for in him the Spirit dwelt from his firft con- 

Hence weelearnc, That the image of God in which mans Detinue. 
was created, was onely naturall and did confift in naturall No fuper * 
fifts, which naturally flow from his reafonable Soule, andnotnaturall 
'in any fupernaturall qlfts 0/the holy Ghoft ; as true holinefle, S ift$in lhc 
and the like: The words of Saint Taut laft before named doc^j^ / 
fully prove this. I will here onely adde one ftrong lleafoa 
and invincible argument to prove it fully. 

And that is drawne from the mutMitj of man in the crea- /j^/j^; 

O tion. 

i86 Gods mige k tf$i(b mm ty^ created y naturallon?ly. 

tion, and from his/*?//, by which Gods image was defaced in 
him, For itisrmxleemine, that hee who hath in him that 
image of God wlrch cohfifts in trpis holinejfe, andin fpirituall and 
fuperMttorall 'gyfts , hee is not mutable nor fubjecT: to fall away, 
becaufe hce hatn the \ >ly Ghoft dwelling inhim, who is greater 
then he that dwels in the World, i Ioh 4 4. that is, then the Divell 
who worketh powerfully in the children of difobedicnce. ! 
"For all true holineffe , and all fpirituall graces are the proper 
worke of the holy Ghoft dwelling in man, as all the Scriptures 
teftifie. But Adam in innocency and honour lodged not therein 
one nighty Pfalme 49. 12; The Divell at the firft onfet gave him 
thefoile in his greateit ftrength of nature and beft eftate; which 
Divell with all his temptations and all the powers of dark- 
nefle and fpirituall wickedneflfes, the little ones of Chrifts flocke 
-doe overcome by the power of the holy Ghoft and his graces, 
which they have in their fraile earthen veffels. Therefore the 
image of God in which man was created , was naturail onc- 

y, e ■ This difcovers Gods goodneffe, free grace, and bounty be- 
Our eftate y onc * all nieafure, and all conceipt and cornprehenfion of hu- 
better by mane reafon, in that it fhewes how; God, by mans fall, malice 
regenera- and corruption which made him a (lave of Hell and Death, 
tion,then ^id take occafion to bee more kind and bountiful! toman, and 
S»« rC *" to (hew more love and goodneflfe to him , by repairing the 
ruincs of his fall, and renuing him after a better image then that 
which hee gave him in the creation, and making him better 
after his (in and fall , then hee was before in the ftatc of inno* 
cency, when hce had of himfelfe no inclination to any fin or 
evill, and bringing him to grace fpirituall in Chrift, and to an 
image which cannot bee defaced and to a (late firme and un- 
changable: when wee rightly confider thefe things, wee have 
no caufe to murmur at Gods voluntary fuffering of man to fall 
from his eftate, which was perfect and pure naturail ; but ra- 
ther to rejoyce in God, and to bleffc his name, and to magnifie 
his good nefle, for turning his fell to our higher rifingand exal- 
tation, and lifting us up by Chrift from hell and mifery , to hea- 
venly glory which never fadcth, and to a ftate fpirituall and 
fopernaturall not fubjeft to change and alteration, 



The Saints regenerate cannot fall away findy. \ Zj 

Secondly, this Doctrine overthrown the foundationln3 yfi 3 , 
falfc ground , upon which Papi'flis and Pelagians doe build , and' No Apo- 
ieeke to eftablflb their falfe and erroneous opinion concerning ftafic of 
the apoftafie of the Saints regenerate, and tfiefr falling from Sainj ?- 
fupernaturall grace and lofwg the Spirit of regeneration; which 
crrour they fecke to eftablifli by this argument, Becaufe Adam 
in innocency had the holy Ghdltfhedon him, and was endued 
with fpirituall and fupernaturall gifts of holinefle, from which 
hee did fall by fin and tranfgretfion. But here wee fee there is 
no fuch matter ; Adams image was onely nat ur at I upright neffe* 
not fpirituall ,.fupernaturall , and true holineffe. Hee was but a 
perfect natural! Man , and a living Soule ; Chrift, the fecond 
Adam, onely is called the quieting Spirit, becaufe through hifri 
onely God fheds the holy Ghoft on men; and hence it is, that 
though Adam did fall away from his eftate , which was onely 
naturally yet the Saints 'regenerate and called to the flate of 
grace in Cbrift, can never fall away totally nor finally into apo- 
ftacy , becaufe they have the feed of Cod , even the holy Choit 
d welling and abiding in them. 

Chap. XII L 

Ofthewcmans creation in particular. How without her all was net 
good.Wcman not made to be a ferv ant. Of giving names to the crea- 
tures. No creature but woman a meet companion for man, Vfes. 
Of the rib whereof woman was made. Of Adams dcepe jit epe: Five 
Joints thence colic tied. Of Coh bringing Eve to Adam; and 
two Points thence. Of Adams accepting Eve for his wife, and 
calling her bone, &c. with divers points t hence \Of their nal^d- 
nejfe : demonslratingthe perfection of the creation* 

G£n.2.iS,J^,2o 9 2i. And the Lcrdfaid^ It is not good that the 
man Should be alone J will make an helpe meet for him. And eve- 
ry] beafi, and every fowle C 'od brought to lAdam, to fee what bee 
would call them,&c. And udam gave names to them all : but for 
Adam there [was not fmnd an belpe meet for him t And the Lord 

1 2 8 Qodfmjtito it Wo* not god for Man to be atom. 

Cod catifed a deepe fi?ep to fa I upon tAdam^andhe flept- s and he Uoke 
one of his ribs and made it a Woman, and brought her to the 

Thcfe words, and the red: which follow in this Chapter, con- 
taine a particular d.fcription of the creation of the Woman, 
which before was touched generally and fummarily, fhap. I . 
^7. in thefe words, Male and female created hee them. In this 
Uiltory of the Womans creation, wee may obferve three fpe- 
ciall things : Firft, the preparation to it, or the antecedents im- 
mediacy going before it. Secondly , the creation it felfe. 
Thirdly , the confequcnts which followed upon it. 

In the preparation , wee may obferve three diftinct things! 
IFirft, Gov^s counfelland rcfolution for mans well bz\n%J"erfe 1 8; 
Secondly, Gods fetting of the LMan a works to view the crea- 
tures, and toexercifehis reafon and naturall wifedome in na- 
ming them^rfe ip. Thirdly jhc inequality which lAdam found 
in the creatures and the unfitneffe of them for his conversation, 
Yerfe 20. 

Firft, Mofes brings in the Lord God confulting with hi m- 

felfe, and according to his eternall Couniell cone fading that it 

was not good for Man to hee alone } and refolding that heewillT^ 

make an helpe meet for him: For thefe words. And God/aid^ 

are not to be underftood. of any found of words uttered by God; 

but of Gods eternall Cotinfdl, purpofe , and fore-knowledge 

now beginning to manifefl: it felfe by outward action and cxe* 

cution, as a mans mind is manifefled by his fpeech. The things, 

which God foreknew in his counfell, andpurpofed,aretwo: 

Firft, that it was not good for man to bee alone. Secondly, that hee 

All good, would make an helpe meet for him. Hence it may feeme ftrange 

™Ltyx which Go< * 6ith,that any thing which he had made fhould not be 

not\o bee l°°&: ^ or did not hee make man alone and fingle at the fir ft? 

ftfone-.kow. And did not hee make every thing good, efpecially man created 

in his owne image? Was not the image of God, in which hee 

created man,fullyand perfectly good? 

To this doubt I anlwer, that the Man was created good and 
perfect after the likenefTe of God, and there was no defect in 
his beingandfubftance: But yet, as all other creatiires,tfeough they 
were made goody and there was no evili in themj yet they were 


Mam Extkation intended in bis oreation. 1 8 9 

not fo good as man-, fo man.,though as hec was created in the image 
of God, was good, yea in good nctleiarre excelled other earthly 
creatures; yet hee was not fo good,but that hee might bee made 
more goody and created in an image of God more excellent then 
that wherein hcewasfirft made, even in the holy image of the 
heavCftly Adam Chrift , which farre excels and is immutable; 
Yea, wee finde by experience that many things which are good 
in them/elves, are not good for allpvrpyfes; fire is good in it ielfe, 
and for many ufes; but not to bee eaten; and fo many other crea- 
tures are good, as the flcih of beads for mans meat, but not with- 
out bread and fait, nor raw : So man was created good and fit 
to rule ail other living creatures, even confidercd alone in him- 
iclfc; but it was not good for the bringing of all Gods purpofes 
to parte that man fhould bee alone; it was farre better that a 
Woman fhould bee created meet for him, for the procreation 
of mankind, for the incrcafe of Gods Church, and for the in- 
carnation of Chrift, and the bringing forth of him the bieffed 
fad of the Woman, in whom Godreveales all his goodneffc and 
good pleafure. Here then wee may learne two points of in- 
itrtuftion. ' „ , 

Virft, that as God from all eternity in his eternall councell utllr. .1 
immutably purpofed, fo in the fipft creation of man hee fnewed, j n Ch «" 3 
that hee intended all things which hee hath brought to pafTc in t i"ngm- 
andbythe incarnation of Chrift, and in the gathering together tended 
of his elect Church by Chrift , and that hee had in his purpofe then the 
t\\z exaltation of man to an higher and better eftate then that cfeition * 
in which heeflrft created him. For it is moit clcare andma- 
nifeft, that Adam> being created in the image of God, inallup- 
rightnefie and perfection of nature; and having all the vifiblc 
World to view, and to contemplate upon Gods wifedome and 
workmanfhip therein, and all the creatures to rule over, and 
all things neceffary for worldly delight , needed no more for 
uaturall and earthly felicity: But yet for all this God faid, it was 
not good that man fiouldbee alone ; that is, it was not good for 
that which God intended, that is, for the obtaining of eternall 
felicity in and by Chrift, and for the full manifeftation of Gods 
goodnelFeand glory in and upon mankind. This is that truth, 
which is fo often tcftified by our Saviour and his Apoftles, 

O 1 where 

1 9 o Nothing happen s to ike tmture nujortkmwne to Cod. 

where they tell HS , that God prepared a Kingdoms for hu elell 
from the beginning oftbe tVoKld-, and that as an elect number was 
chof-n in Chritt before the foundation of 'the Worlds To Ch rifts in- 
carnation ! death, iatisfaelion and mediation were ordained be- 
fore all worlds, as Matth. z 5 . 34. and Eph, 1 . 4. 
Vfi !• Fitft, this (hewethagainft all Atheitls, Pagans,and HeBfticks 
that nothing comes to paffe by chance, nothing without the 
forefight and foreknowledge of God : but hee law before hee 
created the Wcrld what ihould befall every creature, and with- 
out his will permittingmo cv ill comes to paffe, & without his wil 
ordaining, and his hand working, no good can come to any 
creature ; all things are according to his foreknowledge, and 
there is no place for idlefuppofitions ofvainemen. 
Vfc 2, Secondly, as the wicked may here for their terrour take no- 
tice. ,that all their evil deeds are forefeeneand fbrekno vvne of God 
and hee hath juft vengance laid up in (lore for them: So the 
godly may comfort themfelves againft all Calumnies, Slanders, 
and falfe witneffes; all are knowne to God,' and hee will in the 
end make the truth kno wne,and bring their caufe to light, 
TFpz. Thirdly, wee are hereby fiirred up to all diligence in Gods 
fervice, and that betimes, feeing God hath fo long before hand 
ordained and prepared all good things for us : All our time 
{pent in praifc and thanks before him, is nothing to the time 
wherein hec hath (hewed love to us, in preparing good for us 
before and from the beginning of the World . 
Z)0r, 2: Secondly, in thatitisfaid, of man created in Gods image 
in full perfection of nature, that it was not good , that hee Jhould 
ke alonex Hence wee learne,that the image of God, and the 
ftate wherein man was fir ft created, is not abfolutely the belt 
which man can have; but that in Chrift there is abetter image, 
and a more excellent ftate and condition provided for him, 
which is belt of all. This is fully proved, 1 Or. 15. where 
the Apoftlc fhewes , that the image of the heavenly Adam is 
farre above the image of the earthly, and that the Kingdomc 
which is prepared in Chrift for the clevis fuch zsfiejb and blond, 
that is , naturall man cannot inherits 
ffe. Thisfticwcs, that wee gainc more by Chrift, then weeloft 

in Adam\ and God by mans fall, is become more boiuitifull to 


Woman an hebe and furtherance to heavenly bappines, 1 p i 

mankind; And wee who in Chrifl: have our hope, have no More 
caufc to repine at bods decreeing, willing and iuftering of mans S a ' ne ' ! in 
fall, nor to bee impatient under the afflictions which thereby ^J^g. 
come upon us; feeing the end of ail is glory and blifie, andra m A4*ra« 
crowne too high and precious for Adam in the Hate of in- 

The iecond thing in Gods counceil and purpofe is, that hec 
will make an belpe meet for man. Here againe it may feeme 
ftrange, that tAdam fhotild need an help in the (late of inno- 
cency; for helpe is required when a man is in need, and wants 
nccefiarics for avoiding evill or gaining fomc good ; which 
Adam, being created in Gods image and having all the World 
at will, fecmed not to want. But to this I anfwere, that by an 
helpe here, wee are tp underftand not an helpe to refill any evill, 
or to gaine fome naturall good which hec wanted; but an helpe 
for obtaining an higher and more blefled eflate, even the fupernatn- 
;vi//and ate of grace and glory in Chrift, thejeedofthe 
Woman -. Whence wee may learne, 

That the Woman was created not to bcea ferv ant to man, zy g.*> 
to ferve his naturall necej/ity; for hec needed no ftich helpe Woman 
or fcrvice in that eftate , being made good and perTed with not made 
naturall perfection : but to bee an helpe and furtherance to bea-w kee a 
venlj happinefe , and in things which tend thereunto. And al- f crvan: ' 
beit the Woman by being firft in the tranfgrejfion, and a meanes 
of mans fall is made in her defirefubje It toman, and to his rule 
and dominion over her; yet by Chrifl the promifed feed of the 
TVemjin , Chee is reftorcd to her flrft honourable eftate, to bee an 
helpe to man in heavenly things, and a meanes to winnc man, 
and to bring him to God in Chrifl: by her chaft and holy conver- 
fatwn y and by fhc wing a lively example of piety, and of the true 
feare of God, and giving due reverence to her husband, as Saint 
Pcrer tc&iiizth, I Pet. 1. 23. 

This Doctrine is of good ufe: Firft, to teach men how t» ufe y r -, 
and efteeeme their Wives, and wherein cfpecially to feeke their '* U 
helpe even in heavenly things y and in earthly and temporally fb 
firre as tiicy fcrve to further them in fpirituall. If men could 
bee brought to underiland and beleevethis, they would bee 
carefull tomarrie in the Lord , and to match themfelves with 

O 4 Wives 

ij2 Adam mturati reajon tried in naming the creatures. 

Wives of the true religion > godly and vertuous , well ap- 
proved for piety , faith and knowledge , and truly fearing 
yfe 2* Secondly, to direct Women, how they ought to frame,beare, 
and behave themielves towards their husbands; and wherein 
they ought to drive, ftudy, and endeavour to bee helps to them, 
even in the way to heaven; Let the daughters of the curfed Ido- 
latrous Canaamtes beare this juit brand, that, like Iezakl y they 
are fnares, and itirre up their husbands to wickednefle, and to 
Idolatry and cruelty. 
yfe 2. To reprove Men and Women, who onely or chiefely feeke 
flefhly, carnall and worldly hclpe, content, profit, and pleafurc 
ohc from another, and in their mutuall fociety and conjugal! 
communion; and fo quite fwerv« and dray from the rule of 
this Doctrine: where wee have mueh matter of reproofemi- 
niftred to lis , both of men who take Wives according to their 
luft, and greedy deiire of wealth and riches, not for religion 
and the feareof God; or who make drudges and flaves-of their 
Wives whom God made to bee helps meet for them; andalfo 
<nf W^omen who give themieives to bee no helps to their hus- 
bands except it bee for the World, no fatthcrers at all but rather 
pul-backs and hinderers in the way to heaven, and in heavenly 
and fpirituall things. 
Of giving The fecend thing,in the preparation to the Womans creation-, 
* aFnes 1° fefiods fetting of Adoim a worke to view all living creatures, and 
to employ his rcafon and wifedome in giving names to them. 
Where wee are to note and ©bferve,, that here is no men- 
tion made of the living creatures in the Sea, but oneiy of thofc 
which God formed out of the ground, that is, beatts, and cat- 
tell, and fowles of the aire all which were ready at hand, and 
God might quickly prefent , and make to pafle before Adam 
all kinds of them, that hee might view and name them. Se- 
condly , wee here may obferve the intent and purpofeofGod 
in bringing them xoiAdam\ to wit, the exerciic and triallof 
Adams naturall reafon , wifedome, and ' kn$wled$c ; which were 
made manifeft by his giving to every kind fit names, which 
God approved and confirmed. Thirdly, the maniteitation of 
Adams wifedome, and Gods confirming of his judgement 

which . 

the ctea. 

jSlaturali abilities cannot Jujlain againjl Jpiritmllenemief . 1 93 

which hcc (hewed in naming every kind of earthly creature 
with a name agreeable to the nature otir. For vvhatfoever Adam 
called every living creature, thativast-henameofit % \\\zx\s> that 
name was ratified by God. Yea alio, becaufc there was no die 
of names, whereby the creatures might bee knowne to any 
other or revealed , ( there being as-yet no man befides Adam 
bimfelfc, nor the Woman yet made to whom hce might (hew 
them by their names) I am induced to thinke, that Adam gave 
fuch a fit and proper name agreeable to the nature and qualities 
of every creature, that the crcature,bcing called by that name, 
Ytfonld'come to Adam whenfbever hee called upon it; fuch was 
the obedience of the creatures to Man, and fuch was mans wife- 
dome to rult them, and fo excellent was his knowledge of their 
feverall natures and qualities. Vrom which obfervations thus 
opened wee may learne: 

That, in the ftatc or innocency in the fir it creation, man had QoBrine, 

principles created in him ; ^ . 
he had no need to bee taught by any inftruclor,in any art or 
knowledge fit for his ftate and condition , nor to iearne by 
experience as now w r e doe fincc the fall. 

Now,feeing Adam was thus perfect in naturall knowledge of yfc 
all things which concerned his naturall (late and conditioned Thebtft 
yet was feduced by the woman,& the ierpent:This ferves to teach na^vail 
us, that no naturall knowledge, gifts, and abilities can uphold knowledge 
and Maine a man againft fpirituall enemies, and temptations ; f™?°' ; l *^ 
that power is proper to fupernaturaJl grace , neither can naturall 
reaion dive into the depth of heavenly and fupernaturall things. 
If naturall wit and reaion could have conceived the fpirituall 
meaning of the tree of Life , and cf the tree of kxorvlcdje of good 
and cvill ; furely Adam would firft have eaten of the tree of life, 
and not by any meaneshave beene tempted and drawn to cat 
of the tree of knowledge of good and cvill ; Porhewhowas 
created i;ocd, could in no cafe wittingly have negleded the 
tree of life, and defired the other upon any felfe fuggeftion. 
Wherefore let us not build upon nature , but wholly upon £>%*«•, 
':ings wh';hccncernecternaillifc and heavenly happinctfr. 

i p 4 ^ creatures no fit companions for Adam* 

He that folio wet hnatur all reafon for his guide in the way to 
heaven, may eafily bee carried afide, and' ml into the crooked 
waves of errour,which lead unto hell, and fpecdijy fall into the 
pit of deftruftion. 

7 he third thing to be noted in the preparation to the vvo- 
mans creation is, the mcqualitie which Adam found in all the 
creatures to be his mates and companions, and their unfitneife 
for his conversion to be an helpe meet for him: this is in thefc 
words, but for Adam there was net found an helps meet for him. 
The words fecme to found , as if God had brought the crea- 
tures before Adam, to lee if either be himfelfe, or Adam could 
rind one among them ail fit to bee a coniort for Adam ar.d a 
meet help. But the purpole and intent of God was toimploy 
Adams wit, and to take an experiment of it, as is before noted: 
And as for God, hee knew well enough what was to bee found 
among all the creatures , hee needed not either to feekc for 
Adam, or to let Adam to feekea meet helpe among them : Yea, 
hee had faid before, / will make an helpe meet for htm. The mea- 
ning is, that when Adam had viewed and named all kinds of 
earthly creatures, hee found them all fofarre inferiour to him- 
felfe , and fo unlike in nature, that they could not all yeeld him 
an help meet for him. The word 11MD, which is here tranfla- 
tcd, meet for him , fome would have it to fignifie aaainflkim % 
which is moftabfurd; For the Woman was not made a perverfe 
creature to thwart Man; then fhee had beenc a Croffeandan 
Hell, not an help, Tofiatus would have this word to fignifie 
contrary to him, becaufe the Woman in her naurall members 
or parts is contrary to Man; which is alfoabfurd; Neither doth 
this word fignifie as one before him, that is, as Kimchi expounds 
it, as one to ft and before him, and to attend him as a icrvant; for 
then God would not have made her of his owne fubftancej 
but of a meaner and inferiour matter: But the word fighiftes, 
zsone which is hts fecond felfe, made in the fame forme like him, 
as a piltare isdravenein a table fet juft before a mans face, and 
..ver againft him, that it may in ail parts anfwer to his i'hape 
and feature. Such an help Adam could not flnde among all 
earthly creatures; but fuch a one God purpofed, and refolved 
te nuke for him,evcn one who iliould be hisfecmdfclfe, made of 


Humane J witty and conVerjation agrcat bkjnng* \ y 5 

his oxvne fubftance, and in the fame image of God, and cenfiftinr; 
of a living reafonable Soule (ashee did ) and of a body in all- 
parts and members, and in forme and fhapc fully like to his body, 
(oncly the difference of lex excepted.) This common fenfe and 
experience doth ihew and teach, and therefore, this is the true 
fenfe and meaning of this phraie, I will make an help meet for 
bim. And hence weelearne: 

That man created in the image of God doth fo farre in nature, Doctr. 
former and fubftance excell ail living creatures, birds, hearts and None but 
living things on earth, that noneofthem ail is a meet confort Woaiana 
or companion for him to coinverfe with. Some delight hec meet c ° m - 
may take in ruling over them,and in their fcrvice and obedience; P anjon fc;: 
but no true or iolid content in their fociety and converfatiort. 
As Ad/im bund this in the ftate of innocency, and in his pure 
uncorrupt nature; fo all Adams fons of the bed temper ever ab- 
horred to bee excladed from humane fociety, and to converfc 
with birds and beafts. David counted it worfc then death to 
live among wild beafts in the defarts, and complained bitterly 
of it; Pfalme 42. and could not bee fatisfied till hee had drawne 
to him all d'feo^tented perfins , and them who durftnot fhew 
their heads for debt, 1 Sam. 22. 2. So did auftere Eliah f when 
le^abel made him .flee for his life into the wilderneffe, 1 Kinv. 
ip. And never any of Gods Saints delighted to live in the 
wilder •nejfeondy, among beads and birds without humane fo- 
ciety, except in times oicxuzWperfecmion, as appeares,f/^r. 1 1 . 
orforfome fpeciall \x'u\\m<\ temptation, as our Saviour, Murl^ 
1. 13. and his forerunner lohnihz Baptifl,Lu^. 1. laft verfe, 
to harden him and make him auftere, and a fecond Eliah. 

This admonifheth us to efteeme the fociety of men as a yr x 
great bkfling of God ; and not to fet our delight on dogs,horfes 3 
havvkes, and hounds, more then in the company of men, as 
many doe, which is an argument that they arc degenerate from 
the nature of men. 

Secondly, this difcovers the beaftly dotage of many Romifh Vfi ?.."' 
Saints, and of the Menkes, and Anachorites of the Church of 
Rom:, who count it an high point of perfection to live in caves, 
and demies, and cottages in the wilderneflc remote from all 
humane fociety , and to converfe onely whith hearts, yea and 



1 9 6 Of the matter of IVomcms creation , 

to preach unto them, as their Saint Francis is by them recor- 
ded to have done,and have called ravenous Wolves his bretkertn, 
God made man zfociable ewe at we, to delight in humane fociety, 
andfaath given him a mouth and tongue to fpeake his minde to 
others, who can with reafbn hear and underftand him. Hee 
who will follow Chrilt rnuft notlooke onhis owne things, 
but on the things of others ; and mud impart all his holy me- 
ditations to as many as hec can, ifhee hath any in him: Other- 
wile hee hides his talent , and covers his candle under abufljell, 
which favours of SatanJcall ciwy , hath no relifli of Chriitian 
kindnefleand charity. 
Of &e rib, I might Here obferve the conformity of Woman in her n«- 
wbcrc'Sf tureand frame unto man, and the fweet harmony and concord 
which, by the law of nature and creation, ought to betweene 
Man and Woman; but I have in part touched it before, and {hall 
have more occafion hereafter. 

I proceed to the creation it felfe, laiddowne in the 21. and 
22. Verfes -.wherein I obferve, Firft, the matter of which the 
VVorn^n was made,to wit,/? Rib of the Man, Verfe 21. Secondly, 
the manner, Verfe 2.1* In the matter; Firft, it is fhewed, that 
Cod caufed a deep fleepe to fall upon Adam, fuch as makes a man 
fenfeieffe of any thing which is done to him; fothe Hebrew 
word HDlin fignifies. This fleepe was not naturall , but an 
extraor dinar ie fleepe which God made to fall on him; a fleepe 
which came not from any violence done to nature but by the 
powerfull hand of God making man to fiecpe quietly, lothat 
hee did not feele what God did to him. Secondly, it is laid, 
that in this deep fleepe God did take one of Adams Ribs, and 
clcfed up the flefi in fleadofit. Here divers queftions arc moved 
by divers interpreters: 1. Whether it was one Rib, or a paire 
of ribs. 2. Whether it was one of Adams neceflary Ribs, one 
of the twelve, which every man hath naturally in his fide; or 
whether an extraordinary Rib, made in Adam for the purpofe. 
3 , Whether Adam was call into itupidity to take away paine and 
fearpjor whether for fome other caufc. 

Somethinke, that if it was a Rib created in Adam ah wc the 
cr dinar j number, then Adam was made a mo niter . Others fay, 
that if it was an ordinary Rjb^ then Adam was afterwards a may- 

Of the mmner of Woman* creation . i $j 

mcd man, and wanted a n:ceffary naturall part. But J conceive 
this to bee the truth: 

Firft, that it was but one Rib, or at lead one paire of Ribs- To 
the text affirraes. 

Secondly, it was not one of Adams ncceftary Ribs, required 
to make him a perfect man* but a Rib above the ordinary num- 
ber, which God created in tstdam of purpole , and yet Adam. 
was no monfter, neither wasitafuperfiuouspart: for as Adam 
was created the common ftock and root of all mankind 5 foit 
was requifite that heefhouldhavcane Rib extraordinary crea- 
ted in him above other Men, whereof the Woman was to bee. 
made, and he nevcrtheleffe remame perfect, and complete as any 
other man afterwards. 

Thirdly, tsfdams deey Jleefe was not to take away fenfe of Of Adams 
paine; but a myftery of building the Church out of Chrifts death, a «P fle ef . 
under which hec llept to the third day. And it is faid, that 
God cLofed up the rielh in ftead thereof , or in the place 
thereof; not that God left a scarre or hollow place, or that God 
created fleih to fill up the place of the Rib; but oncly clofed up 
the fielh in the place where hee tooke out the Rib, fo that 
no scar or print did there appeare, but man appeared moft per- 
feft,and without maymeor figne of any wound. 

In the fecond place, for the manner of the Womans creation, 
it is faid, that G§d made this Rib a Woman or btiildsdit #/>tobee 
a Woman , as the words run in the Heorew; which word im- 
plies, that as children are derived of their parents to build up 
their familie; fothe Woman was derived from Adam to build 
up his great family, mankind, of his owne nature and fubftance; 
and that his pofterity might fpring wholly from hi n, both in 
refpeft of himfelfe, and of his wife their common Mother, 
which w T as taken out of him. I omit needlefte queftions, and 
ridiculous collections which fome have here made: as, that the 
Woman being made of a bone is hard hearted, and fuchlike. 
The profitable points- which I obferve from hence , arc thefe 

Firft, wee are here taughtby mans falling into a deep fleepe, figfo^ f ; 
fenfelefic like death,that theWoman might Bee taken and formed 
Qut o£him,That God in the creation forclhe w ed ; that the fponfe 


i p 8 Woman mufl pveprehemimnce,<mddne to Man. 

_ i n i * — • * i 

Out of of the fecond Adam Chrift, even the true Church fhould be pur- 
Chrift <ty. chafed by the death of Chrift, and the bloc- drawneoutofhis 
iftgthe fide; and Chrift > by his JUepe'm death, fhouli make way to raife 
wired and buildu P his pharch. That the firft Adam and his Wife in 
her creation were the types and figures of Chrift and hisfpoufe 
the Church, I need not ftand to prove,- the Apoftie hath done it 
fufficicntly,£>^/. 5.25,26,32. 
Yfcu ^his ^ erves *° r muc ^ heavenly inftrticlion; as firft, to put us 
in minde of the unity which is betweene Chrift and his Church; 
and to make us, as wee defire, to bee a true and chafte fpoufeof 
Chrift; alfo to labour to be fpiritually united to him,& never reft 
till wee feele and perceive that wee are borne of Gods immor-> 
tall feed, even of his Spirit. 
Yfei. Secondly, to make us afcribe our being wholly to Chrift, as 
wee are the true, holy, and regenerate Church and people of 
Cod, and of the heavenly family. Thirdly, to make us love 
Chrift, and to meditate on his death with all holy reverence 
and tender afteclion, as the thing by which wee are purchafed; 
yea to make us ready to con forme our felves to Chrift in his 
a death, by fuffering for the good of his Church. Fourthly, to 
make us fee , that the creation was as it were a fhadow of Gods 
reftauration of the World by Chrift, and that the reftauration 
is the fubftance by which the creation is perfected. 
Z>oUr 2 Secondly , God made the Woman of a Rib y which was a part 
" of the mans body; which tcacheth us, that Woman muft by the 
courfe of nature yeeld toman the prcheminc 'nee, as being made 
yr e out of him; this the Apoftie alfo teacheth 1 Cor. 1 1. 7, 8. And 
this admoniftieth Women to give due refpecl: to their hut- 
bands, as is meet, in the Lord, and not to ufurpe rule and autho- 
rity over men. 
Vottr *. Thirdly, God made Woman of Mans fubftance; which tea- 
cheth, that Woman is neare and ought to bee deare to Man, as 
a part of himfelfe;which the Apoftie confirmes, Ephef.f. And 
here all harfh and tyrannicall husbands arc juftly noted; and their 
doings reproved. 
Dottr. 4. Fourthly, the making of the Woman of a bone, afolidpart, 
teacheth us, that ilicc is made to bee zjolid beepe and (lay to man, 
and ought io to be in his family .And hereby husbands arc dire&ed 


Wives. an atoayes to accompany their husbands. i y p 


to efteeme their wives, as the (ray of their family. And wives 

Fifthly, in that God made the Woman not out of mans head jy Q ft r <^ 
nor fret, but out of his/^, hereby hee hath taught us, that wo- Wives Vc 
men muft not bee too high and proud as the head, nor too low continnall 
vaffalsas the feet, but conforts and companions %f their huf- com panU 
bands in the whole courfe of their life, partakers of the fame ° n ^ of our 
grace, and of the fame honours and dignities- yoke-fellowes in 
the fame labours and cares in this World, and coheires of the 
fame glery in the World to come. The wife-Man confirmes 
this fully by the defcrjptionof a vertuous Woman, which is 
reformed after the true image, in which fhee Was created, Prov. 
31. For hee defcribes her to bee one who conforts with her 
husband in labour and provident care, and drawes equally with 
him in the fame yoke , and partakes of the fame honour, and 
refpeft both in publike and private. The holy Prophets alio 
and Apoftles fhew, that the Woman is made to bee Mans in- 
feparable companion, MaLz* 14. even the defire of 'his eye, and 
the joy of his glory, on whom eipecially hec fetshis mind, Ezech ¥ 
24 16. and that mans delight muft bee to have her continually 
at his fide, and her delight mud bee to prefent her feife to his 
eyes as a looking-glafle, in which hee may behold his own? glory, 
even the image of God, in which hec was formed firft, rnd dice 
after him , 1 Cor. 7. 10, 11. where the Apoftle forbids the 
Wife to depart from her Husband, and the Husband to put away 
his Wife, and their defrauding one another of mutuall comfort 
by feparating and living apart. For as man is the image and glory 
of God ;fj> the Woman is the glory of the Alan, I Cor, II. 7. in 
whom man may behold, as in a glaflc, the image of God in 
which hee was created. And therefore the hofy Apoftles 
who were married, as Peter, and the bretheren of the Lord, in 
their travelling to preach the Gofpeil, did lead about their wives > 
as Saint Paul teftifieth , 1 CV.y. 5. Alfo Saint Peter fpeakes 
plaineiy to this purpofe, 1 Pet. 3.7, where hee injoynes huf- 
bands to dwell with their Wives according to knowledge, 
giving honour to the Wife as to the weaker veffill, and as being co- 
heires of the grace of life; that is, as a man is indued with more 
knowledge ? fo it is his duty to dwell and converfc with his^ 


loo Mm and Wife muji ioyntly dra'W tmdtr the fame yoke. 

W r ire wife >ly as a man of knowledge: and as wee tender thofene- 
cefTary veffells which are ufetull for us, and the more weakc 
and brittle they are, the more wee take care for them, and have 
a continuall eye over them; fomen ought to bee morecarcfuii 
over their Wives, becauf e they are the weaker fix ; and to give 
them more refieft 9 honour andfhield, and more to efteemc of 
them by having a conftant eye towards them, and keeping them 
in their fight and prefence, as much as may bee ;anJfo much 
more, becaufethey zvzeoheires of the grace of life y and muft draw 
joyntly together as under the fame yoke in the way to heayenly 
pfe-i, 1 his Doclrine of truth , written in our hearts in the creation, 
fhould bee a guide and direction unto us all in the whole courfe 
of our lives : It direds Men how to efteeme their Wives, and 
to beare themfclvcs towards them ; and Women how to be- 
have themfelves before their Husbands, that the one ought not 
caft the other behind as an unfit and unworthy mate and com- 
panion ; the Man muft not run too farre before, and leave his 
Wife behind , either in worldly eftate, or in grace and in the 
way to heaven; nor the Wife draw back and lagge behind, ei- 
ther through carelefcnefs, or mean conceipt of her ownc frame, 
nature and izx ; but both muft draw cheeke by cheeke, and fide 
by fide,and by joynt ftrengthand endeavour draw on, & pull, and 
put forward one another, as a couple that arc by the yoke which 
God impofed on them in the creation fait tied together. This 
6*1. 6, 1 6. is the will and law of God, and they that walks by this trtte rule, 
peace, profperity and bleffing fhalibeeon them all their dayes, 
and the end of their labour ftiall bee aneternail Sabbath in hea- 
tfe i* Secondly , it ferves to reprove the great corruption which is 
daily feene among Men and Women in this milerable World, 
by meanes of which the World appeares to bee very much out 
of frame. Some men, like Turks s and Italians y make no account 
of their wives, but as of flaves to fcrve their luft, and as foote- 
ftooles to tread upon, and trample at their plealiire. Some, like 
favage Indians, make them drudges to toile and labour for them 
as Oxen and Horfes, and to ierve them as fcrvants and flaves. 
Some account them make creatares , not capable of any great 


A mans Wife nearer then bis naturaR (parents* 20 1 

knowledge or wifedome,and thereupon neglect the care and 
pains of intruding them,and teaching them, and imparting their; 
knowledge to them,& drawing and pulling them on in the fame 
Way,and caufing them to go on with themfcives in an equal pace. 
And fo again,fome women eftecme their husbands as men that 
are bound to iervc , pleafe,humour and flatter them in all things 
which theydefire; and that the maine care of the man thould 
bee to deck, adorne,and fee forth his wife as his Idoll in all coftly 
apparell, and toyilh painting , and vanities , as if fhee were 
made to feed his eyes with her ornaments,and vaniftiing beau- 
ty. And on the other fide , fome out of a bafc mind and (loth* 
fulnefle thinke it belongs not to them to bee fellow builders 
of the family, equall to their husband in honeft care, labour and 
induftry for the common good of the family, or in grace and 
fpirituall gifts ; in all which they muft bee partakers in th«h* 
meafure and proportion* Let fuch tranfgreflbrs of the law 
of nature bee allured , that as they come fhort of common 
humanity, fo much more of the grace and glory of God. 

The third thing in the hiftory ofwomans creation, is the 
tonfequents of it* 3. Conjc- 

The firft, that God brought her to the man % v erf. 2 2 . quents* 

The Second, that Adam accepted her, as an help meet for him, 1 . 
that is,as his fecond felfe, a moll: pleafing and delightfome com- *2 . 
panion of his life, and mod helpfull to build up mankind, ver.2$* 
upon which Mofes by infpiration of Gods fpirit, inferrcs by 
way of neceifary concfufion an excellent do&rine, which hath 
both a moraU and propheticall meaning. 

Firft a naturall moraU fcnfc,to wit, Firft, that a mans wife 
is nearer to him, and ought to be eftcemed dearer than his na- 
tural parents, and to her he mud c leave t though it be with /?*- 
<vmg them. Secondly that in creating the woman, and joyning 
her to man in marriage, God did prefigure and forc-fhew the 
infinite love of drift to his Church, and the love of the Church 
to ChriftynAihz fpirituall and my fticall union which is between 
them ; as is noted Eph. 5.32. 

The third confequent is, the n^dnefe of the mart and wom*n % $> 
which was without Jbame or any inconvenience 10 their firft 
creation before their fall, ver. 25, 

P Firft, 


Marriage the ordinance of (jod. 

j. Firft, it is laid that God brought her to the nan, that is,fo 

Of Gods foone as God had made and formed her of mans rib, he prclen- 

bringing ted her to him to be his wife, and ib an help meet for him ; we 

Eve to A- mu ft not t hinke that this bringing of her to him was onely a 

* w ' istting of her before his eyes,and (hewing her to his fight j but 

that Gcd withall declared to the man how, and whereof he had 

made her, even of a rib taken out of him, and did offer her to 

frtm for a wife and eqnall coniortjfo much the phrale of bringing 

her to him doth import. From whence we learne, 

That the marriage of man and wife is the ordinance of God in 
Dettr. i. the ft ate ofinnoceacy^ and God is the firft Author of it, and the 
Mavnage fi r ft watch-maker between man and woman in the firft creation, 1 
the ordi- Q ur Saviour alio teftifieth this in the gofpell, Mat.19,6. faying 
God 66 ^ at ty vertue of Gods firfl: ordaining of marriage, man and 
woman married together are no more twaine, but one flefl And 
whatfoever God hath thus joyned together, no man ought to fnt 
, And there is good reafonwhyGod fhould be the flrft au- 

Keaj,i' t j lor of marriage j Becaufe it is the onely law full meanes of 
bringing forth people to God, and of propagation of mankind; 
and it is fuch a ground and foundation of the Church, that with- 
out it God cannot have m holy feedjts the Prophet intimates 
Mai. 2. 1 5. which point ferves* 
Vfe r. firft ? to fhew that marriage is honourable in it felfe, in the na- 
ture of it, among all men and women of all forts t orders and de- 
grees, as the Apoftle tcacheth, Heki$.4. And the* Popes and 
Church of Rome, in counting marriage a kind of flefhly iin» 
cleaneneife, and defilement, difco vet themfelvestobeoppofers 
of Gods ordinance, and viola ters of the lawof nature." 
Yfe 2 SecondIy,tofhewtbat the bed celebration of marriage is 3 

when it is folemnly celebrated^ and man and woman joyned to- 
gether by Gods publike Minifters , who ftand in the place of 
God, as Ambaffadours, and arc his mouth to blefle his people : 
For then God is after a fecondarie manner the author and match- 
maker; And his ordinance being thus obferved, and the marri- 
age bleffcd by his minifters, there may be more hope of bleffing 
upon it,and upon the parties joyned together. 
Yfi 3. Thirdly this,In going about marriage men and w&men ought 


Tofygamie unlawful!* 2 oi 

chiefly & fir ft of all to confult withGod>to iooke up to him, 5: to 
feekc his direction and adiftance by humble, fervent and faithful! 
prayers and is oncly he who knoweth fitted mat- 
ches and coniorts for every one,and can give to man an help meet 
for him. 

Fourthly it difcovers to us the abomination, and unnaturall Vk 4. 1 
fiithinefTc of whorcdomeand fornication ,w herein men and wo* 
men dojoyneand mingle themfelves together without God, 
the Divclland rlefhly iuft leading them. No marvell that A- 
dulterers, whoremongers, and fornicators, are fo often in the 
Scriptures excluded out of the kingdme of God. 

Secondly, wee heuct learne. That pure marriage , which is Doifr, z\ 
Gods ordinance, is of one man with one woman, For God had Marriage 
an excellency and wer-plus of f pirn in the creation; and yet hee ! s , of onc 
made bntoneWoman tor Adam who was but one man;& why? but onMV - 
that hs might feeke a godly feedps theProphet iaith,/4f/.2.1 5. Our man. 
Saviour alfo tcachethin the Gofpelithataman ought to have &iil.z<i$, 
but ene wife while he and fhee liveth; and God from the begin- 
ring, even from the creation, (hewed that he did not allow Po~ 
Ijgamie. And in old time God tolerated it in fome of the Patri- 
archs and Prophets, not as a thing naturally good and allowable ; 
but as a type and figure of ChrTft and his feverall Churches, 
which,as feverall fpoufes,he gathers to himfelfe out of Icwes and 
Gentiles, Cant t 6 t 8. v 

This, being fo, tcacheth every man to bee carefull, circum- yfc 
fpeft and inquifitive in choofing to himfelfe a Wife who is to 
bee his perpetuall confort and companion of his life. It is good 
counccllof a wife-Man, which he gives to all; thzt There ought 
much deliberation to bee ufed in doing a thing which is to bee dine 
once for ally and if it bee dons ami ffe, can never bee amended; And 
fuch is a mans taking of a woman to bee his Wife, fhee is once 
taken for all, and during her life, bee may not feeke a better, noc 
can bee eafedofhis burden if rfice provcth fro ward, perverfe 
and contentious: hee who finds a good wife, gets a meet helps 
and continuall comfort to himfelfe ; but hee who takes a 
brawling wife , puis upon himfelfe a perpetual! croffe and 
Ittc fecond consequent , is Adams free and willing accepta- ^ 

P 2 tion 

204 Marriage afm anda)clmUarj contraft. 

tion of the woman to bee his wifc, and fo an helpemeetfcr 

him, inthefe words, ^And Adam /aid, This is norv bone of my 

bone y andfiejh ofmyflcjb; {bee {ball bee called Woman, becaufejhec 

tc? at taken out of man , Verfe 23. wherein wee may note three 

things worthy to bee considered. 

Wk Firft, that God having made a wife fit for Adam, doth not by 

coattive or commanding power and authority put her upon him • 

but having {hewed her to him, what one, and whence ftiee 

was, fuffcrs him to accept and choofe her freely of his owne 

accord , and makes not up the marriage till Adam doth cheere- 

iully, upon certaine knowledge of her nature and difpofi* 

tion, accept her for his wife and feebnd felfe. Whence wee 

learne , 

DoUrine. That Marriage, according to Gods ordinance, is a free volun- 

Marriage tar j contrail made betweene a Man and his Wife, made with the 

inufthee we jj [ t l£ n g an d mutuall confent of both parties* Though Fathers 

ohm 4 are faid to take Wives to their Sens, and to give their Daughters 

Uu3ry * to bee wives, Exod, 34. id. And fome Sons arc faid to Afire 

their Fathers to give them fuch, orfuch wives, as Gen. 34. 4. and 

Jud. 14. 2. Yet they ought not to impsfe wives on their Sons 

without good liking and free confent, nor give their Daughters 

in marriage againft their -veils , as appeares in the example of j?*- 

becca, whofe confent wzsfirfi askedbdovc fliee was promifed to 

'BgsT V mc > Gen ' 2 4« 5 $• Anc * there is S 00ci reafon ofthis : Becaufe, 
- J * where mindes,hearts,& affe&ions are not united in two parties, 
they cannot delight to draw chcerefully under the fame yoke, 
nor bee an helpc or flay one to another. Now a wife is ordai- 
ned of God to bee an helpe to her husband, and the defireofhU 
ejesy and to draw with him in the fame yoke; andheeis to bee 
a /belter to cover, and a fay to uphold her all his life. There- 
fore reafon requires that marriage foould bee a free and volun- 
tary contract made with the well liking and mutuall confent 
of both parties. 
' Vfe. This Doclrine ferves to reprove divers forts of people, and 
h reproofe to condemne divers marriages. Firft, marriages of Perfons under 
to many, #g e 9 before the parties have knowledge and difcretion cither 
to make a gt choice , or to order their affeftions. Secondly, 


Fkfily defires blinde guides to marriage. 205 

marriages of wards, who have wives impofed on them under 
great penalties. Thirdly, forced marriages, unto which children 
are compelled by violent and tyrannicall Parents, orcrucllun- 
juft guardians, againft their mind and liking; on iiich marriages 
there can bee no blefling hoped for nor expected, but much 
mifchiefc and many inconveniencies, adulteries , and wborc- 
domes, and many discontentments of life, as experience 

The fecond thing here to bee noted is Adams fpeech;7£>.; ti 
is now bone of my bene, andfleft cf my flfjb 5 &c. by which it is 
manifeft, that God, in preicnting the Woman to him, did de- 
clare whereof hee had made her, and of what nature and kind was. Some ancient and moderne Writers doe gather 
from hence, that Adam was divinely infpired with the Spirit 
of Prophecie, and had understanding of hidden myfteries 3 which 
hee had never feene , heard, nor learned from any; becaufe fo 
foonc as God brought the Woman , hce could prefently tell 
whence fiee wot, and whereof (hec wis made, without any infor- 
mation. But this is a vaine and falfe furmife; for no Prophet 
could at any time know and declare fecret things beyond 
fenfe andreafbn> without revelation either in a drcame, or virion, 
or word fpeaken to him by God. To know mens fecret thoughts 
or doings without revelation or w r ord from God, is proper to 
God, and to Chrift,and to the Spirit, which fcarcheth all things; 
undoubtedly therefore, when God brought the Woman to A- 
damznd prefented and offered her to him, hee did withall^- 
clare how and whereof hee had made her, of the fame nature, 
and framed her in the lame image, as I have before touched: 
For, in marriage-making, there are fuch declarations going be- 
fore to draw affection and free confmt, and cxternali infor- 
mations by outward mcanes; and this was a true platformeof 

Hence wee learne , That men and women mufl not bee lead Doctrine* 
unto marriage by fecret infpirations , and divine revelations: What 
But by knowledge gotten by experience, inquiry and infbr- S ui jj« 
mation. Luft and flelhly defire are blind guides to marriage; mu ea * 
as wee fee in the Sons of God, the feed of Seth, who by beauty n ™ - 
were drawne to take to wives the Daughters ofmtt 9 \\\\o were 

P 3 ' of 

2 06 CoMugalla/fefthmftokld be grounded upon knowledge* 

of OVs car nail and profane poftcrity , Gen, 6. i. and in Bfm, 
Gen, *j. A wife was chofcn for Ifaac upon knowledge and 
experience of her vertuc, modefty, and hofpitality, and there- 
fore God bleffed the match. And Boaz tooke Ruth to wifc,not 
for riches or kinred, but becaufe friee was knowne a vertuons 
Woman, Ruth $.11. 
yr c% As this Doctrine ferves for direction and exhortation to 

men and women , to ground their con jugall affections aright 
upon knowledge, experience, and good information ; which is 
a courfe moft commendable and agreeing to Gods ordinance; 
So alfo for reproofe and conviction of Anabaptifts, Enthufiafts, 
and Antinomians;fuch as John of Leiden, and they of his feci; 
the Anabaptifts of the family of love, who challenged women 
to bee their wives upon pretence of infpiration and divine re- 
velation; and, when they had fatisried their lufl: on them, and 
were enraged with luft of others, did upon the fame pretence 
either murder, or call them off, and take others; Gods wrath 
for this horrible fin and diforder purfuing them, and giving 
them up to monftrous and unnaturall lufts, and at length to mi- 
fcrable deftru&ion. There arefomc who too much refemble 
thefemifcreants, and hereby alio are reproved; I mean them 
who, like luftfull Shechcm, upon the firft fight are fet on fire 
of lufl:, and are fo ftrongly carried by it with violence, that they 
muft have oneanothcr, orelfe they will dye or bee diftracled. 
Such matches and marriages for the moft part prove unhappy 
and uncomfortable; if any doe not, it is a great mercy of God y 
and a favour which ought to bee acknowledged with all thank- 
ful neftc. 
5 # The third thing here to bee noted is the manifeft fenfe of 

Adams words, which is, that the Woman wasnotonely bone 
of 'his bones , but alfo fltfb ofbis flejh; that is, fhee had both of his 
flefh and of his bones in her concurring to herfubftance. Whence 
wee may probably gather, 
Dotir. i. That the Rib of which the Woman was made, was not arc 
bone, that is, an halfe Rib taken out of one fide; but bones y that is, 
a paire of Ribs , or whole Rrb taken out of both fides. The He- 
brew word AM8& that is, my banes, intimates fo much; and that 
this Rib was not a bare naked bsne, but had fome flefh clea- 

Sim'uhude of natures the bejl ground o/loVe. 


ving to it, becaufe hee cals her flefb ofhtsflejb, as being made of 
bisfrjhas well as of his hones. This is a matter of no great mo- 
ment; but, being a truth necefiarily implied in the words of the 
tcxt,it may fervc for fpeciall ufe. 

Hrft, to put us in mindc, that Adam y the &fl man, was the V/c u 
common ftock and root of all mankind; and notonelyall A* 
dams pofterity were wholly contained in Adam done; but alio 
the firft woman, the Mother of ns all, had her firft vitall life in 
Adam , and was a part of his living flefh and bones. And, as in 
the firft Adam all mankind had their naturall being: fo in Chrift 
all the cled and faithfull have their fpirituali being and whole 
life , and even the Church, Chrifts fpoufe, the Mother of all true 
beleevers, hath her being wholly from Chrift; and therefore to 
Chrift wee m«ft afcribc our whole fpirituall being and new 
birth. The Father, by his Spirit {hed on us througk Chrift, 
begets us to himfelfe of his immortall feed, his Spirit, t* 
the lively koye y to the inheritance incorruptible and undffiled, that 
fadeth not away, refervedfor hs in heaven. 

Secondly , it ferves to worke conftant love betweene man yr e 2 , 
and his wife, and to ftirre up man to love his wife as his owne 
fkfti; and every woman to love her husband as every part of 
the body loves the body whereof it is a part ; and alio to pro- 
voke men to love one another, as being a moft naturall affe&ion 
of one member to another in the fame body. As for them who 
are envious', and men-haters, and cruell pcrfecutcrs ; they are 
here difcovercd to bee children of the great man-murthe- 
rcr the Diveli , and with him they fhall have their por- 

Secondly, in that Adam gives this as a reafon of his frec^^^; 
accepting of his wife, becaufe (hee is of the fame nature and similitude* 
fubftance, bone of his bones, and fit to bee named WN, w?»ot"m 3 nncrs 
man, or as one would fay ajhe~wan; Hence wee learne, that the beft 
the beft ground of marriage and band of love is (imilitucie of p°" n< * °^ 
natures and difpofnions , and unity of heart and fpirit, by which " 
they are both alike affe&cd. This is that which the Apoftle 
teachcth, were hee faith, Bee not unequally yaked; for what con- 
cord can there bee betweene light and darknep> righteottfnejfe and 
unrijrhteonfnejfe ? that is , contrary natures and difpofitions? 

P 4 a O , 


20 8 Qrcum/pefiion to bee ujcdk the choice of a Wife. 

2 Cor. 6. 14. Tl is rule Abrahams faithful! fcrvant followed 
inchufingawifefor//W: as hec knew Jfaac to bee charitable 
?tP.d kind to It-rangers and given to hofpitality , fo hee made 
Lis prayer to God to direct him to find a wife for him of the 
fame difpofition; and when hec found Rebecca to bee fuch a chic 
by the entertainment which fliec gave to him being a ftrangcr, 
hee would not reft till hee had gotten the con fent of her, and 
her parents, and friends ; Gen % 24. The negled of this rule God 
forbids in his law, and threatens with a curfe, Deut. 7. 3. It 
was that which made wife Solomon^ prove a doating foolc in 
his old age, becaufe wives of a contrary religion turned away 
his heartland made him build high places for Idols ',1 Kings r 1 \ Ahabs 
matching with Isabel zn Idolatrous worlhipper of Ba*l % ma#e 
him an Idolater and a (lave, who/old hhnfelfe 10 all wickedneffe 
when his wife fezabel flirredhim up, 1 King. 21. 25. And Ie- 
horArn the Son of Jchofapbat King of ludth by taking to wife 
the daughter of Ahab of a contrary religion, brought refera- 
ble deftru&ion upon himfelfe and his whole family, 2 Cron. 
21. 6. 
yr e j \ This Doctrine ferves for admonition to all Men, to bee wary 
A rule for a«d circumfpecl: in the choice of their wives; and if they bee 
chufing. vcrtuoufly and pioufly affected , and have a defire to live in the 
feareofGod, and to build up a godly family, to have afpeciall 
eye and refpccl of true religion as well as of a good natural! 
difpofition, and good education and behaviour, A godly Mart 
muft feeke a godly Wife, a kind and liberall Man a free hearted 
Wife;and a courageous Man a Woman of courage, that they may 
both draw one way. It is true, that fometimes in cafe of no- 
table infirmities bearing fway in Men , Women of contrary 
difpofition may bee ufcfulland fit Wives to correct, amend, or 
moderate their corruptions 5 a Woman of a mceke and patient 
difpofition may aflwage the heat of her Husband being haft y 
and cholericke, and io bee an helpe meet for him. A wife 
Abigail may prove a necefTary & helpful. wife to a foolifhiW*/W, 
and by her wifedome may overcome his folly,and by her liberall 
hand may make amends and prevent the mifchiefe of his churlifh- 
nefleBut it is no wifedome either in Man or Womantorunnc 
iiich a defperatehazzardjin confidence of their ownc wifedome., 


jyogooJto h expclerf from uneqaallMcrriages. 209 

vertucor abilities. For wee find by experience,and it is a thing 
commonly fcens, that Men and Women, by rcafon of humane 
frailty and naturall corruption which remaine in the bell;, arc 
more fubjeet. of the froward to learne perverfenelTc,then by the 
wifc,meeke and liberall conforts to be drawne from their folly , 
fury and churlifaneiTe ; and therefore though in cafe when an 
bird lot befals Men or Women, they mud make the bed they 
can of that which is too bad, in hope that God will bleflc 
their vertuot:s and godly endeavours ; yet the belt, rule, 
which godly Chriftians can obierve in the choice of wives 
it-, to choofe filch as are like affc&ed and vertuoully difpofai 
as they themfelves are , to regard chiefely the- unity of Spirit, 
and the fimilitude of nature and difpoiition; which is a thing 
here taught by God in the creation and firft marriage betweena 
Adam and Evah , the firft Father and Mother of all man- 

Secondly ,wc may gather from this do&rinz, that there car* fy e %i. 
bee no hope or expectation of good from unequall marriages. 
And when men for carnall, worldly and polit ike refpccts,yokc 
themfelves with wives of a contrary difpoiition and religion, 
daughters of a Orange God, and vaflalsof Antichrilt, there fcl- 
dome orflcver followcs ablcfling. For juftitis with God, 
that when -irien and women walkc contrary to God, and rejeft 
his right rule in their marriages, and in laying the foundation of 
their families f God (hould walke contrary to them, in their 
whole courfe of life, and mould croffe them in their endeavours, 
and bring their families toconfufion. 

The third and laft confequent of the womans creation , 3, Confe- 
is , that they- ivere both nak^d , t!x man and Lis -wife , and quern, 
theyyeere not a^aned, ver. 25. In which words , wee are 
not in any calc to underltand by nakednejfe, either want of 
nccefiary apparell , ( for in the (rate of innocency there 
was no need thereof, and therefore no want of any ) nor 
any want of naturall abilities or vcrtues, ncedfall for beau-* of t hens- 
ty, comlineite, and ornament, or for naturall perfection ;A 11 kedndicof 
Juch naked nefle, and want came in by fin, and after their fall : Mm aruL 
But here they are faidtobc «*%^bccaufe they neither had nor £ve : 
needed any cloathvS ; or covering of their bodies, which were in 


2 1 o Of the natural! orace and beauty of our firft Tarents. 

all parts mod comely and beautifull : Their skin was not 
rough , over-gro wnc with hairc like beafts,nor with feathers like 
birds,nor with hard fcalcs like ; but their skin,faire,white, 
and ruddie, was comely in it feife, and beautifull to their owne 
eyes, more then all ornaments of filkc, fine linnen,and all jewels 
of gold and filver,fet with the moft glorious and precious (tones, 
of moft refplendent colour and brightneffe. And their bodies 
were of that excellent temper and conftitution, that they neither 
felt nor feared any diftemper of heat or cold. The aire and ail 
the elements were tempered according to the temper of their 
bodies; and all things were pleafing, wholcfbme, and delight- 
some unto them ; and to all living creatures they appeared love- 
ly, and full of beauty, and maj'eftic. It was the creatures de- 
light to fee them, and to looke on them ; and it was their joy to 
ice the creatures admiring them, and rej'oycing in their fight 
and prefencc. And therefore there was no caufe or occafion of 
any fhame, or of any feare to fhew their fimple naked bodies, 
and to have every part and member openly feene; nouncom- 
HnefTc which needed a covering , but all parts and members 
were beautifull in themfelves , and compofed together in a 
comely order and frame.This is the true fenfe and meaning of the 
words; Wherein we have this plaine docTrine, 
^ rt That the worke of God in the creation of our firft parents was 

The crea'. P er ^ e( ^ without erronr ; the image of God appeared in their 
tion peiT" bodies, and bodily forme and ftiape; they were full of all naturall 
tt&. grace, beauty, and comlinefle, in all parts and members from 

the crowne of their heads to the fole of their fecte ; the 
glory and wifedomc of Gods workmanfhip fhined in them 
moft clearely to their owne eyes , and the eyes of all crea- 
tures. The truth of this appcares moft manifeftly in the words ; 
for, certainly, if there had bceneanyleaft blemilhor unfeemely 
member in their naked bodies,they would have beene a foamed 
to goe and appearc openly bare and naked without covering; 
therefore I need not ftand to prove it with many argu- 
ments: this one is furricient , That all the forme, beauty and 
comclineftc of the moft goodly Men and faireft Women that 
ever were, or are in the World, gathered together, and com- 
pofed in the body of on: Man or Woman; the goodly perfonage 


M ms ruinated body (hail be n*huildtd m (Jhvij}. 1 1 1 

of Ioftpkox Adonijahy the beauty of Abftlom and Abifiajr, and 
the glory and comlineffe ©f Solomon^ and all other formes and 
beauties named in hiftories, arc but the rmnes, reliqaes y dimwc 
Jhadowesand defaced /craps of that beauty and comelineffe which 
was IB the naked bodies of our firft parents, and in every part 
of them in the creation. And therefore our reaibn and fenfes may 
judge what comline/fe was in them. 

This point confidcred is of great force to provoke and ftirre yr e . 
up men to acknDwledge with all thankfulnefle Gods bounty ^cknow- 
to mankind in the firft creation,* and how exceedingly they are JedgeGo<J s 
bound to love, and honour, and ferveGod for the natural! gifts bounty. 
& abilities with which God at the firft did fully furnifh man;not 
oncly for neceffitj and welbeing, but alio for glory, beauty, or- 
nament and comelineffe in the eyes ofali creatures. And al- 
though our firft parents forfeited thefeblcffingsby their difb- 
bedience, and have defaced by fin this excellent beauty: yet wee 
ice Gods goodnefle abounding to us in this, that hee imprints 
in many of us fome ftamps and fbot-ftcps of the image, fa which 
wee were created, that wee may by tne rmnes which remaine, 
judge of the building of mans body, and of the beautifull frame 
wherein God at the firftxreated us. 

Secondly , wee may hence gather comfortable affurance, yf e 2 - 
that as God did create man in admirable beauty at the firft in InCbrift 
the creation, and made him comely in the eyes ofali creatures , the glory 
in all parts of his body , fo that it was no fhamc but a glory to °f our Ijo - 
walke naked without cloathes or covering : So, much more, in ^cftored 
the w f ork of redemption and reftauration by Chrift , God both ' p 

can and wih repaire our vile bodies, and reftore unto them 
their firft beauty and glory with great advantage, and make 
thzivillke the glorious body of Chrifl y and reforme them after his 
heavenly image of holinefte, which fo farrc exceeds the firft 
image , as heavenly excels earthly, fpirituall and lupernaturall 
excels naturall , and incorruptible and immutable furpafleth 
that which is fidin^ and vaniming. For , the workc of redem- 
ption and reftauration is a worke of greater goodnefle to men^ 
then the worke of creation; and as it excels* fo the effect of 
it muft bee more excellent. In this worke God ftretcheth. 
forth his omnipotent hand , and all his goodneffe further 


1 1 All mans in fit milks proceed from his fall. 

then in the creation; there hee created all things by his eter- 
nal! Word the Son , and by his Spirit working with him; but 
here hee gave his Son to bee incarnate, and the eternall Word 
to bee madefiefi, and to luffcr and dye, and bee made the price 
and ranfbme of our redemption; and, tor the perfecting or this 
worke, hee doth in, and by, and through his Son give and com- 
municate his holy and eternall Spirit to dwell in their earthly 
tabernacles, to unite them to Chrift inatte6ody 9 to bring them 
to communion of all his benefits, and to renue them after his 
glorious image of true holincfte. Here therefore is ground ot 
hope, and matter ot rejoycing to all the cleft and faithfull, and 
great incouragement againft all feare and fhame of wounds,, 
itripes, and all deformities which cruell perfecutors, and man- 
gling tyrants can inflift on their bodies. For the future beau' 
ty and glory which is purchafed for them by Chrift and pre- 
pared for them at laft, fhall cover, wafh a way, and utterly abo- 
lifti all, wheahee £hall appcare in glory. 
Vfe$* Thirdly, wee are hereby ad moni (lied , that the diftempers, 
deformities, and all defects and infirmities, which appeare in 
our bodies, whereof wee may bee afhamed, are net of God the 
Creatour, but proceed wholly from our fin and fall in Adam*, 
and from our ownc furfeting and intemperance. For God 
made mankind mod perfeft in Soule and Body, even with 
full perfection of beauty in the firft creation, as tins Doctrine 
teachcth. And therefore fo often as wee are afhamed of our 
deformities and our nakednefTc ; let us with griefe remem- 
ber our fall , and bee much more aftiamed of our fins, and lay 
the blame on our felves and not on the Lord God our Crea- 


Tbeftafe ofwfirfl ^Parents before their full. 2 i 5 

Chap. XIV. 

Of the eft ate and condition of our firfi parents: In five things, I. The 
bleffmg of fruitful™ ffe-fA fpecudl bit 'jfwg • Vfes . Marriage fret 
for all men. Colonics. 2 , Dominion over all living creatures .Four* 
Re qui fit es thereto Degrees of it : Abjolnte , and Dependent** 
Vnlimlted, and Limited. Reftoredin Chrift.$, food for man. Not 
the living creatures : in innocency. 4. Mans habitation. Eden : 
What. Of the rivers. Twelve opinions about^ Par adtfe. Of the 
trvo trees in Paradfe ; Why the tree of life. How of the knowledge 
cf good and evil I. 5. Of Cods image. 

ANd G 'od b h {fed them, and faid unto them ,Be fruit full ' andmul* Gen.i.iJ; 
tiply ,and replenifh the earth 3 andfubdue it, and have domini- 
on over the ffhofthe fea, and over the fowles of the aire, and over 
every living thing that moveth upon the earth. Verf. 2y . And God faid 
Behold, I have given you every her be bearing feed which is upon all 
the face of the earth \ and every tree in which is tfa fruit of a tree 
yeeldmg feed, to you it Jball be for meat. Verf. 30. And to every 
heafi and foule and creeping thing wherein there is life, I have given 
greene herbeformeat;anditwasfo. 

After the Hiltory of the particular creation of the Woman 
with the immediate Antecedents and Confcqucnts thereof; The T h . eccl V 
next thing in order is the hiftoricall defcriptionof^y?^<rrf^^| r I0 h ^ f 
condition of our firfi parents in the creation, in their integrity parents: 
and innocency before their fall and corruption , while Gods 
image imprinted on them remained perfect ,both in their Soules 
and Bodies ; fo that they had no leaft blcmifh or infirmity in 
their naked bodics,whcreofthey might bee afhamed. 

In this their firft Rate ofinnocency there are divers things men- In ^P 3 *? 
tioned by Mofes, and hiftorically laid downcinthis Hiftorycf U 
the Creation, which are to bec unfolded in order. 

The firfl: is the blcfllng of fruitfulneffe , wherewith God I. 
bleffed them fo foone , as heehad created them male and fe- 
male: This is laid downe in thefe words, And God blefed them 
find faid unto than, BjC fruitful I and Multiply, and rcpleni/h thr 
Eartb ? rcrfe2$. The 

2 i 4 Of the blejsing offmitfulneffe. 

2i The fecond is the power and dominion which God gave them 

over the earth, and over all living creatures in the water, aire, 
and earth : this is in the laft words of the Verfe ; and fubdue it, 
and have dominion over the fifhes,fbvvles,and beafts. 
J, The third thing is the bountifull gift of all herhes bearing 

feed, and of ail fruits growing upon Trees ; which God gave to 
mankind for bodily food, Verfe 2^. And gift of green 
herbe or gralTe for meat to the birds, beafts,and creeping things, 
Verfe 3 0> 
4» The fourth thing is the place of their habit atien^ the garden 

which God planted in Eden* this is defcribed, £?£<*/>. 2. 7. and fo 
a-long to the 16 . Verfe. 
J5 f 1 The fifth thing, which is the chiefeft of all, and which is firft 

of all mentioned in the creation of Man and Woman,is the image 
of God in which they were both created: This requires a more 
large difcourfe for the underftauding of it $ and for that caufc 
1 have deferred the handling of it to the laft place next before 
the conclufion of the whole creation, even his viewing and ap-* 
probation of everything which hee had made for very good, 
iaiddownc, Verfe 31 . 
Of the Xhe firft is the blefling of frnitfulneffe for the multiplica- 

blefling of t j on an( j j ncrca fe of mankind, even to the filling and repltnijhing 
neffe" " °f^ x Earth, and the fubduing of it. In defcribing this blefling 
Mofes doth her firft lay do wne the bleffing in a generall word, 
faying, God bleffed them. 

Secondly, hee fheweth more particularly wherein this blef- 
ling doth coufift, to wit, in bodily fruitfulneffe for the increafe 
of mankindjin thefe words, Be fruitful I and multiply. 

Thirdly, the aboundance of the blefling and large extent 
of fruitfulneffe, even to the replenishing of the Eartb,m& fubduing 
of it. 

firft, whereas God is faid to bletfe them, the meaning is, 

that God gave them the gift of fruitfulnejfe y fo foone as hee 

had made them in his owne image male and female: For the 

Hebrew word which is here ufed, figniHcth firft and primarily 

to bow the knee, or to kneele downers appeares , Gen. 24. 11. 2. 

Whntlic Chron.6. i^Pfalme 95. 6. Dan. 6. 10. And becaufe bowing 

word fig- of the knee is a kind of fubmitting and applying of the body 111 

mfieth, kind- 

Of the JiyuficMon of the 1t>ord fmtfubtejje. 2 1 5 

kindnefletofomc pcrfon, to doe him fomc kind and pleafing 
fcrvice, hereupon this word is tranflated and tiled in the Scrip- 
tures to flgnmc, Firft Gods applying of himfelfetomcn, and l} 
'as it were bowing downe fromthe high thron* of his Majefty to 
fhew himiclfe kind unto them , by giving them many both 
earthly and ipirituall blcflings in this hfe;yea,and himiclfe with 
all his goodneffe to bee their portion, and to make them fully 
bleffcd in glory* Secondly, it isufed toiignifie mans applying ij_ 
ofhimfelfe to God, by bending his knees and his fpeech to praife 
God,and to laud and extollhis name,and to render pleafing thanks 
to his Majefty, and alfo one mans applying of his fpeech to ano- 
ther ; and with bowed knees to falute him, as Gen. 24. 60. and 
2 King, 4. 29. Alfo the action of Parents, pnblike Minifters, 
and fupcriour Perfons whom God hath fet over others bowing 
downe towards them, and applying themfelves to them to 
wifh all bleiHngs unto them, and to pronounce them bleffedof 
God, as Aielckifedeck^blejfed Abraham >Gen. 14. and Ifnac blejfed 
lacob, Gen.ij. and Jacob blejfed his Sons, Gen. 49. and Mofes 
blejfed Ifrael, Dent. 3 3. In this place God is laid to blejfe themz 
that is,to apply himfelfe to them, and as it were bowing downe 
kindly to give them a blefling. But becaule there are many 
bleffmgs which God beftowes on men; Some are natural!, earth- 
ly and bodily bleffmgs \ Some heavenly and fpintmll\ And God Bodily 
bltjfetb men with bodily bleffmgs two wayes,and in a two-fold bleffingj 
reipect; either by giving them gifts and abilities, as naturall or ~ ^ 
Xviledome and knowledge in their mindes; and ftrength and forts * 
ability of body to doe fome naturall and morall worke; or elfc I# 
by aflifting them in the ex:rcife of thofe gifts and abilities, and 2 , 
giving good iffuc and fucceffcunto them; as for example, ma- 
king their wifedome and knowledge effe&uall, and giving good 
fucceffe to the actions of them ; and making the ftrength of 
"their bodies, and their appetite, and actions of generation fuc- 
ceflefiill to the bringing forth and increafe of children. Now 
here wee are not to underftand any heavenly or fpirituall grace 
or gifts, butoncly a naturall, bodily, even ability and ftrength 
of body and of nature for procreation of children and pofterity 
without any defect or infirmity, or any failing ofthcir endea- 
vours, or frustrating of the aftion of generation ; thus much is 


2 \6 Of the bkfmg of fruitfuLwjfe. 

here meant in thefe words. And this appear es plaincly in the 
next words, which fliew in particular what this blefling is 
even the bleiTing of fruitfulneflfe in procreation of children: 
And God {aid umo them, Bee fruitfuil and multiply; which m 
effect, and in true fenfe and meaning is ail one as itMofes had 
faid. And God almighty by the cternall Word, his Son did 
give unto them the blefling of fuitfulneflc, even mutuall affe- 
ction for procreation, and ftrength and ability of body to pro- 
create and bring forth the fruite of the body, that is, children 
in that image of God, in which they themielves were made, 
apd that according to their ownc will and delire without 
failing, defect, or infirmity. Here then wee fee this blefling 
was a perfect naturall blefling , even the perfect gift of pro- 
creation, for the multiplication and increafe of mankind. 
And thirdly, that it was a blefling of great medfureand aboun- 
dance, even fruitfulncfie and ability to multiply mankind to the 
repiem/hixg of theeartb^nd/^////;*^ of it, the next words fhew: 
And repknifb the Earth, and fubdue it. The firft words, reple- 
mfhthe Earth, doe plainely fhew , that God gave them the 
blefling of fruitfulneffe, and ability to multiply mankind un- 
tillthc earth were filled with inhabitants of the children of 

The earth, men. And the other word, fubdue it 9 fignifiesnot taking of 

howfub. the Earth into poffeffion by violence and ftrong hand ; 

duedby as tne WO rdis ufed, Num. 32. 22. Iof. 18. 1. 2 Sam. 8. Ii. 

Adam* w here countries arc faid to bee fubdued by force of armes. 

*' Neither doth it fignifTc fubduing of the Earth by forcingitt* 

2. bring forth cor ne,herbes,and fruit trees by hard labour,manuring, 

and tillage: For, in the creation, the Earth was made fruitful! 

of it felfe, and brought forth aboundance of all herbes, plants, 

and trees, frcdy, without culture or labour of man forcing it; 

and there was no creature to rcfift mankind, and tokeepethem 

out of poflefllon ; but the whole Earth was free for all men, and 

v. • futficient to fatisfic them with all things need full. But here 

it fignifies mens inhabiting 9 occupying, and pvjfjfing of the 

Earth, and that in fuch numbers and multitudes, as were then 

able to eat up the fruite of it, if man had flood in innocency; 

and now are able fince mans fill, to till it, and bring it into 

.liib/cftion being curled and made barren; fa that no region or 


*T recreation ofQhildt en a fpeciall hie fang. 2 ! 7 

country may iye dcfolate and barren without tillage and 
habitation of men. This is the true icnfe and meaning of the 

From whence wee learnc 4. points of Doclrine: The firfr, Do fir. t 
That procreation of children in lawful! marriuge, ts a fpeciall blcf- Procrc^- 
jing and gift of God y given in the creation for the multiplication 11 ™ ot 
andincreajc of mankind. My text here declares it to beeablef-J: ' j? ( 
iing, and other Scriptures confirms the lame. Tfalme 127. the blcfliiv^.- 
Prophet David proclaimes children to bee an heritage -which 
cormth of the Lord, and the fruite of the womb to bee his reward^ 
and the A4an to bee happy who hath his quiver full ef fitch an -owes \ 
■which are like arrowes in the hand of the mighty Man, And Pfalms 
128.3. hce faith, that this is a blefjingand happin:jfe of the Man. 
jvhich fearsth Goi, and walketh in his wajes, that his Wife is as * 
fruitfull vine by the fides of his houfe, and his children like olive 
plants roundabout his table. And as ^Abraham the Father of 
the faitfifuil counted it a great defecr, and want of a fpeciall and 
principal! outward blefiing, that hee did goechildlejfe, and God 
had given him no feed, Gen. 15. ib all Gods faithful! (ervants 
did pray to God for lftue to thcmfelves ; and did wifti it as a 
great blefling to others whom they loved; as wee fee iittbd 
example of Ifaac y Gen. 25. 21. who prayed to God for his 
Wife that {hee might bee fruitfull; 0£LMofes,Deut. 1. 1 1. who 
prayed that Ifrael might bee multiplied a thonfand times morel 
Of the Elders and People of Bethlehem, who prayed that God 
would give ijfue to Boaz of Ruth, and encrcafe his family like the 
family of Pharez,; Ruth 4, 1 1 ; OtHanah the Mother of Samuel 
1 Sam. 1 . Of Zacharie and Elizabeth Luhji. And all the godly 
Matrones,the Wives of the t PatriarcheSj counted it their reproach 
among I Vomen to bcebarr en , and a great blelTing to have chil- 
dren as wee fee in Jacobs wives, Gen. 36. 2 3. and by Hannatis 
teares, 1 Sam. 1. 

This ferves nYft to teach and admonifh all Men and Wo- 
men to feeke it as a blefsing fromGod ,and fo to eftecme it,and to 
render unto God thanks accordingly, as Hannah and Zacharie y 
and the blefled virgins, as in their holy fongs moft evidently ap- 
peareth. If Men and Women could have grace thus to doe, 
it would bee a fpeciall meanes to make them* refpeel: their 

QL chil- 


2 1 8 Ma rhgefne for all mankind. 

children, as great blcffings, and pledges of Gods favour; and 
to make them drive to devote and confecrate their children 
to God and his woriliip, and to traine them up to bee fit in- 
ftruments of Gods glory, and pledges of their thankfulneffe to 
Vfi i*. Secondly, it ferves to difcover thegroffeerrourand herefy 
of the Manichaans-, who held that marriage and procreation of 
children was aworke of the Divell , as alio of fome Popes of 
Syrkhu Rome, who held marriage which is honourable among all, and the 
bed unde filed, as the Apoftl^affirmeth, Heb. 15.4. tobeea»or£* 
efthe flefby which makes men unpleafing to God. The Lord 
defpiieth not his owne ordinance- and marriage is ordained by 
him for increafe of mankind , a* this Doctrine teacheth; and 
th: re fore the opinion or thefe Hercticks and Popes is erroneous 
and abominable. 
Doftr. 2. Secondly wee hence learnc, that as the blcflingoffruitfui- 
Marriage netfc was given to all mankind in the creation : ib marriage 9 
free foi all which God appointed for the increafe of men. on earth, is by the law 
?° C11 ' of God, which is written in mahs heart, and engraven in mans 
nature , free for all Men andWomen, to whom Ged hath given abi- 
lity and firength of body for procreation and fruit fulnefle , for in- 
creafe of mankind. As the text here openly exprcfTeth fo 
much, ioin all the Scriptures wee have examples of holy men 
of all forts, even of Prieits and Prophets, not onely allowed, but 
alfocomvtjmdsdby God to take wives and beget children, as Ifaiah 
eap.%. 3. Ezschiel chap. 24. Hofeacbap.i, And the Apoftlc 
commends it as homurable in all, Hebr. 13.4. AndtheApo- 
ftles who were moft devoted to Chrift, and to his worke, did 
lead about Wives with them, 1 (for. 9.5. And although in times 
of great trouble and perfecution raifed up againft Chriftianity, 
Wives arc a great burden, and breed much care and griefeto 
preachers of the Gofpell, efpecially who muft bee ready to 
run and flee whither focver God cals them; and therefore in foch 
cafes the Apollle, byreafon of the urgent and ptciTmgneceJJity^ 
holdeth it better for continent and chafte Men and Women to 
remaine unmarried, 1 Cor. 7, 26. And our Saviour doth approve, 
and well like it, in cafe when a mans heart and affection is fo 
extraordinarily taken up with the love of the Kingdom* efhea- 

Mat ria^e ft eefor alt mankind. 2 1 o 

-z/(f«,that hecis like an Eunuch without any defire or afFeclion 
of marriage, Matth. ip. 12. Yet, wee have no word or pre- 
cept in all the Scripture to reftraine any Perfons ofany order 
or calling from liberty of marriage. Saint Paul arfirmes that 
he and Barnabas had power and liberty in this kind, though they 
ufeditnot,i £V.o. 5. 

The consideration whereof ferves : Firft, to teach Men and yr el 
Women of all forts to maintainc and retaine that liberty which 
God had given them from their firft creation, and toad monifh 
them to beware, that neither Satan by his fuggeftions, nor any 
of his wicked inftruments by their cunningly devifed fable s- % 
nor any mifconceipt of their owne hearts, doe lay a needleffe 
/hare upon their confcicnces , and potfefle them with a falie 
opinion, concerning that liberty which God hath written in 
mans heart in the (late of innocency, which cannot bee taken 
away without violence offered to nature. They who are thus 
inftriiifted and fully perfwaded, if they doe marric, they may 
have comfort in this atTurance, that they are not out of Gods 
high-way , neither in this havefwerved from his perfeel law, 
and rule of liberty. If they rind many crojfes in the married life, 
yet let them know , that they arc not cptrfes laid on marriage 
for an unlawfulnerte of it. If they doe live {ingle to avoid 
worldly cares, ancto devote themfelves wholly to heavenly 
thoughts and fpirituall cares for the Kingdome of heaven, they 
have more caufe to rejoyce and glory in the aboundanceof Gods 
fpeciall grace to them , in that hce hath given them an heart to 
forfake leller blcflings for the gaining of greater, and bringing 
of more glory to God. 

Secondly, this thewcth, that the Popes prohibitions of Priefts yr e z ? 
marriage , and the abfolute vowes of virginity and (ingle life, A^amft' 
taught and impofed by the Church of Rome, arc curled and Popifhvir- 
corrupt inventions of msn^ and diabolical! devices, yea damnable g^ity an« 
hanfies, as the Apoftle callcth them, 1 Tim. 4. i.and a Pet. 2.i. vowes * 
tor, though divers holy Men of God , to whom God save 
power over their owne wils , and the gift of continency to (rand 
fieadfafb m their owne hearts have ftrongly rcfolvcd to keeps 
their virginity and to live (ingle, that they might apply them 
fclves to the fcrviceof God and his Church with greater free. 

Q_ * domc^ 


Ab/otute <v&toe$ of rvirgimtyj&c. Vkhlicalldemcs. 

dome from worldly cares, and have fteadfaftly held their re- 
4 folution,proving themfelves fuch as our Saviour and his ApoftLe 

doe commend, Matth. 19.12. and 1 CV. 7. yet wee never 
I read in Scripture, that they were commanded by God , or that 

they did hind them fe 'Ives voluntarily by an unchangable vow t or 
under any execration to abftaine from marriage, and from pro* 
creation of children therein : but al waves, without any abfolutc, 
ncccflity impofed on them, remained at liberty to marry if juft 
Ob, occafion were offered. If our ad verfaries object, that the law 
of nature muft give place to the Evangelical! law, which hath 
greater promises, and tends to lead men to fupernaturall and 
heavenly happinefle; and that for Chrifts fake and his Churches 
An r w £ ooc * wce Illu ^ renounce liberty of nature : I anfwere, that the 
EvanTelkall law doth not offer violence to the law of nature^ 
neither doth it abolifh any par v t thereof - but rather doth perfe b% 
it> by giving men grace willingly to neglect natural! liberty for 
the gaining of a better cltate: As for example, the lawof nature 
requires that men love Fathers., Mothers, Wives, Children, 
and their owne lives , and gives them liberty to hold lands and 
houfes : but yet when the cafe fo (lands, by reafonof tyrannic 
and perfecution raging , that a man muft either forfake all thefe, 
or deny Chrift, and renounce Chriftian religion; here a man 
ought to for goe all for Chrift, as the Gofpell teacheth: And yet 
the Goipell never commandeth us to renounce Father, or Mo- 
ther, or Houfes, or Land, and the like, and to cxpofe our felves 
todcath,when we may, together with Parents,Wives,Children, 
and Life, ftiil cleave to Chrift and enjoy him for ialvation; yea 
it were frenfie and fury for any Church to impofe lawes on men 
for the hating of Parents, Wives, and Children, fbrfaking houfes 
and lands , and giving themfelves to death voluntarily when 
there is no inevitable necc01ty laid on them, but they may live 
good and faithfullChri{iians,and*yet love Parents, Wives, and 
Children, pofleffe lands andhouics,and live in fafety. Wherefore, 
though wee highly commend them who more zealoufly fol- 
low Chrift, and foriakethe World, and make fmali account of 
naturall blelTings in comparifon of fpirituall , but doe as Saint 
( Paul did who made the GoJ pel I free, and did not ufe la wfull li- 

berty, and power : yet wee cannot but count them execrable 


Vefire of Tmreation in cur firjl (parents. 1 1 l 

who tyrannize and lay cruell fnares upon mens confeiences, 
and impofe lawes, and vowesupon thcmfclves, or others, to 
forfake, and renounce utterly their lawfull liberty, and to bind 
them by that law and vow which either they muft brcake, or 
eLfc fall into many wofuil inconveniencies and abominable 
evils and mifchiefes, as wee fee in the Popes lawes and vowes; 
which have proved caufes and occasions of lecret Whoredomcs , 
publike Stewes, many Rapes and Murders of innocents, to the 
ftaining and defiling of the whole Land. 

Thirdly, we hence learnc, that our firft parents,in the ftate of $.D<*£. 
xnnocency, had in them both the affection and natural! defirc 
to bring forth children , and to increafe mankind with all con- 
venient fpeed , God fb commanding them ; alfo they had all 
ftrength and ability of body to beget and bring forth , and 
there was in them no defect to hinder procreation for a mo- 

The words of the text do plainely flicw this : And reafon Rca/^ 
grounded on other Scriptures proves it fully. Firft our firft pa- 
rents were created perfeft in their ^£»^,and God gave them the 
huffing of frnitf nine ffe Slow where there arc all naturall perfecti- 
ons and abilities accompanied with Gods blefling , there can 
be no hinderance of procreation, or any failing in any naturall 
action ; therefore this Doctrine is manifeft. 

Secondly, all barrenefle and all multiplying and frustrating Retf.ii 
of conceptions came in as a curfc for (in, and upon the fall of our 
firft parents, as the Lord himfclfe (heweth , (^.3.1 6. There- 
fore there was no place for it in the ftate of innocency. 

Thisfervcs to admonifti us all fo often as we ice barren- yr e% j 
neffe in men and women, and mifcarrying wombes, and dry 
brcafts ; to remember our fin and fall in our firft parents, and 
to grieve for our corruptions derived from thcm,and to hum- 
ble our felvcs under Gods hand. 

Secondly, to perivvade us, and to make us fee and beleevei «y „• 
that our firlt parents did not ftandlongin their integrity and ^' 2 
ftatc of pure nature ; yca, that theydid not lodge therein one night 
as the Pfalmift fpeakes, 7yd/. 49.1 2. For reafon and common ex- 
perience do teach us,that mandoth readily and without anydclay 
Follow his will ,andthc affections which arc moft naturall in him; 

Q 3 io 


Procreation tk msjl n&turail aSl. 

fo foonc as reafon permits ; now the affection and dcfirc of 
procreation is mod naturaU,-as all people of undcrftanding do 
know, and the learned do grant ; and his will muft needs be 
acknowledged ftrongly bent and inclined to it,becaufe God had 
commanded them to multiply W replcnijh the earth* and there- 
was no reafon moving man to reftrainehis will and afteclion,but 
onely till he had viewed the garden wherein God had placed 
him, coniidered the trees and flukes of it, and received Gods 
commandement of abftaining from the forbidden tree,all which 
cauft needs be done before the end of the fixth day. And if 
man in the ftnte of innocency had kpowxe his Wife , fheehad 
without fails conceived a feed pure without ft*, and had brought 
forth children in Gods image perfect and upright ; wherefore 
they did without doubt fait in the end of the fixth day, as I mail 
more fuily prove- hereafter. 
jDo#r. 4. fourthly, wee hence learne: That it is Gods will revealed 
The whole from the beginning, and his ordinance and law given in the 
enrth given creation, that the Earth and every part of it (hould bee free for 
so Maa. an y man to poiTei-Te and inhabit it, untill it bee fully replenished 
with fo many men as are able to fubdue it by eating up the fruit 
thereof. This text teacheth plainciy this point, by (hewing 
that one end for which God bleffed Man and Woman with 
fruitfulnefle, was , that they might replcnijh the Earth. And to 
the fame purpofe, the Pfalmifl fpeaketh fully Tfalme ii$. 10. 
The heaven and heaven of heavens is the Lords , but the Earth hath 
hee given to the children of 'men ; and Dc'ut. 33. 8. it is laid, that 
God hath divided the Earth to bee the inheritance of the Sons of 
Adam. This truth the curfed Canaanites acknowledged by the 
light of nature, and therefore they fuffered Abraham , 1 faac> and 
Jacob to fojourne in their Land , and there to live with all their 
families; to feed their cattell, to digge wcls , and to fow cornc, 
and were fo farrc from driving them out, while there was 
roome enough, and they lived peaceably among them , that 
they entered into league with them, Gen. 1 4. 13, and 21.27, and 
26. 28. 
yf, l Pirft, this ferves to cleare that doubt, and to decide that quc- 
ftion and cafe of conicicnce which is much controverted ajnong. 
ggdly and learned divines, and agitated in thefe dayes, townv 


I ■ I* I - ■ — .-—— ■■ - ■ 

The Tbhok Earth tr lamed for mam habitation. 222 


whether it bee lawfull, t© fend people, and to plant colonics Of lea 
in the vaft countries of the weft-Indies, which arc not rcple- Colonics 
nifhed with men able to fuh >due the Earthy and to till it: If wee into othcc 
bee Sons of Adam the whole Earth is free for us, (o long as it part ** 
ts not replenished with men and fubdued. The ancient draggling 
inhabitants or any other , who have taken poffeiTion before, 
they have right to io much as they arc able to replenilh and &b* 
due, and bring under culture and tillage; and no other people 
have right to difpojfcjfc and expeli them, or to difquict them in 
their poiVeffion, or any way to doe injury and oiler violence to 
them, except they have fuch a cemmffion and warrant as God 
gave to the Israelites to expeli the Canaanites^ but it is lawfull 
for any Sons of Adam by the law, which God gave in the crea- 
tion fas this Doclrine fhevvesj to poflerTc and mhabite the vaji 
places, and to fubdue the barren untilled parts. And much more 
may true Chriltians, who bring the Gofpell of ialvation and 
word of life among them, by a lecond right in Chrift, fettle 
themselves there , and maintainc their poifclllon of thefe lands 
which they have replenifhcd and fubdued by culture and tillage; 
and fo long as they doc their endeavour to convert them to 
Chriftby the preaching of the Gofpell, and to make them par- 
takers of the blcffing in him the promifed feed; they defer ve 
to bec received with all honour of thofc favages who come 
by this msanes to owe them] elves to them. Wherefore, Let no 
man bec fcrupulous in this kind; but proceed with courage in 
fuch plantations, and with confidence of good fucceffe, and 
bleiling from God. 

Secondly, it difcovcrs great iniquity and in juftice in divers yfi ^ 
forts of men. Firft, in them who having gotten the firit pofle£ Agamft 
(ion in fome corner of fome great continent and large region, thr «e Torts 
do challenge the whole to,themfelvcs as their proper right being of mcn » 
no way able toreplcnilh and lubdueit; and by force feekc to I# 
keepe out all other people who come to live as neighbours 
peaceably in places neare unto them, for whom there is roomc 
enough , and more land then they can lubduc and f cplcnifh. 
Secondly , in them who think it lawfull for themfelvcs to ^ 
iiwadc countries replenifhcd with men and fubdued, and by 
force to expeli or bring in fubj eft ton the old inhabitants with- 
er 4 out 

224 Cjodgaye man Vomimcn oWr the creatures. 

cut exprefTe warrant from God • as the Spanyards did depo- 
pulate many great countries in tAmcrica , and root out and 
deftroy the naturali inhabitants. Thirdly, in them who take 
poilellion of lands to the ftraitning of the natives; which the 
naturali inhabitants without their helpe can fufficicntly rcplc- 
siifh, and iubdue, and bring under tillage. In thefe cafes there 
isgreatinjuftice, and wrong offered to Gods law, which re- 
quires that as we would ,that men (hould doe to us, fo we friould 
doe to them, and ufc no other dealing: and they who thus tranf- 
greffe the bonnds which God hath fet in dividing the earth to 
all Nations and People, cannot juftly hope for Gods bleffing 
upon them. 
1 1. The next thing after the bleflmg offruitfulneffc, is the Lord- 
Dominion /bipartite, and Dominion, which God gave to man over all living 
aver all creatures; and that is in thefe words, Verfe 28. And have Domi- 
living crea- n - on ever fa ^ f t fc g^ an dthe fowles of the aire, andthebeafis 
of the Earthy &c. For our full undemanding whereof wee are 
to inquire , and fearch out: Firft, -what things are ncceflarily re- 
quired in perfect Dominion and Lcrdfhipovcr the creatures. 
Secondly , the divers degrees of iu Thirdly, in what degree Do- 
lt quifires minion over the creatures was given to man. Concerning 
the firft, There are foure things required to perfect Dominion 
and Lordlhip over the creatures ; two in the Lord and Ruler, 
and two in the creature ruled and made fub/ect. In the Lord 
and Ruler there is required , Tirft, Power and ability to order,, 
rule, and difpofe according to his owne minde, will and pleafurc, 
in all things, the creatures ruled by him. Secondly, a true 
right to ufe and difpofe them according to his owne will and 

In the creature there k alfo required : Tirft, a difpoftion fit- 
nefie, and inclination to ferve his Lord and Ruler, and toyeeld 
to him in all things whatfoever hec fhali thinke fit. 

Secondly, a bond of duty, by which hee is bound to obey his 
Lord, and ferve for his ufe, and ncceflarily to yeeld to him in all 
things. All thefe things are ncceflarily required in perfect: 
Lordftiipand Dominion: And wherefoever all thefe are found 
to concarre in the higheft degree ? there is mod perfect Do- 
minion- and where they are in a lefler degrce^there is a lefler and 


ro it. 

Go J alone abfolute Lord oyer the creatures . n^ 

inferiour Dominion; and where any of thcfe faileth or is wan- 
ting, there the Lord (hip and Dominion faileth and is imper- 
fect: As for example; The Lord God, as hec is almighty and 
omnipotent , fo hec hath abfolute power in and of himielfe, and 
all ability to order, and difpofc, and rule every creature as hce 
himfclfe will ; And as he is lehovah^hc author of all being, who 
hath his being, and is that which hce is abfolutely of himfe/fi 
without beginning , and doth create and give being to all other 
things-) fo hce hath abiblute right to uk and difpofe all creatures 
according to his owne mind and will; and in thcfe refpe&s hee 
is abfolutely called the Lord; and is abfolute Lord even in this 
conf ulion of the World and all things therein ; as over all other 
creatures, £o over the rebellious Divell and all his wicked in- 
ftruments; and hath abfolute power to deftroy them, or to make 
of them, even contrary to their difpofition, what ufe he will. 
And becaufe in the creation God made till things good and per- 
fect in their kind and nature, according to his owne will and 
wifedome, and every creature as it was good in the nature and 
kind of it; fo w r as it moft fit & inclinable to fcrve for the ufe unto 
which the Lord appointed it in the creation: and as it was the 
worke of the Lords owne hand by him brought into being out 
of nothing; fo there was a bond of duty laid upon it to obey 
the Lords word, and to yeeld to his will without any refiftancc 
or relu&ation. And in thcfe refpecls Gods Dominion and 
Lord (hip was not onely moft abfolnte overall creatures, but 
alio moft fweet and lovely unto them; even a moft loving and 
fatherly rule of God over them, and a moft free and voluntary 
iubje&ion and obedience of them to him, and to his will in all 

lit now,cver fince the fall and rebellion of the Divell againft. 
the light, and the fall and corruption of man, and the confofion 
which thereby came into the World; Though Gods power and 
right ftand moft abfolute and unchangeable like himielfe, 
and hee both can and doth moft juftly over- rule the Divell and 
all creatures which are moft corrupt and malicious, and makes 
even their enmity ferve for his glory, and for the communion of 
his goodncfle more fully to his elc£h yet this power and right he 
excrciieth not in that loving and fatherly manner over the rebel- 

22 6 Severall decrees of Dominion. 

iious and difobedient creatures j but by juft violence and coaction; 
by neceflity and ftrong hand forcing and compelling them 
to doe and worke, and to fuffer and yeeldunto, and ferve for 
that ufe, which they would not and from which they are moit 

And becaufc no other Lords have any fucb power or right 

over any creature, but all their power, and right isjgivcn them 

by God, and is but an image and fhadow of his right and power; 

therefore their Dominion is not abfolnte and m$fi perfect; but 

fecmd&ry and infer tour, depending upon Gods will, power, and 

I>g r "* pleafure. Thefe things propoiedas grounds and foundations, 

wee may from them eafily obferve divers degrees of Lord (hip 

and Dominion. 

}' The firft and higheft Lordmip and Dominion, which is moft 

abfolute over all creatures is that of God, which, in reipectof 

Gods power and right cannot bee increafed or diminished at 

all : Vor , as hee hath right,to doe with all creatures what hee 

will , becaufe they are his owne, and hee gives them all their 

being ; fo he hath power as he is omnipotent,eiiher to incline ojc 

to inforce them to doe his pleafure and to ferve for what uic 

hee will. The Angels in heaven and Saints glorified and made 

perfect ,and ail creatures in the ftate of innoccncy ? as in duty they 

are bound to ferve and obey God ; fo they have in them a fitncflc 

and inclination to ferve and obey his will in ail things tothevt- 

moft of their power; and therefore this Dominion over them is 

lovely and amiable, and is p&tcrnum imperinm,* fatherly rule and 

Dominion over them. But the Divels,and wicked men, and 

all creatures corrupted are froward and rebellious $ and his rule 

and Dominion over them is, in refpeel of them, violent And 

compulfive ; and as a King he forceth them to doc what hee will, 

and compels them to ierve for What ufe hee will, and juftice 

requires it fhould bee fo. 

2* Thcfecond Degree of Dominion is, when a Lord hath both 

power and right to rule over creatures, and they have anjncli- 

nation and fitneffe to ferve and obey ; but all thefe are from a 

fnperienr Ltrdy giving this power and right to the one to rule, 

antl difpofing and binding the other to ferve and obey. 

Dominion jhi s delegated Lordihip and Dominion, is ejther unlimited , 

unlimited. - or 

'Dominion unlimited and limited what. i%j 

or limited. Vnlimited is that which is not confined to fomc 
creatures, but is extended over all things in heaven and in earth; 
aftd it is a power and right to make them all fcrvc and obey him 
n all thing?, whatsoever hec will. This unlimited Dominion 
is given oncly to Chrivt as Mediatour; who as hec is manper- 
lonally united' to God, and in his humane nature hath perfectly 
fulfilled the will of God, overcome ail powers of darknefle, 
satisfied Gods jultice , and redeemed the World, is exalted to 
Cods rifht hand, as David foretold , Pfulme no. i. and hath 
all fewer in Heaven and in E Art h given unto him, Afatth. 28.18. 
and hath a name given him abov eall namrs, even the name and 
title of the Lord Chrift, (o that in and at his name all knees mult 
bow, both of things in heaven , and things in earth and things 
under the earth, that is all muft either voluntarily as they arc 
bound in duty, give all obedience and honour to him, and pray 
humbly in his name to God ; or by his power bee forced andi 
compelled to bow under him as a Judge and yeeld to his will, 
Thtlip.%. 10. 11. 

Limited Dominie* is not over all creatures, but onelyover An<! 1 
creatures of the inferiour World fiuS, fowles, and beafts; neUted. 
ther is it a right and power given to that Lord and Ruler to doe 
with the creatures what hec will, and to ufe them as hee li- 
fted!; but oncly to make them obey and fervc him lb farre as the 
iupcriourLord doth thinke them fit and convenient for his ufe,& 
for his preientftate & condition .This UmitedLordfhip & delegated 
Dominion doth vary and alter together with the ftatc and' con- 
dition of him to whom it is given; and it is Sometimes, and in 
fome Perfons greater, and in ibme letter $ according to their fe« 
verall dates and conditions, and their fcverall difpofitions and 
behaviour towards the fupremeLord, to whom all power and 
.Dominion doth abfolutcly belong over all creatures. This p 
indeed is the Dominion which God in this text gave to our meant 
jarft, and in them to their poftcrity. This Dominion is limited 
to fijhesy fowles, hafts, creatures living on earth, as the words of 
the text plaincly (hew. Secondly , while man continued to ' 
his innocency and integrity, as he had power & ability given, 
and continued to him tortile, order and difpofe all thofc crea- 
tures aright in all things • foheehadatrue right and intcrdtin 



228 Dominion loft by man,re(iored by (brifi. 


them given and continued by God. Thirdly, as there was* 
■bond*} duty laid by God on thefe creatures to obey man and to 
yeeld to his uptight will: fo there was a difpefition, inclination 
and fitneffc in them to obey man in all things which hee 
in his wifedome thought fit : And therefore this Rule and Do- 
minion it may bee called dominium pat ernum % a fatherly, loving 
and fweet Dominion and Rule of man over them. But this 
Rule and Dominion being forfeited by man, and loft by mans 
fin and fall , together with his owne life and welbeing, is no 
more to bee challenged or ufurped by man, or by any ofhis po- 
ftericy , but onely fb rarre as it is reftored by Chrift who is the 
heire of all things, and the onely begotten Son, by whom the 
Father made all things , and by whom, as by the I^ord creatour 
with himfeife,hee gave this Dominion to man created in his 
iTchrift iro*g c * Now this Dominion, Chrift hath reftored to men in 
divers and levcrall degrees, as they differ in ftatc and condition. 
I. Firft, to the elc& and faitbfull Chrift hath purchafed and 

procured , that they, as they are his members united to him, and 
adopted to bee children ofGod in him, fhould have a right and 
intereft in all things, not onely on earth but alfoin heaven; fothat 
they may make ufc of ail things fo farre as they ferve to heipe 
and further them in the way to feeaven, and to the fruition of 
God;fo much is teftificd , i Cor f %* li, 22. where the Apoftle 
faith, all things are yours: whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas , or 
a he Worlds or life, or death , or things pre fent, or things, to come > all 
are jour s^and yee are Chrift s,and Chrift is Gods. 

Over the creatures on earth they have that Rule and Do- 
irriniotn given which is mentioned in my text; bat with fomc 
difference,** may appcarein divers particulars. 

Tirft, Adam had rule over them onely to order them, and 
make ufc of them for contemplation and delight i 

Secondly, Adam had Rule and. Dominion over them all in 
his owne Perfbn ; but the eled: have now a general I right to ail, 
but not a fpeciall right, every man in his owne Pcrfon, to every 
• living creature: They may make ufc of all living creatures which 
come within their light and knowledge , to contemplate on 
them; but they may not take into their /ajfl^w^nor kill,eat, and 
take fpoilc ofany but fuch as are wholly loofe from other men, 


If hat right an unregenerate man hath to the creatures . 1 1 p 

and which God by law full mcancs gives and puts into their 

Thirdly, as Adam had power and ability to call and com- 
mand all living creatures; £o they had an inclination and difpo- 
fition to obey him. But the elect have not that naturall power 
and ability, nor the creatures that inclination; becaufc of the 
vanity and corruption, which ft ill remaines untill the full re* 
dempt ion come , and all things bee reftorcd K and all creatures de- 
livered from bondage of ' corruptions and reitored to the glorious 
liberty of the Sons of God>Rom. 8. 2 1 . So much as God in his wife- 
dome findes fit for man in this eflate of grace, fo much power 
over the creatures hee gives to him ; and fo much inclination 
and fitnelle to the creatures. 

Secondly, to men unregenerate , Chrift hath purchafed and *£ 
procured a kind of common and fecondary Right and Domi- 
nion over the creatures; that is, both power and liberty to ufe 
them, to farre as they ierve for the common weale and order 
ofthc World, and the benefit of the elect. Some have poiTetfion 
given them, and power over the creatures, that they may live, 
and grow ,and continue in being till the time of their couver- 
fion and regeneration, when they fhall have a true intereft in 
Chrift, and to all things in and through him. Some wicked 
men, not elect ,have them lent of God; and Chrift hath procur. d 
that they mould have the ufe and poffeffionof them, either for 
the good cfctkeelcB who live among them, or the benefit of their 
elett fucceffors and chofen pofterity which naturally (hall come 
of them , and to whom they fhall bee inftruments of naturall 
being. So long as unregenerate men have pofleflion of crea- 
tures cither given by men, or gotten by induftry, labour and 
other mcancs which are not civilly and naturally unlaw full, 
fa long they have Dominion over them, and power to ufe 
them joyncd with civ til right, which Gods law allowesby the- 
procurement of Chrift and for his fake. I have a little digretfed, 
and gone beyond my bounds in fpcaking of this llule and Do- 
minion as it is reftored by Chrift, for that is proper to the ftatc 
of grace, and not to bee handled under the creation. It is do- 
minium regittm y regall c Demimon i or rather in part tyrannical! and 
violent, in refpect of the creatures which arc naturally io avcrfc 


1 3 ° §°* ^ e difpofa an & fypenfer of bis creatures. 

from it, and their native inclination is quite againft it, in fomc 

meafure and degree. 

j jj^ The third thing next in order after Dominion, is the foods 

The food which God allotted both to man and to other living creatures 

of man in o\\ earth in the (late of innocency, exprefled Verfc 29.30. 1 have 

thecrca. given y oh every herbe, bearingfeed, which ts upon Earth* and every 

tioru tree in which ts the fruit of a tree yeeldmg feed; to you it [ball bee 

for meat, 30. And to every beafl % fowle, and creature living on 

earthy I have given greene herbe for me at , and it was fo* Nowhere 

wee cannot underttand the creating of herbes, trces,and grade, 

fit for the ufe of man and other living things; that is rcheuricd, 

Verfe 25. Nor Gods barcdirec~Hen of men and bcaits to eat of 

thefe; nor anaturall appetite and inclination given to Man, and 

other creatures to arTecl: and defirethefe things: but the words 

doe exprefle thus much, that God the Creatour is the onely 

Lord , and ail power and right is in him to difpofe and give 

them, and the ufe of them; and man and bcafts had no right to 

the herbes jrees fruits >andgr a ffe y but of the free gift of God. The 

r -DD3 , 1 give, or have given, doth fully exprefle a free gift. In 

that hee laith, that herbes, bearing feed, and trees yeelding fruit, 

flail bee to mankind for meat , and greene herbe or grajfe JJjall bee 

meat to the beafts y and fowles, and creeping things which live on 

earth; This fhewes, that man in innocency was to feed onely 

onmch things, and as yet hee had no other meat allowed, and 

other living creatures did all feed on graffe. Hereby alfo it is 

manifeft, that all herbes, bearing feed, and all fruits of trees 

were wholfome food for man , and all green graffe for all 

other living creatures Which move on the face of the earth: 

Otherwife God would not hare given them to man and other 

creatures for meat. From the words thus opened, wee may 

obferve fome profitable inftrucYions. 

J>ollr. i. Prom all the words joyntly together, which fhew thcDomi- 

God the nion which God gave to man,and tbe/Wwhich he allowed both 

onciyab. t0 man anc j ther creatures; Wee may lcarne , that God is 

f °f U u Lcrd tne onelv abfolute and fupreme Lord of all creatures, and no 

creature hath right to rule over others, or to meddle one with 

■another; but, by Gods free gift , our meat, our drink, and what- 

ibever wee have in this World, God gives it freely to us; and 


Cod tbt ontly abjolutc Lord of alt creatures. 2 ? 1 

wee have no right to any thiug but from him. If mans wife- 
dome, power, knowledge, and ability to rule the creatures, and 
their fitnefe and inclination to obey him, had intituled him fuf- 
ficiently, and given him a true right , there had beeneno need 
of Gods giving this Dominion; audio if his appetite to herbes 
and fruits, and their fitnefle to feed and delight him> and the 
concord betweene the appetite of living creatures , and the 
greene grade had given them a true right to it, what need had 
there beene of this gift, and that God fhould fay, Behold I give 
to jets every herbe and fruit for meat} &c. In that therefore theic 
two are here recorded as free gifts, of God, this doflrinc 
flowes naturally from hence. And this is aboundantly con- 
firmed by other Scriptures, as Gen. 1 4. 19. where Melchifedeck^ 
Gods high and royall Pried, in blefling Abraham , cals God the 
pojfejfonr of Heaven and Earth; that is, fiich a Lord as holds in 
his hand and pofteflion by an abfolutc right, Heaven and Earth, 
and all that is in them, fo that none hath any right to any thing 
in them, but of his free gift; And Dent. 10. 14. it is ford, that 
the Heaven , and the heaven of heavens is the Lords , the Earth alfo 
■with all that therein is. Alfo Tfalme 24. I. the Earth is. fad 
to bee the Lords % and the f nine fie thereof; the round World and they 
that dwell therein; and c Pfalme 50. 12, the beafis of the field, jea t 
and the whole World it mine faith the Lord, the fame aifo is te- 
ftined Pfalme 89. Ii. and lob 41. 11. And lob confeffeth 
that all that hec had was Gods to give and take aw <aj athisplea- 
tiircylob 1, 2i.Wc have alfo a ftrong argument to prove this from 
the quit-rent which God requires, and men arc bound to pay 
to God , and to whom hee afllgnes it in teftimony of their 
homage, and that they pofTefle nothing, but of his gift as te- 
nants at will, that is, the tythes of the fruite of the Land, and 
of the Cattcll, and of all incre.ife, all are the Lords quit-rcnt,and 
were paid to God by all the faithfull, even to his Priefts and 
Ministers who Minuter before him, and have him for their 
portion , Lev it. 27. '30. Gen. 14. 20. and 28. 22. and AW, 18. 

This fhewes, that God may lawfully take away from wicked 
men, and appoint others to take from them whatfoevcr they 
have^fhe befo plcafed at any time; and it is no injuiiice, neither 


2^Z Ail "free have but lent us rfGod. 

have they caufe to complsine, becaufc they doe not acknowledge 
him their Lord, nor pay due rent, nor doe homage to him by 
honouring him with their wealth and fubftance. It is held to 
bee no wrong, but.juftand lawfull for earthly land-Lords to 
feazeinto their owne hands, and take away from their tenants 
thehouies, lands andfarmes for which they wilfully refufe to 
pay the due rent, and wilfully deteine it; much more is it juftice 
in God, the chiefe and abfolute Lord of all the earth and the crea- 
tures therein , to caft men out of thofe houfes and lands, and to 
deprive them of all their increaie and revenues, for which they 
refufe to pay their due homage tythe and quit-rent to him, 
and to his Minifters and Servants, whom hee hath afllgnedto 
receive them for his ufe and fervice. 
Vfe 2, Secondly, this admonifheth us to acknowledge, that all wee 
have is Gods, and all our houfes, lands, goods, and riches, are 
but his talents lent to us to bee employed, as for our owne be- 
nefit; lb for his glory chiefely , and the good of his Church. Alfo 
it juftly ferves to incite and ftirre us up to render thankj> praife, 
and due fervice to him for all, and to pray to him daily for a 
blefling on our meat, drinkeandall neceflaries, and to begge 
at his hand the free ufe of his creatures, and a true right unto 

yfc 3 . Thirdly, it ferves to (hew Gods great mercy > bounty and fa- 
therly indulgence to us, in fuffering us to have and enjoy fo many 
bleiTings and good creatures , which wee have forfeited by 
our iinnes and doe daily forfeit by not ufing them aright, but 
abufing them, and neglecting to pay a tenth at leafl: for our quit- 
rent to God; yea, and all or the moft part, if hee requires it at 
our hands for the necellity of his Church and the maintenance of 
his truth. I feare,and juftly fufped:,thatif we examine our felves, 
few will tee found among us not deeply guilty in this kind; 
as many other wayes, fo efpecialiy for facriiegious detaining 
of tythes and due maintenance, which God hath fcparated to 
himtelfe for the upholding of his publikc worihip, and the 
preaching of his word, and continuing of a learned and faithfull 
laborious minifteryin his Church. 

Doclr. 2. Secondly, wee hence iearne, that in the ftat£ ofinnocency 
'man had no power over living creatures to kill, kind eat them; 


Mi creatures at unity before mans fall 2 2 

Neither did one bead devoure another and feed on his fic(\\ • 
but the food of man was oncly herbes and fruits of trees • and 
the food of beads and birds was the greens herbe and grade 
of the field, the words of the text fhew this phinciy. And other 
Scripture* intimate Lb much, thjt iu the Hate of innocency lyons 
and ether ravenous beads did live on grajfe, and no creatures 
did hurt one another, as J fa. n. 6 } j, and 65. 21, where the 
Prophet defeasing the ahouudance of peace which fhall bec 
in the Church iu the molt rlourilliing and happy times of the 
GoJtpeli , and letting it forth by the ftate of innocency faith, 
that the Wolfe a>ul the Lambe, the Leopard and the Kid, the youn^ 
LyoV) Catfe and JFatting, and the Cow ami the Bear e Jba* 'I dwell 
and feed, and lye downe together; and the Lyon Jhall eat grajfe or 
fir aw Hk£A* Oxeor Bullock? , and the j fi all not hurt > nor defiroy 
inall Gods ho ij mount ami ; that is, men (hall not kill and cat up 
beafts 3 nor beaits one another. And indeed it is moll manifell, 
that death entered wto the World by fin and mans fall ', Gen. 2.17. 
and death came upon all by mans fin y Rom. 5. 12. and that 
the corruption, vanity and confufion, which is among the crea- 
tures, did proceed and ifiiie from the fame roote, Rom. 8.20. 
And they had never groaned under the killing knife and (laugh- 
ter, if man had not finned and brought them into thzt fubjettion 
to vanity. 

ThrsiheweSj that mans eftatc, wherein God created him yr e I# 
was a moll iweet and happy eftatc, full of joy, peace, delight and 
contentment; and man had no want, nor any thing w hich hee 
could diflike; but all meancs to make him thankfull to God, and 
j oy full before him. The meat and food of man, and of all living 
creatures was fuch as the earth brought forth in aboundance 
by Gods blefiing without labour; they needed not to feeke it 
by toile and travell ; it was plentiful! every where, and they 
had variety of all things which might give them content, 
there was no death, not io much as of a creeping thing; no hurt, 
nor killing, no crying nor groaning under vexation; no cove- 
ting, matching and ravening ,cvery creature had enough. And 
yet man by Satans temptation afpired higher , and lb did fall 
into want mifery and bondage to death. His fall was of the 
Divell and his ownc felfc, God gave no jufl occafion. Atyd 

R theix- 

234 Mans nonrijhment in mnocency } wbat. 

therefore wee cannot now under this corruption cxpcft any 
fteadfaft fatisfaclion and contentment in this World, now over- 
runne with confufion , nor in any worldly thing. Let us abhorrc 
our owne unfatiable defires , and watch over our wandring 
kifts , and itrive to keepe them under, left they make us further 
itray from the right waycs of God, and plunge us deepc into per- 
f'fi 2, Secondly , this ferves to frtew , that with Gods favour and 
bleifing, and to man fobcr, temperate, and of a good conflitution, 
the herbes , come, and fruits of the Earth, and trees, are afati*- 
fying nourifhment for this prefent life. It is not fifh nor fkfh, 
nor ail the dainties and forced dimes of the World, which 
can fo nourifh and ft rengthen a man, as herbes and fruit could 
have nourilhed onr firft parents in innoccncy. It is not there- 
fore by breador any ftrong meat, that any man can live or doth 
live, but by the word which Cometh from the mouth of God, by 
that;nans meat is bleffed to him and made a refreftiingnouri- 
fhirtg and living food unto him. 
Docir. 3 , Thirdly , in that all herbes > bearing feed, and all trees yeelding 
frn'tey are here faid to bee given by God as fit meat to nourifh 
man , and all greene herbe or graffe to other creatures; Hence 
wee iearne. that all fruits of all trees , and all herbes bearing 
feed, were wholcfome meat for man, and all greene grafic to 
beads in the (late of innocency. Ail poifonand unwholcfome 
quality jtafte and fmell in herbes, plants, trees, and grafie, which 
hurt man, orbeaft, came into the World by fin , and are bitter 
fruits of mans fall and tranfgreflion, and of the curfc which his 
difobedience brought upon the earth. For all whatfocver God 
made , was good in it iclfe and evill and hurtfull to none; And 
if all herbes, trees, and' gralfe had not heme good, wholeibme 
and pleafant, God would not have given them for meat toman, 
or any living creature. 
Yfr m The confederation of this point is of good life to keepe us 

from murmuring and grudging againflGod, as if hee had crea- 
ted the poifon of herbes, and unwholefomneflc of fruits, upon 
which men and other creatures furfeit even unto death and de- 
ttruclion. So often as we^ fee any fuch thing happen and come 
to pafle, or difceme any ill quality, tafteand fmell in herbes, and 


Mans habitation in bmocency plea/ant. 235 

unfurficiency in fruits and hcrbes to nonrifh, and fee living crea- 
tures killed, and their flelli eaten for neceflity of mans nourith- 
ment, let it put usinminde and remembrance of our fin and 
fallm ourfirlt Parents, from that integrity wherein wee and 
all other things were created. Let us bee alhamed of our dis- 
obedience which makes the ground curled unto us. Let the 
groancs ofbeafts ilainc for us, and their bloud (ned and poured 
out with (trugling, and with cryes and fighes : Let the fo wre- 
netfe of wilde grapes, the loathlome iinell and bitternefie of 
fomc hcrbes, and fruits, and the poifon of fbmc plants, all and 
every one (mite us with the light of our naturall corruption, 
and -make us loath our linnes , and figh and groanc under the 
burden of them, and labour to fubdue corruptions, and put away 
our finnes by repentance. 

The fourth thing, which I have propounded to bee confide- I V. 
red after the creation of man , is the place of his habitation Mar,s ha. 
in the.ftatc of integrity , tl>at is defcribed by Mofes in-the b ! cat j oa m 
iccond Chapter from the fevonth verfe to the lixteenth. ianwncy 

tAnd the Lord j God planted a garden Eafiward in Eden, and Gen. i. 8." 
then hee put the mankind which hce had formed. 9. And out of the 
gr fund the L^rd God made to grow every tree pleafant to fight and 
coed fori food , tlx tree of life in the n;idfi of the garden s and the tree 
of knowledge of good and evill. 10. And a river went out of Eden 
to water the garden , and from thence it was par ted y and became into 
fower heads , &c. 

In the dcltription, as it is here laid downe by Mofes, wee 
may obferve two mainc things. 

The firit,thatGod beforehand provided a place of pleafant habi- 
tation, and of exercife for mankind; and fo lo3ne as the male and 
female were formed, he placed them therein. This is plainely af- 
firmed , Verfe 8. where it is faid, God planted a garden; and Verfe 
1 5 . God put man into it to drefie and keep it. 

The lecond is a plains deicription of the place in the 8. Verfe > 
and fo along to the 1 5 . Verfe. 

fr«In the defcription it felfe , wee may obferve divers notable 

Firft , that the place of mans habitation was mofi pleafant ^ l ' 
agarden, that is a plot of ground choien out tor picaiure and 

R a fruit- 


256 Of the place of Mans habitation in imiocency. 

fruitful neiTc , planted and beautified with all both goodly and 
fruitful! trees and plants. 

2. Secondly, that it vsascbofin and flamed by Godhimfelfe, and 
prepared and made ready for man, that fo ibone as they were 
formed, hee and the Woman might bee put into it. 

3. Thirdly, that this garde* was fcituate in Eden >tbxt is,a region 
£<kn, and country moll pieplant; for in the Hebrew text the name 

py, fignirie; pie of tire and delight, 

Fourthly, it is faid to bee Eaftwardin Eden>mA that in a two- 
fold refpccT: : Firft , becaufe being in Eden it was Eaflward 
from Canaan the Land of the lfrael\tes % for whom Afofis wrote 
thisHiftory, and gave it to them, when they were come into 
the borders of the Land, and had taken poffeflion of Bajhan 
and Gilead. Secondly, becaufe it was planted in the E aft- fide of 
Eden towards the Sun-rifing, which is commonly themoft plea- 
fant place for fcituation. That Eden was Eaftwardhom Canaan 
in the land of Mefipotamla towards Baby Ion > it is manifeft by 
this , becaufe Euphrates was the river which wentoutofjE^, 
and watered the garden : and Euphrates ru;s through the coun- 
try of Mefopotawi* cloie by Babylon, which country when/a- 
cob journed unto from Canaan , hec is faid to come into the 
. land rf the people of the Eaft, Gen. 20. 1. That the garden was 
on the Eaft-fide of Eden- y it appcares evidently by this, that the 
river which watered the garden, did run through Eden Eaftward 
towards Afyriah and Babylon in one ftreame or great river, 
and when it came to the garden it was parted and became four e 
ftreames or chanels ; one of which, to wit, that which runs by 
Babylon retaines the name of the maine river, and is called £«- 
phrates^s appeared Verfe 14, 

Fifthly , this garden is defcribed by the commodities of it; 
Firit, it had in it every kind of tree both pleafant to the fight; 
both the goodly Cedar which is laid to have beene in the garden 
of the Lord, Eztch. 31. 8 and alfo good for food, that is, all 
trees ycelding fruit, Secondly, it had in it two fpeciall fruit- 
trees > whkh were of lingular ufe ; the tree of life, and the tree of 
knowledge of good and evtll. Thirdly, it was watered with a 
river which went out of Eden, that is, proceeded out of the Wefk 
part of Eden } and watered it by dividing it fclle into fonre fi- 
ver all* 

Of the f owe ^tVers of the Garden of Em. i$7 

verall firearms which did run through fcverall parts of the 
garden, to moiften the ground, and to cherifti the roots of the 
trees; after which parting of the flreamcs and running through 
fcverall parts of the garden, not by any labour or a*t of man, 
but by Gods appointment fo ordering and difpofing them, 
they did not meet againe nor gather themfelvcs into one cha- 
nell ; but ran apart from thence, and were parted, and became 
fbure or ilrcames running in foure chanels into fevc- 
rall parts of the country, and into ieverall lauds called by feverall 

The firft here mentioned is Pijhon, which takes a compafle The river* 
to the land of Havilah, which is a countrie bordering upon the m 1C - 
Uppgr ,nrt of the Terfian GulfeAx. was iirft inhabited by Havilah l • 
the Son o£CuJh y and by his pofterity ; it borders on that part 
of Arabia which Ifimaels pofterity inhabited, which wee call 
Arabia deferta. For wee read, Gen. 25. 18. that they dwelt 
from havilah toShur, that is, in Arabia deferta-, and when Saul 
was fent today the ^w^/^>^,heefmotc them from Havilah 
ai thougoeft to Sbfir, 1 Sam. 1 5 . 7. that is, along the coafts of the 
JJhmaelites. In this land of Havilah 3 the text faith there is good 
gold, and Bddium, that is, a tree which yeeldsa whitifh gum, 
and aifo there is Onyx*ftone. 

S^VThefecond river, in Mofes dayes, was called Gihon; and it 2. 
takes a compafle toward the land of Cufh, that is, not Ethiopia 
which is aifo called Cujh> but that part of Arabia which borders 
upon Chaldta. For all Araiia and Ethiapi* are i.i Hebrew 
called by the name of Cnjh y bccaule all thele lands were inha- 
bited at the hrlt by Seba, Sabtah, Raam,ib } Sabtecha, Sheba, and 
Dedam, which were thcSonsof Cttjb, asappearcs, Gen, 10.7. 
And that part of Arabia which the Midianites inhabited , is rVtiO 
called Cufii For Mofeshis wife, being 3 Midianitifi-woman Ht&ttC 
as wee read, Exod. 2.1s called a woman ofCn(h y Num. 1 2. that 
isot Arabia, not of Ethiopia as our tranilaters doe render the 

Thiid river is called tf/V^/,& it is the ftrcame which gocth 3. 
Eaft ward towards Ajjjriah, and runs into the great river T/Vr/r, 
which parts Ajfyriah from Mefopotamia. 

And the fourth river is that which retaincs the name of 4. 

K 3 the 

2 1 8 Saint Hieromes err ours about the Garden of Eden. 

themaine river Euflxrates, which in Hebrew is called Terah 9 
becaufek makes the land watered by it fruitful! above others. 
This is the defcription of mans habitation in the ftateof inno- 
cency as itis here laid downc, and expounded by the helpe of 
other Scriptures, and not according to the vaine conceipts of 
men which have no certainty nor truthin them. 

Before I come to obferve from hence any fpeciall point of 
inftru&ion, I hold it neceflfary, Firft, to fhew the variety and 
multiplicity of vaine, uncertainc, and erroneous opinions of di- 
vers ancient Fathers and other later Writers concerning this 
garden, and the particulars thereof before mentioned; all which 
are by certaine ground laid downe m this expoutioa, and by 
cleare evidence of Scripture and ftrong reafons eafily con- 
Opinion u Firft, Saint Hierome, being jrufled by the tranflation of A- 
quila, which runs xhm^GodhadpUrded a gar den from the beginnings 
doth hereupon conclude, that Paradife was planted before the 
Comment* ]^ eav en and Earth were created; which Opinion is moftridi- 
Sp. 2 cu l° lls > andc6ntrary to common fenfe andreafon: For where 
there are trees growing out of the ground , and rivers and 
ftreames watering them, there mult needs bee ground and 
earth. It was impoflible for trees to bee planted and to grow 
out of the ground before any earth was created. Wee here may 
fee, how wife men may fometimes build caftles in the aire, and 
that the mod learned of the ancients have their errours; and hec 
who was counted the mod learned of all the Fathers in the 
Hebrew tongue, doth here miferabiy miftake the Hebrew 
phrafe; For though the Hebrew word \ZZ7pti Mikedem^ which 
is here tranflated Eafiward 9 or on the Eaft-fids> when itis fpoken 
ofGodorofChrift , doth fignifie in the Prophets from, ever- 
lafting) or from eternity, as Mich. 5.12. Hab> 1 . 12. and Pfalme 
74. 12. And when other things are faid tobec Mikedem, the 
word figniries either from old time, or from the dayes of old, as 
Pfalme 77. 6, and 143. $. where David faith, I will remember 
th dayes of old ; and Nehem. 12. 46. from the dayes of old > even 
from David and Afayh they were chief e of fingers: Yet fometimes 
it figniries Eaftward, or on the Eafi-fide^ or from the Eafi, as 
3ppearcs mod plainetyj Gen, 3,24. where itisufedto fignifie 


Severall opinions concerning the Garden ofEien. % > p 

the Eaft-fide of the garden where God placed the Chembinsy and 
Gen. 13,8. where ic is laid, that Abraham came to a mountaine 
which was Eaftwa>d of Bethel, and had Aion the Eaft-Jide,and 
ib undoubtedly it is ufed in this text for Eajhvard, as our tranila- 
tors truely render it. 

Origen and Philo Iptd&iu mknd. opific. did conceive Vol* Opinion j 
radife to bee no earthly or bodily place, but to bee fpintually 
underftood, which opinion Eptphanius proves to bee againll 
reaion: becaufe trees growing out of the ground, and rivers, 
fhew that it was a garden planted on the earth, and earthly not 

Some have held, that the whole World was Paradife, and that Opinion $. 
this garden did extend it iclfe over all the earth , which then 
Was wholly a place of pleafureand delight* which isalfovery 
abfurd, for then Adam had beene cafi out of the -whole earth when 
God call him out of the garden, and the land of Cttfi, and of 
havilah, and Ajfyria, towards which the rivers did run after 
they were gone out of the garden , had beene out of the World* 
Beiides , wee read in the Scriptures, that Edenjn fohich the gar- 
den was planted, was a fpcciall country in Mcfopot ami 'a ,neare 
Haran and Gozan, and the people thereof did trade with Tirw*, 
2 King. 19.12. and Ezech. 27. 23. 

Ephrem held it to b^z a remote place beyond the vafi Ocean Sea % Opinion *. 
and unknowne to us. 

Damafcene in his' book 2 defide, chap. 14* held it to bee a place Opinion ?. 
higher then all the earth* 

Beda and Rupertiu held it to bee a place next unto heaven, Opinion 6, 
reaching up to the Sphere ofthe Moone. 

Alexander Hales and Tofiatw thought it to bee a place in the Opinion 7. 
aire farre below the Moone. 

- Others who held it to bee a fpeciall place in the earth doe Opinion $«; 
much vary and differ among themfelves. Luther conceived, 
that it contained in it all Mefopotamia> S yria, and Egypt \ 

Others thought, that it comprehended all AJia and A» Opinion $, 

* Others, that it was that part of Syria, which is called th$Qpi nm 10. 
region of 'DamafetUy .becaufe there was the Kings forreft of goodly 
Cedars, which w is [called Paradife, Nehem % 2.S. and there is a 

R 4 towns 

240 Sever all Gpiniom conarnwg the Ge.rdm eft den. 

towne called by the name of Eden and P*radife> which is men- 
tioned as fome thinkc ,Amos 1.5. 

^k-„-.« tt The Opinion oiBonaventure is,that the place of it is under the 

Opinion xu r * ^ 

c^£ qmnQCiiaU. 

Opinion 1 2. Bellfirmme in his booked gratia primi hominis, chap. 10. con- 
" fefieth, that it muft needs bee an earthly and bodily place plan- 
ted with trees; but farre remote from It&oyvledge of men y and that 
no man can define where it is; that it was not defttoyed in the 
generall deluge and flood of Noah, but remaines to this day; 
And that Enoch and Eliah were tranflated thither, and there 
are kept to fight with An tichrift in the end of the World. This 
Opinion is contrary to truth, and contradicts it felfe. Firft, 
the Scriptures teftifie, that Eliah was not tranflated into an 
unknowne place on earth, but went tip to heaven in a firie chariot* 
Secondly, that the waters of Noah's flood did prcvaile 15 . cubits 
above the higheft mountaines* And therefore if Paradife was an 
earthly place, as Bellarrmne holds, it mud needs bee deftroyed 
in the generall deluge, Gen. 7. 20. Yea, if Paradifehad beenc 
prcferved fafe from the flood, ithadbeene ncedleffe and vainc 
labour for Noah to build fuch an huge arke. God might have 
iaved him and all the creatures with him in the garden of Pa* 
radife. Thirdly, Mofes doth here plainely define where this 
garden was, and whofoever with underftanding reads this 
Hiftory, may eafily define where it was. But where it is now, 
none can define; for it is deftroyed * and onely the place of it re- 
maines dill. 

But, not to trouble my difcourfe with particular confuta- 
tions of thefe fever all opinions; the very text it felfe, and thai 
expofition which I have made of it by the hclpe of other 
Scriptures, doth as it were "»vith one blaft blow them all away 
likecharTe, axi with- one ftroke dafhthem all in pieces. For 
this texe ids usj that this garden was planted in the earth-, and 
God made the trees in it to grow out of the ground-, that the 
fpcciall place of the earth , in which God planted it was Eden, 
that is, a j.lacein Mefopotamia and Babylonia, knowne by that 
name, and mentioned by Rabfiekch among the countries which 
the *s4 Syrian Kings had c<?^«^^,fcituatebetwecne/^4and 
Ajffrut) and nearc unto kffjriah^ 2 King. \y. 12. and 


The be (I mens opinions mcertaim . 241 

by Ezckjel, cap. 27. 13. mentioned among the countries and 
cities > which from Mefcpotamia did trade with Tyrus. The 
text alfo tels us, that it was in Eden Eaftward, or on the Eaft- 
fide % watered with a river which came out of Ed?n from the 
other part thereof; which river having divided it fclfe into 
foure itreames, that it might run through feveralt parts of the 
garden and water it, did no more meet in one, but from thence, 
that is, from the garden was parted, and became foure fpeciall 
rivers, taking their courfe and comparTc towards feverall lands; 
to wit, Pijb&n to the land ol Havilab, Gihon to the land of Cufb, 
JHiddekel, to the land of Affjriak, and Euphrates through Ba- 
bylonia and Chaldta; all which are tolewes and naturali Jfrae- 
lites ( who ever (ince the captivity of Ifrael to Aftyriab, and cf 
Jada to Babylon doe live a difperfed and fcattered people in 
thole countries ) knowne by thofe old names to thefe dayes, as 
appeares in the Itinerarieof Benjamin Tudalenfis the lew, and 
divers other hiftorics. Now thefe things being plainely laid 
downeinthetext , explained by other Scriptures; the places 
and rivers being often mentioned in hiftorics, and knowne to 
the Iewes who dwell inthofc parts untill this day ; there is 
now no lead colour or {how of rcafon left for the divers opi- 
nions before rehearfed; they all appearc to be vaine & erroneous; 
the manifeft truth of this text overthrowes them all at once. 
And now from hence wee may lcamc a profitable point of in- 
ftruclion. v\k. 

That nothing is more vaine and unccrtaine then the opinion of BoHrine. 
■witty and learned Men , both ancient Fathers and later Writers Beit mens 
and Schoolemen, while they follow their owne reafon, & their opinion is 
owne witty conceipts without warrant frcm the Word of God. uncenamc • 
There is no fureor certaine ground which a man may fafely 
reft upon for the right understanding of the Scriptures, but 
onelythe word of God it felfe, either fpeaking plainely in the 
very text it felfe, or by other places and teftimonies which are 
more full and plaine, compared with the obfeurer texts. By 
thismcanes onelythe Spirit of God doth enlighten our hearts 
and undcrftandin^ to know infallibly the true fenfe and mea- 
ning of them. Bcfides, many other proofes which ferve to con- 
firms this, which I omit as not neceffary at this prefent; wee 



One Scripture beft interpreted by anotberl 

have a firme argument from our Saviours owne words, John 16. 
ver 4 . 13, 14. where hee faith, that now under the Goipdi the 
Spirit fpeak^s not of himfelfe (by fimpieand immediate infpi- 
ration without any word, as in the Prophets of old ) but what* 
foever hee Jh all heare, tLuJhall heefpeakg* and bee Jb all Pake of mine 
andfiall fiew it unto yott> 7 that is, hee ihall infpire and enlighten 
men, onely by my word which I have fpoken with mine owne 
mouth,and by theProphets and holy Men of God who have prea- 
ched and written. Alfo our Saviour and his Apoftles,by their con- 
usant practife did ihew, that the fure ground of expounding 
and underftanding the Scriptures in any obfcure places, is the 
plainer text and word of Scripture in other places. For they 
proved the truth which they preached and wrote in the 
Gofpeli by the Scriptures of the Lav? and the Prophets. 
Vfe. Wherefore let us not build upon the wifedomc of men, nor 

upon the fmooth words of mansreafon ; but on the word of 
God proved by it felfe , and made plaine one place by another; 
Let us hearken to fuch preachers, and follow them as the fur eft 
guides, who make the Scriptures by thcmfclves plaine and ma- 
nifeft to our underftanding. As for them who can give no 
better reaibnfor doctrines of faith, but teftimoniesof Fathers 
and Schoolemen, nor follow any furcr guide for expounding of 
Scripture but expofitions of Fathers framed by their owne 
conceipts, not proved by plaine texts; let us not build too much 
upon them. And , above all, Let us hate and abhorre the pefti- 
lent Doftrine of the RomimDodors, and all the Popilh fa- 
ction, who makvthe Canons of Coancels, the opinions of Fa- 
thers, and the Popes determination , the onely fure grounds 
whereon men ought to build their underftanding of the Scrip- 
tures and their behefe of the word of God. 
Ofthe tree Another, and a fecond thing which comes here to bee more 
or life, 2nd f u 'jy opened over and befides the diverfity of opinions, is the 
the lx * z x °i tr€eo fHf €9 andthe tree of knowledge of good and evilly which arc 
o^2ood &£C ^ a ^ to bec ix the txidft of the garden. Thefe two trees are here 
mdevill . fa the hiftory marked out and diftinguimed from the reft of the 
trees ,as being fet apart by God for another ufe more then meere 
naturali. Concerning thefe trees, there are divers and feverall 
opinions of ancient and moderne Divines, 


Of the Tree of life. 243 

Firft, concerning the tree of hfe. Some thinkeithad a nam- Why the 
rail power and vertuein it to make mans body lively , and to tr eeoflife» 
keepe itfrom all weaknefle, decay and mortality, till hee fhould *• 
bee removed to heaven-.this is the opinion otScotus and tAqui- 
»/w,with others. 

Some thinke, it had power and vertue in it to make man im- *• 
mortall, and to preferve him from death for ever, as Tofiatusi 
and that, if a man had once eaten of it, hee would not have 
dyed, but fhould have enjoyed fuch immortality, as wee have 
by Chrift after the laft refurre&ion. 

Bonaventures opinion is, that it had fuch vertue and power *' 
in it not natural!, but fupernaturall. But thefe opinions arc 
maere humane conceipts contrary to reaion. For firft, the fruit 
of a tree,which is pulled orf,eaten,digefted,and fo changed from 
that which it was in a bodily nutriment by the operation o£ 
ciansflc(hly ftomack, cannot in any reafon bee conceived to 
have naturall power in it to give that to man which it felfe had 
not, to witjimmortality & immutability. It is a true rulc,that no 
naturall thing can works beyond the naturall fircngth of it, neither 
can it give to another that which it felfe hath not at all; and this 
tree had no immortality, for it was deftroyed with the garden in 
which God planted, it. Secondly , fupernaturall power and 
vertue to give life is the proper vertue and po vver ©f Chriil and 
of his Spirit w hich works in men, and derives life from Chrift: 
tothem: but there was no fuch communion ofthe Spirit, nor 
any fuch operation of the Spirit in any earthly creature before 
Chrift: was promifed; fuch aftiftance and operation of the Spirit 
is proper to theelecl: of mankind 5 andcame onely into the World 
by Chrift,asthe Scriptures tcftifie. 

There are divers learned men of better judgement, and they. ^ 
hold that this tree of life u fo called, not for any vertue in it, 
cither naturall or fupernaturall ; but becaufe it was given of 
God a Sacrament and fcaleof life to man, and man was to eate 
of it , not for bodily food onely, but that by eating of it hee 
might bee, as by a pledge from God, aflured that he fhould by 
God bee upheld in life; and alfo might bee admonifned , that 
his life is upheld not by any power in himfelfe, but by covenant 
irom.God confirmed by this icale. 


244 The Tree ofltfe nofymbole of Qhrift. 

Ofwhat But thcfe differ among themfelves , concerning the life 
life. whereof it was a feale and pledge. 

1. Somethinke, it was a ieale of that pre fent life which Adam 
had, which in it felfe was mutable. 

2. Some thinke,it was a feale of a better life, even of immortality 
and life immutable, which Adam ihould have obtained by con- 
tinuing in obedience for a certaine time. 

3. Others thinke, that it was aSacrawcnt> that is, an holy figne 
and feale of Chrift who is our fife, and of that fpirituail life 
which wee have in him: thus Junius, and others of our late 

Now, to declare in few words what I conceive to bee the 
truth; Hrft,I cannot conceive, that there were any Sacraments 
given to man before the promiie of Chrift, and the revealing of 
Gods purpofe and counfell in him: For a Sacrament is an out- 
ward element or vifible thing confecrated by God, tofignific 
and feale heavenly andfupernaturall things , and grace fpirituail 
and invifibie: But heavenly and fupcrnaturall things, which be- 
long to eternall life in Chrift , and fpirituail grace, were not 
revealed toman in the ftate of innocency, before the promife 
of Chrift, which was made upon mans fall; Therefore there 
was then noufe of any holy figne, or pledge of fupernaturall 
grace, or of any thing which wee obtaine from above in, and 
by Chrift. The tree of life could not bee any Sacrament, figne or 
fymbole of Chrift, or fupernaturall #/*? in him. All that lean 
conceive or atfirme with any warrant from the Scriptures is 
this , that the tree of life had greater and more excellent natural! 
vertue and ftrength in it then other trees, and the fruit thereof 
Vfasmorefweet, lively andnoHriJhine* and by this meancsit was 
more fit then other trees to bee not onely a figne, fymbole, 
and pledge toman, whereby hee was to bee adinonifhed that 
his life was to bee upheld by his obedience to God, anddepen- 
dance upon him; and alio to bee aflured and confirmed, that God 
would uphold him in life: but alfoa feale of the covenant of 
works, whereby hee was to bee fetled in that ftate of life, 
wherein hee was created. Iconfefle, that the -wifedomc of God 
(that is Chrift as hee is made nnto us of God wifedomc) is called 
a tree *f(*fe to fash as lay bold on htm 9 Prov. 3.18. and the fruite 


Th Iret of knowledge of good ani evilt. 245 

arc the fruite which the righteous, juitiried and fanftihed in 
Chrift, doe enjoy ) is called alio the tree of life ^ Trov. II. 30. 
Revel. 2. 7. and a wholefome tongue , that is, the healing and 
faving word of the Gofpell, and other powerfuli meanes of 
ialvation are called a tree oflifefprov. 15. 4. and Revel, 22. 2,14. 
But all this is by Way of allui.ion, and tends to teach us; not that 
the tree of life inParadife was a Sacrament of Chrift , and of 
faving grace and etcrnali lire in him; but, that as that tree was a 
pledge and meanes to confirme man in his naturall life: fo Chrift 
and his graces, and his holy and healing word, are the pledges 
and meanes of heavenly and fupernaturall life, And this is all 
that I can lcarne out of the Scriptures, concerning this tree of 

The other fpeciall tree is called the tree of knowledge of H 
good and evill; which I conceive to bee fo called, not becauie t h* r ° r 
it did beget reafon and undcrftanding in man, or did fharpen JeJo/cT' 
his wit by any vertue or power in it, as lefefhns and divers He- good and 
brewes imagined; for then it had beene good for man to eat evil1 . 
ofit, and hee ihould have gained thereby: Nor becaufe Satan by 
the lying Serpent perfwaded the woman that being eaten or, 
it would make them us (Sod, in knowing go* d and evil/; for it was 
fo called of God before, when hee forbad them to eat of it: 
But the true reafon why it is fo called is, becaufe God having 
forbidden man to eat of it, man could not eat ofit butbydifo- 
beying God and tranfgrcfling his commandement, and fo bring 
fin, and the bitter knowledge > and the levofnll experience and fenfe 
ofcrill upon him(e[fc,which tafteand knowledge of evil! makes 
thefweetnefic of good better relinked, and the profit thereof 
better knownc and acknowledged, Agame, becauie the eating 
.of this tree was mans fin and fall; and gave occafion to God to 
promifc Chrift; and to the Son of God to undertake as mans 
furcty to make fatisfa&ion for him, and to redeemehim; and 
out of his evillto raife up a new kind of good, greater and better 
then that which man knew befors, even to bring him to the 
knowledge of fpiritual &fupernatural good:Tnthis rcfpecl/Jod 
might well call it f&? tree of knowledge of good and evilly upon his 
owik foreknowledge of that event, which hee in himfelfe pur- 

po fed. 

246 God provides an habitation for man. 

pofcd to bring about upon that occafion. 

As for learching and inquiring what kind of tree it was; 
whether a vittf,z$ lb me heid;or a fi^getree^ as Theodora thought; 
or an apletree^s others; I hold it vaine curiofity, becaufe the text 
cals it by another name, by which none of thofc trees were ever 
called. Certainly thefruite ©fit in it klfe was naturally good, 
and had no evill quality in it, which could corrupt or ftaine 
roans nature, or infufe malice into him;as I fhall hereafter fhew, 
when I come to Gods commandement by which hee forbad 
man to eat of it. 

And thus much for the opening and expounding of this part 
ef the hiftory, concerning Paradifc, the place of mans habitation 
in the (late of innocency. The do&rines which hence arife, 
I will but as it were point at and name unto you. 
T>9&r, i, Firfi:, wee here are taught, that Gods bounty to man, in the 
Gods creation was great and wonder full, in that hee made him not 
% TC * Z oneiy a reafonablc creature endowed with wifedome, know- 
ledge, and ability, to choofe out and make an habitation for 
himfelfe above all other living creatures on earth: but alfodid 
provide and prepare for him before hand , and did plant for, 
him a garden to his hand, a place of lingular pleafure and dc-* 
light, ftored with all delicacy for his dwelling and habitation. 
Wee count it a great bounty , that God gives us large places 
wherein to dwell, and gives us wifedome- and art to build 
Houfes and Cities ; and materialls ncccflary for building. 
And if GodbleffeuswithSheepe, Oxen, and other profitable 
cattell, wee re Joyce to build ftals, and folds, and enclofures for 
them; and Houfes and Cities for our felvcs, and acknowledge 
our f elves bound to bee thankfull. Bat God in the creation 
was fo kind to man, that though hee left other living creatures 
to the wide World, yet hee provided a- Paradife of pleafure for 
man to dwell in, and to delight himfelfe; fo that this point is 
yfi Whence wee may gather (teadfaft hope, and comfortable 

perfwafion, that feeing God was of himiclfe fo kind to man, 
being thesi but a meere naturall creature, as to prepare for him 
fo plealant an habitation ; now when \vc: are made fpirituall, 
and by one Spirit united tohiminCbrifi^ and made Sons byre-, 


Man naturally aver/efrom idlenejft. 247 

generation and adoption, he will much more provide an excel- 
lent habitation for us,even an heavenly, which fhal fo ferre exceed 
the earthly Paradife, astheftateof a Son exceeds the date of a 
fervant, and fpirituall exceeds naturall. 

Secondly, here wee fee, how uunaturalland monftrous mans yr e s ; 
ingratitude was, and is declared to bee, in that hee would bee 
drawne by the fiibtility of the Divcll, pcrfwading him by the 
Woman, and the Woman by the Serpent, to yeeld upon any 
promife or hope of an higher eftate, to tranfgrcfle any comman- 
dement of God, and diiobcy his word and revealed will , who 
had fo highly magnified his kindneffe, and made his lingular 
care and providence for hirn moft cleare and manifeft. But 
molt of all may wee all bee afhamed and confounded for this, 
that our rirft Parents, and wee in them, would beleeve Satans 
lyes in the mouth of a Serpent, and would give more credit 
to them, then to the word of the Lord our Creatour; as if all his 
goodnefle and bounty were nothing in our eyes, which hee 
ihewed in our creation, and in providing fo pleafant and well 
furnifhed an habitation for us. 

Secondly, Gods putting of Adam, into the garde, i that hee Bolir. z. 
might drcfTe it and keep it, doth teach us, That man in the n ^Re- 
creation was made, and is by pure nature, moft averfe andab- ncfb'aU 
horring from idleneffe; and his true content and pleaf.irc in lo*cd., 
this World is to bee in exercife of his wit,reafon , and bodily 
activity. The earth before mans fall was all fruitfiill,and brought 
forth for mans ufe all nccefiary and delightfull things without 
art, toile or labour ; fo that man might have fpent all his time in 
contemplating upon his creation, and all things created: but 
yet God would not, that man (houid live, neither didhecfee 
or thinke fit for man to live idle, and therefore put him to dreffc 
and k£tp the garden ,in which hee had occafion to exetcife his 
minde and body without toile or labour , onely for pleafure 
and contentment. And therefore tin s doctrine is naturally 
gathered from hence, and all thofc Scriptures confirme it, 
which condemne floth and idleneffe, and fend the flng^ard, as a 
creature degenerate from his kind, tolearnc of the Ant and 
meaneft creatures, as Prov. 6. 6. And tell us, that idleneffe and 
SbthfukefTe lmnghungl l % and want , and rmne } and decay to the 


48 Man by nature aSliVi and flirring. 

hottfsofthe idle and Jiuggi[h % Prov. ip. I J, Ecelef 10. 18. and 
aboundiwce of idleneffe was the roote of sll the evils, which came 
upon Sodom y Ez>*cb, 16.49. But the diligent band maketb ricb % 
and brings plenty of all blejfings, Prov. 10.4. and brings men to 
promotion y rule and honour, prov. 1 2. 24, and makes their fub- 
ftancc precious v Vcrfe 27. and their foules fat, 7 J rov»i$. 4. and 
caufctb even women tobeepral/cdintbegates, Prov. 31. And 
that man is by nature, active and cannot brooke idlencfi e, it ap- 
peares plainely by tbeftirring nature of children, who arc ne- 
ver quiet nor content, unhfi'c they beebufied oneway or other; 
and by the reltleffenefJe which is in wicked men, who *fe- 
vife mlfchiefeon their beds, and have working heads , and cannot 
ceafe from doing fomething , rather evill exercifes then bee 
idle. " 
Vfe. Now this being a manifeft truth , may juftly provoke and 

Dctcit it ft j rrc us U p to i oat h and abhorre idlenefle, floth, and lazinefle, 
therefore, as fp CC | a }| marks and igominious brands of naughty perfons, 
miferably degenerated from humane nature, and From the 
frame and difpofition, wherein they were at the firft created by 
God. It was not good for Adam in innocency to live idly, and 
without exercife, but hee mult bee bufied as in miad by con- 
templation on Gods werks; fo in body by rttling the creatures, 
drejjing and keeping the garden 9 when aboundance of all things 
flowed to him without toileor labour; much more will it be 
hurtfull dangerous and pernicious to us,who arc a people corrup- 
ted,and in our whole frame out of ordcr,perverfe, and fro ward. 
If wee give way to floth and id lencfle, for if wee labour not, 
wee cannot have what to eat: but poverty will come upon us, 
like nn armed man 5 If wee bee idle and negligent in honeftand 
good labour, our perverfe, rebellious and reftlefle nature will 
lead us into evill exercifes and wicked works. As [landing 
lakes of water grow corrupt, {linking and unwholefome ; and 
ground not laboured , ftirred up and tilled, will bring forth cor- 
rupt, (linking weeds, bryars, thorncs, and thiflles: So our cor- 
rupt, nature if it bee not exercifed and bulled about vcrtucus 
actions, and profitable labours, will grow more corrupt, noy- 
fo.neand filthy ; and will carry us away into fro ward neile, va- 
nity and fulfill! practices, which will make us loatbfome to 


In innocency man en) aye J a contented eflate. 1 49 

God and mei^and will fpccdily plunge us into miferyand etcr- 
nall perdition* 

>t Thirdly, wee here fee and are plainely taught, that man in Doltr. 3, 
innocency had aboundance of all good things, needfull for pro- Acontcnc- 
fit,pleafure, and full contentment; and wanted nothing which fullcfhcc 
could bee required for earthly happineffe, to make him blcfled in inao " 
in this World, and fully content with his eftate and condi- ccncy# 

Firft, his reafon and underftanding could not conceive, nei- t. 
ther did heeknow any good, which hee wanted and did not 
poileltc, whereof hee was by nature capable: all wordly goods 
hee had at will ; and of heavenly and fpirituall good which 
was fupcrnaturali , hee had no knowledge nor underftan- 

Secondly, hee had all provocations to move him to ferve 2# 
God, and all bonds to tye, and knit his heart in love to God, 
and to make him wholly obedient to God, and dutifull and fer- 
viceable to him in his whole heart and ioule, body, mind, and 
ftrength, Hee had food at will, moil fweet, wholeiome and de- 
licate, in all variety and aboundance, without any care toile or 
labour ;the Earth brought it forth of her o wnc accord; the whole- 
fome and pure 4/>*did cherifliit, and the Sun and Heavens by 
their warme influence did ripen, perfect, and prepare it to his 
hand. Hee had a molt plea fan t dwelling, a garden beautified 
with all earthly ornament /,and * Paradifeoi plcafure and delight. 
Hee was high in honour, dignity and promotion above all living 
creatures both by S«a and Land, and had rule and Dominion over 
them all. His exercife was without toile, labour or paine, fweet 
and plcafant. Hee had for the exercife of his minde all Gods 
ttforks, the contemplation whereof might fill his foule with de- 
light and joy in God his Creatour ; and for the exercife of his 
bodily Itrcngth and activity, hee had the drejfing and keepittgof 
the garden which was a worke of pieafure and delight, not of 
paines and labour, for k needed no digging, planting,culture or 
tillage: his bufincfle alfo was without care and feare; for there 
were notheeves to annoy him, no evUlbeaftsio hurt and fpoile 
his garden,and to trouble & wafte his habitation; fo that without 
further proofe, this Dodrine is moft clearc in,aad from the text. 

S The 

2 5 o §od mi the Juihor of Mam fin. 

y/t m The confideration whereof is of excellent u(e to confirme 
God no us in this a{furance,perfwafion and beliefe,that God iano refpeel: 
w^thc anycaufe or Author of mans fin and fall, neither did give him 
cauftof faQ lead occasion of difcontent with his prefent eftate, that 
mam Tin. . £c#ng to foare up higher, hee fhould catch a fearefull do wne- 
fall into iin, and bring himfclfc m bondage to death,HeH,and the 
Divell. Tor wee fee, God gave him all occafions and aboun- 
dance of blefllngs as ftrong provocations to provoke kirn to 
love his heavenly Ma/efty , and as fir me bands to bind, and tye 
him to obedience. It was the Divell who firft breathed pride 
wato map, to afpire and foare above his eftate , and fuggeftei 
into his heart evill iurmifes and thoughts of God, that God did 
(eeke to keeps him from a better eftate by reftraining him from 
the tree of knowledge , which by eating of the fruit thereof hec 
might obtaine, and become like to God. Wherefore let no man 
charge God with giving the leaft occafionof difcontent to man 
to provoke him to (in; but let us bee humbled with the fight of 
our owne mutability, frailty and vanity, who in our firft Parents 
and beft eftate were fo fragile and mutable,and much more now, 
being corrupted and made fub/ccl: to vanity, and flaves of cor- 

Chap. XV. 

Of the image of God <m txan in innocency. Sundry opinions of it. 
What the word figmfieth : Zelcm and Dcmutfr. Image of God 
naturally and fupernat urall. Differences between* the image of 
the firjf and fecond Adam. Images ejfentiall, and accidental!. 
Particulars if Gods image on &4dam\ infeule and body. Vfes of 

6sn.i,itf. A Nd God/aid', Let W make man in our image after our like* 
JT\>uejfe. Vcrfezj. Sa God created man in his owne imaae, in the 
image of God created hee him • Male and female created hee 

The gemrall Do&rincof the creation of our firft Parents** 
" """ " the 

Opinions concerning Qods image in Mm. % r i 

the image of God) I have heretofore laid open out of thefe words. 
It now remaines, tha& I proceed to the Do&rincand Defcrip- 
tionofthat image of God in the fpcciall and particular feints % 
thereof which I refer ved to the laft place, becaule it is the mairtc 
thing which difcovcrs to us the excellent ftate of man in in- 
nocenoy. As for the blefling offuitefu^ncjfe for the increafe 
of mankind, and mans Dominion over the creatures, plenty and 
variety of bodtly foody and a pleafant habitation) the earthly Pa* 
radife,they arc butextvna £<ww,outWard bcnerits:'out the image of 
God containes in it internallbUffmgs of the foule, & of the whole 
man, as well as cxternall & outward benefits; & therefore I have 
firlt difpatched them,&now come to that image oRjcd,in which 
did confitt thehighcil pitch of mans natural/ perfection Sc felicity. 
In the handling of this point, if I (rtould rehearfe the feverall 
opinions of the ancients; how they make a difference betwecne Opinio** 
the image & liki^e of Goi;how fome make the image ofGod to of ihc 
beonely in the foule; fome in the whole man, fomcholdthcrcafo-'^ge anJ 
nable foule, as it is endowed with under}} an&ing&ill and memory, il f k i nc ^ c 
to be the image, and holineffe and righteeufnejfe to be the Ukenefle of ° 
God; others hold that Gods image confilts in mans Dominion % 
&Lord(hip over the cre3tures;others,that Gods image coalite in 
jnans immortality, others in this, that man is afpirituall fttbflance 
in refpeel of his foule, others that the image of God, after which 
God formed man, is God the Son as hee is the image and cha- 
racter of the Fathers Terfon, and the ft mi litude is the holy Ghofi; 
others that the image of God is the humane nature y which the 
Son was ordained to aflume, and did in fulneffe of time take 
upon him : If I ihould rehear ie all thefe, and lay them open, and 
confute fo much in them as in unfound, I fhould fpend time 
and weary my ielfctofmall purpofe. Likewife, it would take 
up exerciies of many houres, if I fhould rehearfe the divers 
opinions, queftions, and dilputatiens of the Schoolemen^dW which 
would trouble mens braines, and leave them in a maze or laby- 
rinth , unccrtaine what to hold or beleeve; as alfo the many 
disputations, abiurdities, and contradictions of the Iefnits % by 
which they contradict one another j and fome of them them* 
felvesy in many things which they teach and affirmc concerning 
the image of God. Asforthcgroffc opinions of old Hcreticks* 

$ 2 ** 

2 5 2 

Natnrall andjuptrmturalt effentiatllmagc Vbat. 

as of the Mankhaans, who utterly denyed the image of God 
-in man-, and of the tAndioKswA Anthrofomorpbites^ who held 
, that the outward forme and fliape of mans body was Gods 
image; and of the Pe lagians, who held that the image of God, 
in which man was created, was no other but th& in which every 
man is now borne ; they are not worthy to bee named, it were 
loffc of time to confute them, and to difcover the abfurdities of 

The maine ground which I will wholly build upon, (hall 
bee the word of God, written in the facrcd Scriptures; and what 
1 find in the lathers and beft moderne Writers agreeable to 
the Scriptures, that I will commend untoyou; and where I 
find them differing from Gods word, I will be bold to pro* 
fefte open diflert, and fhew my diflike ; that none may bee 
miftead by them, or by any who build upon humane autho* 

But, that wee may undcrftand this point plainely and fully, 
I will firft ofalL fift the words of the text, and fhew what is 
the image and lik:ne(fe of God, and how we are tounderftand the 
pbrafe of making ntan in hu owne image, and after hi* likencjfe. 
And fecondly, I will fhew the particulars wherein man was 
made like unto God, and what is that image in which hee was 
What the "Firft, the image of a perfon or thing is that, which though it 
word mage diflfcrs in nature and fubftance , yet is formed by that perfon 
figmfies, am j according to that thing, and in all things made like unto 
that whereof it is the image; in fo much that hee who kno wcth 
the perfon or thing it fdfe , when hee feeth the image, can dii* 
cerne that it is the image of fuch a thing or perfon, and that it 
is very like him; and by feeing the true image hee knowes and 
difcernes what a one the perfon or thing is, whereof it is the i- 
3, mage:this is the firft &the mod proper fenic of the word image, 
and thus it is ufed where flames of gold, filver, wood, ftone, or 
other metall, made in the feapc of a man to reprcfent him, or 
in fome other fhape to reprefent a feined Go J, are called images, 
as Num. 33.52. where God commands the Israelites to deft'roy 
the Idols of the Canaanites , and cals them molten images 5 and 
3 King % ii. ip. the Idols or ftatnes made to represent Baal 


Tbttoord Zclem explained. 25$ 

the God of the Zidomans, are calkd the images of Baal. Ani 
man being made a fit creature to repreicnt God, and to iliew 
his glory, is in this fenfe called the image and glory of God, i Cor. 


Secondly ,the word CD ,tf, Zelem % imagers ufed x*T<xxpvfsix£?, 2 . 

thatis,abuiively,tofignifiea vaine iliaciow or bare forme and Zelem> 

(hape of a thing without a fnbftancc; luch as is thelhadowofa 

man or other creature; or a lhape formed inthefanfic, having 

no being but in mans pagination, as Pfalme 39. 6, where every 

man is laid, to walk? '* a vaine Jhadonf 7 the word is OvV, Zelem, 

image, and Pfalme 37. 20. the vaine fanfie and dreame of the 

wicked,that i$,thc vaine felicity, which they frame to themfelves, 

is called by the fame name Zelemjmage. 

Here in this text the word is ufed in the firfl fenfe, for fuch a 
thing, or fach a creature as differing in nature and fubftancc 
from God, yet in that natureand fubftance is fo like unto God , 
and doth mew forth the glory, wifedome, power and other 
attributes of God; that they may bee ieene and rcprefented in 
fome good meafurc in the things, and by the things which are 
proper to that creature. 

And an image according to this fenfe hath in it two things Two, to wit the matter and the forme. rhingsin 

The matter is the nature and fubftancc of the creature, dirTc- an ima S c '« 
ring from the fubltance of the thing, whereof that creature is l • 
^he image, and yet a very fit fubjed to receive fuch a forme, and 
fuch .qualities as may make it very like the thing whereof it 
is the jm3gc; as forcxample gold, iilver, wood, and (lone, differ 
In nature and iubitance from man; and yet they are fit to re- 
ceive the whole outward fhapc of a mans body, and to bee 
like unto it in all parts. If things bee both of one kind and na- 
ture, though the fimilitude bee never fo great, yet the one is 
not called the image of the other, except it bee made bj y and 
according to it: as for example, One egge is not the image of 
another, nor one apple, nut,or figge anothers image; nor water, 
nor wine of the lame kind in icverali cups, though they bee 
very like , becaufe they are both of one nature and of the 
lame kinde, and one is not inadc and formed by another. 

Secondly, the forme of the image is the likrneffe andjimilitndc, i % 


2^4 The Vord Vemutb explained. 

which is in all the parts & proper tics of a thing,by meanes where- 
of it refembles that whereof it is the image,& is like unto it,& fo 
becomes the image of it;as for exampie,the forme ,8c fhape,& re- 
fcmblance,which is in the image of gold, Giver ,or ftone,by which 
it refembleth and expreffeth all parts of a mans body, and the co- 
lour of it, by which it refembles a mans haire, face, hands, and 
cloathes, that is thelikencfle by which it becomes the image of 
a man, even of this or that particular man , and is knowne and 
difcernedto bee his image, and in it his fiape is plainely feene. 
Both thefe are here to bee underftood in this word image , and 
Gods image containes in it both the fmilit tide or refernblance, 
by which man is faid tobee tike unto Godinsllbxs naturall pro- 
perties, gifts,and endowments; andalfo his nature, andfptbfiance^ 
which though it differs from Gods nature and fubitancc; Yet is 
a fit iub jedi of fuch properties, gifts, and endowments, which 
referable Gods attributes and properties. 
BemutK' Secon( %> th ~ Hebrew word PRO'S Demnth, which is here 
% ' tranflated Hkenejfe, is nfed in a twofold fenfe : Firft, it fignifies 
the fimilitude and likenefle, by which one thing refembles ano- 
ther in all the fpeclall properties of it; thus it is ufed Tfalme 58. 
4, where the poifon, rancour, and malice of the wicked is faid 
to have the likenefle of the poifon of afpes; and Ezteb. 1. 10. the 
Hkenejfe of the faces of the foure living creatures, in Ezecbiels 
vifion is faid to bee like the face of a man, and of a Lyon, and of 
an Oxe, and of an Eagle-, and Dan. 10. 16. one is faid to touch 
^ Daniel, who had the likenefle of the Sons of men, Secortdly, it 
fignifieth the fam« that the word image doth, that is a thing 
which is made like to another, and is the very patterne which 
refembleth it in all parts , and properties, as 2 King, 16.10. 
where the patterne of the Altar ot Damafcm which Aba^ient 
to Vriah the Prfeft, is called the image of it. And 2 Chron* 4. 3. 
the images of Oxen which Solomon made under the hafen Sea, 
are called FTO~I Demxth, the likenefle of Oxen, and Ifa. 40. 1 8 . 
an image made to reprefent God, according to thatconceipt 
of him, which men frame in their mind es,is thus called. 

Herein this text the word is uilxi in the latter fen fe, and 
fignifies the fame, that the word image doth in effect,, but in 
a divers order and maimer. For the yjoxdCZi^Jmafe ? (ignu. 


In bow many kinds the Image of God is diftinguifhzi. 2 ? ? 

6esfirfl:a*r<Mf#;v, and then the Itkenefe by which thaTcreatqre~ 
£0 reicmbles God the Creatour,in all the fpeciali properties of 
it, that it becomes his image. And the word m£"7, likenejfe^ 
fignirtes firft the JimiUtude, and then the creature; that is> iuch a 
fimilitude and rcfcmblance of God damped upon the nature 
and being of a creature, as makes it the very image or" God p 
and fo thefe two words, Ze/em, Image, and Dcrmitb , Li>k^neff?, 
are (as the beft learned and raoit judicious cxpofitors of tfcts 
text doe affirmej the one the expofition of the other; The word 
Image (heweth, that the creature barely coniidered is not Gods 
image; but by the natural! properties, and gifts by which it ra- 
iemblesGod. And the word Hkcneffc fheweth, that the fwd- 
litu&e alone is not the image, but as it fubfifts in afitful>je£, and 
flowcs from the nature and properties, which God gave it in the 

Vpon thefe grounds wee may cafiiy underftand, that the 
phrafe of creating man in Gods owne image and likenejfe, fignifies 
Gods creating man of filch a nature, and endowed with fucli 
aaturall properties, gifts, and endowments; that hee doth in 
them all refemble himfelfc, and is his lively image very like 
to him; fhewing forth his divine properties and attributes of 
goodneffe, wifedome, power, knowledge,and in all things con- 
tbrmablo to his juft will. Thus much for the opening of the 

The next thing to beeconfidered, is the Image it / elf e , and Image ot 
the fpeciall things wherein it doth confift. And here I hold; God natu- 
itneceflary, firft to diftinguilh the image of God, and his like- ' all > an<i 
neffeinto two kinds. The firft is natural!, formed in the crea- L "^ ra2tu " 
tion. The fecond is fupernatural! and fpirituall, formed in man 
by the holy Ghoft dwelling inhim. This diftinftion, though 
divers people ( lead by cuftome and humane authority more 
then the word of God^ doe rejeft as a meere device of mine 
ownc: yet I findc itplainely laiddowne in the word of God. 
For the holy Apoftle Saint Paul, 1 Cor. 15, 49. doth in exprefTe 
words arrirme,that as there is both a firft Adam madeoftheEa th, 
earthyjuho by Gods breathing into him the breath oflife became 
a living fouie in the firft creation jand z\fo afecond tAdam made 
a quick wing Spirit, even the Lord Chvift from Heaven heaven!/; 

S 4 So 

156 1 be (tiffin nee bttweme the image 

So there is a twofold image of God in man; the firft iThe msgt 
»fthe earthy Adam, in which hce was created; which though 
hee forfeited, and loft by the law of juftice: yet by Gods com- 
mon and general indulgenccin Chrift, hee did fo farre retains 
and communicate it though,grievou(ly mangled & defaced, that 
weareiaid to have borne it ■, who are Adams naturall progenie, 
and were created upright in his loynes. The other is the image 
Phil. 2. of the heavenly Adam, the Lord Chrift, who being in the forme 
efGod, c quail with God, did humble kimfelfe to defcend from Hea- 
ven by taking our nature upon him, and framing to himfclfe 
out of the feed of the woman by the operation of the holy 
Ghoft a mod pure and holy manhood, which did bearc ("over 
and above the image of the firft Adam deformed with many 
Frailties and all our infirmities , fin onely excepted, Ram. 8. 3. 
Philip. 2. 7. ) an holy and heavenly image created and framed 
in his humane nature by the working or the holy Ghoft, which 
is given to him not by mcafure, Ieh. 3. 34. even from his firft 
conception, Lnk± 1 . 35 . And this image as the elect, regenerate 
and faithfull doe beareinpart, in the ftate of grace, while they 
are by the inward worke of the Spirit conformed to the image of 
Chrift, Rom. 8. 2p. and (fbriftts formed in them, Gal. 4. ip, So 
they ill .ill fully and perfectly bearc it in heaven after the lad: 
refurrcclion,i Cor. 15.4P. 

And as the holy ApoiUe doth diftinguifh thefe two images*, 
and doth oppofe the one to th e other, making the one the image 
of the firft Adam, who was of the Earth earthy, the other proper 
to Chrift the fecond Adam, who is the Lord from Heaven hea- 
venly; £0 hee doth ftiew divers differences betweene them in 
his divine ipiftlcs, which are confirmed alfo by other Scrip- 
Differences firft, the image of God in the firft Adam was natnrall, it 
Lctwecne was that which was given him in the creation; fo my text here 
the image faith, G od created man in hts owne image: But the image ©fGod 
©fthe fiift^ t h e fecond Adam was fuper natnrall and fpiritnail ; for hee 
Adtm." was conceived, and formed in the wombe by the holy Ghoft % 
* u Lnk^ 1. 35, and his image is communicated to men, and they 

are changed into it by the Spirit of God, 2 Cor. 3.18. 
2i Secondly, the image of God in the firft Adam was mutable,. 


of the firft andjecond Adam. 257 

and AcLim did forfeit it, together with his life and natural! 
being, by his (in and difobedience : And although God, out of 
his common favour and indulgence in Chrift, doth dill con- 
tinue it in fome degree to Adams pollerity ; yet it is much de- 
faced and deformedm all parts, and in ibme parts quite abolijbed^ 
and is now tilled the Hkenejfe of corruptible man, Rom. 1,23. and 
the ltke*e§e of ftnfullflejh^ Rom 8.3. and the forme of a fervant, 
and likeneiTe of frailemcn even as it was in Chrift, Phil. 2. 7. 
But the image of God in Chrift is immutable-^ neither our fins 
which hee bare, nor all our infirmities, nor the Divell, nor the 
World, nor all the powers of darkneftc, nor the curfe ofthelaw t 
which hee was made in his death, nor the wrath of God and 
the agonies with which hee wraftled in his agony, both in the 
time of his bloody fwcat, and on the croflc when hee cryei 
out, My God why haft thou forfaken mi? could deface or impairc 
that fpirituall and f uper natural I image of true righteoufneiTe 
and holinefte , which was ftampea on hi-s humanity , and in 
which it was framed by the holy Ghoft; but over all thofc 
enemies and powers hee triumphed^ even upon the Crojfe^ Colof. 
a. 15. and in his curfed death hec offered up himfelfc a facrs- 
fee moft pure, holy and without fpot, Heb. 9, 1 4. fo that his 
holinefte was no whit ftained , nor Gods lpirituall image in 
him defaced, or diminifhed. And as this fpirituall image could 
not bee diminifhed in Chrift the fecond Adam, our head: foit Ron.Z*n* 
isindeleble and cannot bee defaced in any of his members truely Io *•*' **• 
regenerate and united to him by the lame fpirit ; but it dayly an I4#1 • 
increafeth in triem, and they are transformed into it, from glory zCer.^.iB" 
taglorjfy by his Spirit in them, which is flronger and greater 
then the Divell > the Spirit of malice which is in the World, and i c h. 4. 4, 
rules in the children of difobedience; For the Spirit feales them i Com.**. 
up unto the day of redemption* Ephef 4. 30. And they can- 
vot fin by apoftacy, and fell into infidelity and impenitency, 
I Ioh. 3. p.becaufe the feed of God abideth in them. 

Thirdly , the image of God in the firft Adam was moft per- j£ 
fe ft at the fir ft, for hee was created perfect with naturall per- 
fetti**; and the naturall image of God was never lb perfect in 
any of bis naturall fons, as it was in him at the firft. And as it 
decayed and was defaced in him by his fall: fo in all of his po- 


5 8 The differe7iceikty>eene the image 

fterity who are Gods eled, it gives place to the better image of 
Chrifii And in his Sons who are reprobates, it (hall bee utterly 
abohlhed at laft , and changed into the image of the Divell, 
when they fhail bee punifhed with everlafiing deftru&um from 
the prefence of Cod, x and from the glory of hts power, 2 Tbejf. i . y. 
But the image of God in the feeond Adam 9 is at the firftinthe 
1 ut meafure like a graine of mu fiord feed, and ftill it increafeth, 
till at laft itcommeth to fulnefle and perfection in glory. In 
Chrift our head it was not fo clcare, nor (o foil at the tirft, being 
ecciipfed with our infirmities; but that hee did grow up in wife- 
dome, andflature, and favour with God andmen, Luk^ 2. 52. and 
io this image increafed in him, arid hee was more and more 
full of the holj Ghofi, till at length hee was perfeded with glory* 
And fo hkewife in the ftate of grace, it daily increafeth in all 
the true members of Chrift , till they come to glory, and bearc 
the heavenly image of Chrift, and attaine to the fulnefte of him, 
asappeares Rom. 12.2. 2 Cor. 3, 18. and 4. \6 Ephef. 4.13,16. 
Coloff. 3. I o. 2 Pet, 3. i8 # i 

Fourthly, the image of God in tsfdam confided onely in 
fuch gifts and endowments as made him a perfect naturallman, 
capable of an earthly felicity: It did not enable him to fcarch 
into the heavenly things of God , nor make him partaker of hea- 
venly glory: But the image of God in Ch»ift confifts oifpirituall 
gifts and fupernaturall graces, which doe enable a man to fearch 
into thzdeepe things of Gedy which never entered into the heart 
of Adam in innocency , 1 Cor. 3, 9,10. or of any mcere na- 
turall man-, and which doe make him fit to fee God and to 
inherite the Kingdome of heaven, 1 Cor. 15. 50. and Hebr. 

The image of God in which Adam was created, did confift 
chiefelyof original! righteoufnejfe,vihich was but a perfed»*- 
turall uprigbtnejfe, and conformity of his reafon, undcrftanding, 
will and affedions to the will and law of God, madeknowne 
to him in the creation, and alfo in the perfed frame anddtfpo- 
fition of his body y and of all parts thereof, by which they were 
nrioft apt and ready to follow his upright reafon, will and af- 
fedions in all things , and to move and worke accordingly; 
and the Scriptures attribute no more to man, whilehee bare 


of tbtfir(i and fecond Adam. z^p 

that image in the creation, but onely that Godmadc man upright , 
Zcclefj.verfehft, this was the height and perfection otthac 
jr»4gc But the image of God in Chriit , the fecond Adam con- 
taines in it the rightcoufnefle and holineffe of truth, Ephef.q. 24, 
that is, a righteoufneffe wrought in us,by the holy Gholt,and a 
true holineffc and holy conformity to God, which cannot fails 
and deceive, and which doth elevate and lift m up to heavenly 
felicity, andtheeternall fruition of God. 

The image of God in which Adam was made, was but the 6. 
ttprightnejfe^f fervants, and conformity to the will of God; 
commanding as Lord and Creatour under paine of death, Gen. 
i. 17. But the image of God in Chrilf is the image of Sons and 
Children , not onely adopted to God in Chriit; but alfo begotten 
and borne of Gods immort all feed, even his Spirit, and made 
partakers of the divine nature y loh. 3. $. Gal. 4. 5 . 1 Tet. 1 . 2 3 . 
and 2 Pet. 1. 4. 1M3. 9. 

Laftly, the image of God in which Adam was made, did 7. 
not in the greateft perfection of it give that fulnejfe and fuffi- 
ciency of contentment, wnich might fettle his refolution never 
to defire more; for hce, out of a defire to know more, and to bee 
lilee God in knowing good and evilly was cafily tempted and drawnc 
by the Serpent to eat of the forbidden fruitc : But the image 
of God in Chrirt, the fecond Adam gives fuch folia content to 
Gods people, even here in this fraile life in the (late of grace, 
-where they have it but in part, that neither lifeyBir death, nor 
Angels, nor principalities ', nor powers , nor angui/h,perfecution,peril/ 
or f word , cat make thtm willing to forgoe it for any other hope: 
and in the full perfection of it after the laft rcfurre&ion^ it 
brings fulneffe of joy, contentment and fatisfa&ion, and fils men 
upyjiththefulnejfeefGod, Pfalmc 16 1 1 1. and 17. 1 5. Rom 8 # . 
35w Epbefi.19. 

Now thefe things which I have here laid downe by way 
ofplaine Doctrine, concerning the true meaning of the words 
imige and likeueffe , and the difference betwecne the image 
of God, in which the firft Adam was created, and the image 
of God in the fecond Adam Chrift, in which hee was formed 
bytheholyGhoit, and into which aM the elecl are changed and 
rennet, when they arc regenerate and made new creatures in 



Images diftinguifad into jevzr ail Jq\U % 


and acci- 
dent all. 

him may fcrve for excellent ufe : as I ihall (hew, when I bavp 
dcicribed the image of God, wherein our firft Parents were 
created, and have laid downe, by way of Doctrine, the particu- 
lars wherein it doth confift. 

But before I can dittinftly defcribe the Image of which 
my text here fpcakes, I muftyeta little more diiiinclly ihew 
thefeverall ibrts of images which, are images cf God, and of 
other things. 

There are images which areejfentiall andperfitl, to wit, every 
perfon begotten by another ot his owne nature; and images 
which are accident all and iwperfeB. 

An eflentiall image, is either abfolute and mofi perfeU\ or 
lejfe perfect. 

The eflentiall image which is moftperfettandabfolHte, is one 
perfon begotcen by another of the lame undivided fubftance 
and being, in all eflentiall properties equall and alike, diftincl: 
onely by perfonall properties andfnbfifience, Thus the etcmall Son 
of God is tl.e image of the Father of whom he is begotten from alL 
eternity, of the lame nature and individaall fubitance. Fortho 
fecond perfon the Son, confidered according to his divinity 
{imply as God, before his afiuming of our fraiie nature; is laid 
to bee in the forme of God, that is,his perlon is of the fame eflencc, 
glory, and majefty with the Father, and hee thought it no robbery 
to bee equal! with God , that is to have all eflentiaii properties of 
God equall which the Father, as the Apoftle teftiricth, Philip. 
-2.6. and in this refpeel, hee is called the image of the invijibh 
Gody Colojf. 1. 15. and the brightnefe of his glory, and the expreffe 
image of his per /on y Hebr. 1*3. which words though they have 
refpeft to Chrilr, as hee is the Word made Jkj &,and God incarnate^ 
revealing God in his goodnefle, wiiedome, juftice, mercy, 
power, and the like : yet they rauft not bee limited to his incar- 
nation; but are extended to his deity as hee is the eternall Word 
the Son the fecond Perfon , by whom the Father created all 
things, and who with the Father doth uphold and fuftaineall 
things as the words immediatly following doe (hew. For 
indeed the eternall ivord the Son, is in the forme of God, one 
and the fame God, of the fame fubftance, glory, and majefty 
with the Father, and onely diftinguifhed in pvfonall properties , 


The figmficatim of the word Image what . i6\ 

relatiom , and fubfiftence: And therefore hee alone can truely 
bee called the image of God in this ienfe, which is mod per - 
feci and abfolute. 

The eflentiall or fubftantiall image which is letfe perfect then 2] 
the other ,is either natural/ or fuper natural/, 

A natural/ effcntiall image is one perfon begotten by ano- Nntunll, 
ther of the fame nature and kind of fubftance, and equall and 
alike in the fame kind ofnaturall properties, but not of the fame 
lingular fubftance and individual! properties; thus every Son 
of man is the image of the Father which begets him; for though 
hee hath a feverall ioule and body, and feverall properties which 
are of the fame kind, but not the kmc fingu far with thofe of 
his Father : yet becaufchis body and foule, and all the faculties 
ef it, are ot the fame kind, and in the outward forme rcfem- 
bles his Father, and his Father may bee fecne as it were in 
him, therefore hee is his Fathers image and made in his like- 

A fuper -natural/ effcntiall image is a nature or perfon, who And/a^ 
is fo begotten of God by the holy Ghoft, given to bee and abide f*™ atu *. 
in him, as the immortal/ feed of God, that hee is made partaker ra * 
of the divine nature*, that is, hath not onely iupematuralL , and 
jpirituall gifts wrought in him, by which hee is made fit to fee 
and enjoy God: butaifois united to God, and God becomes his 
portion for ever. 

This image is either primary or fecondarj. Tre primary image 3 - 
of this kind is onely Chrift as hee is man, or the humane nature 
ofChrift, which God formed and made in the womb of the 
virgin fo pure and holy by the ho/y Ghoft from the firft con- 
ception, in which the ho/y Ghoft came upon her, and the power of 
the Almighty over- ft ado-wed her, Luk. 1. that it was not onely 
mod pure and hnlj, and full of the holy Ghoft from the firft 
being of it;but alio was perfona/ly ajjumed and uni ted to tie eternal/ 
Son of God , the fecond Perfon in the blcfled Trinity , and fo 
became the firft borne of every creature, CoJojf. 1. 15. and the 
firft fruits which doe fanftifie the whole maffe of the elccT, 
1 Cor. 15. 23. and hee head from whom the Spirit is derived 
unto all the eieel:, Ephef, 4. 15, fo that they become a kj.nd of firft 
fruits of Gods creatures , Iam % 1. 1$, 


262 Several! forts 0) imam. 

The ficondarj fupernaturali image is every elect, regenerate 
child of" God, begotten and borne of his Spirit, flied on them 
through Chritt, Tit. 3. 6. and fo created a new man after God^ 
in righteoufne^e and belittejfe of truth, and mads partakers of the 
divine nature, one with God in Chrift and by Chrift, Ioh. .7,23. 
I call this afeemdary image , becaufe the elect become this image 
not immediatly, but after a fecondary manner, by deriving the 
Spirit from Chrift ,and by union with God in him. I call it 
a fupernaturali %mage, becaufe it is above mans nature, and be~ 
longs not to him in the creation, nor confifts in any naturall 
properties or refemblance. And I call it an ejfentiall image, bo* 
cauie every regenerate man, hath in him the holy Gholt dwel- 
ling as the/00/? of hi* Joule, quickning the w hole man; which 
Spirit is of' the fame eiTence with the Father and the Son. And 
in relpecT: of this Spirit, and his gifts dwelling in his taber- 
nacles their bodies, and furnifhing them throughput; they arc 
truely called, and are indeed, anew image of God, and new ere** 

Allthele forts of images arc to bee excluded out of this text, 
for our firft parents are not here faid to bee created after God 
ejfentially ovfupcr naturally, butonely in the accident all and na- 
turall image of God; as i have in part flic wed before, and fliall 
alio hereafter more fully (hew in all the particulars. 

The accidentall #r imperfetl image of a thing or of a perfbn, 
is a thing or perfoli fo framed and made by another, as by a pa- 
tcrne, and after the likenefleof that patcme, that it doth very 
much refembk it in likeneiTc and fimilitude, but yet is not every 
way equall, nor in all things fully alike, nor of the fame nature 
and iubflance with it. 

In an image of this kind, there are required two things nc- 
ccflarily : 

Firil, that the thing which is the image bee verj like, that 
whereof it is the image; yea ioJike, that it muft refemblc and 
reprefent either the nature and cflentiall forme of it, or the 
outward forme and figure, or 1 ome fpeciall properties and pro- 
per qualities of it j or all thefc together, and yet in a different 

Secondly, that it bee formed mimadt by that whereof hi* 


What required in every image. 2 6 3 

the image, and according to the patcrne of it : Where sny of 
thefe two is wanting , there can bee no image at all; as for 
example, One eggc is like another in nature, fubflance, and all 
naturall properties ; yet that egge is not the image of the other, 
becaufe the one is not made by the other, as the patcrncofit; 
fo wee may fay of an apple, or a figge, and of many other things; 
but the forme of an egge or apple made m chalke, or paftc, or 
wax,is the image of an egge or apple,though not fo like it as ano- 
ther egge or apple, and farre different in nature and fubftance, 
becaufc it is formed by it as by a paterne. And againe, though 
an eggc bee formed in the body , and of the naturall fubflance 
of a bird , and fometimes wormes are bred in the bodies of men 
and beafts; and the egge refembles the bird in vvhiteneflc or 
in variety of other colours, and the wormes feemelike mans 
flefh, in whom they are bred, both in colour and fubftance, and 
in life, fenfc, and motion : yet they cannot bee called images, bc- 
caufethey are not like in fhape nor outward forme, nor in any 
property, but onely in fome qualities, and fmall rcfcmblance. 
But the picture otfiatne^ made after a man, and in many things 
like him, though more like another man then him , yet it is H& 
image, and not the image and picture of another: fbrhe figure 
ofa man appearing in a glarTe when hee (lands before it; though 
it differs in nature and fubftance, and is but a vanishing ihado w : 
yet becaufe in outward fhape, forme and colour it is very like, 
and is expreffed in the glaffe by him looking in it, therefore is 
his image. And the imprejjion of a ftampor fcalcmadein wax 
or well tempered clay is the image of that ftampe or feale,. 
though it bee»not perfectly like, by reafon of fome fmall defects 
in the wax, clay or ftamping j and the imprcflion of another 
feale engraven with the fame figure or letters may bee in all 
, points more like , and yet not the image of it, becaufe it was 
not made after it, but by another feale engraven with the fame 

Now then, that wee may plaincly fee that man was created, Man m ^ 
and how hee was created in the image of God , and made after afrGrGod * 
bis Ukenefie , and that hee is a true accident all image' of Gody^*' 
his Creatonry Wee ape to obferve and take notice of thefe two 
things : 


264 Man alone hearts Gods image. 

I. Firft, that God did frame mans nature, even his whole foule 

and body after bimfelfe, with intent that both his fubftance, 
and natural! properties and endowments might take their pat- 
terne from him his Creatour; that is, in a word, God himidfc 
was the originall and chxefe patterne by which alone man was 
made and formed. 
*• Secondly, that though divers ot].ier creatures had in divers 

things more refemblance of God, then man had; as the heavens 
in large comprehenfion of the vifible World; the Sun in glorious 
brigbtneft, beauty and Majefty; thehigjheft heaven in glory and 
immutability; And all creatures, as they have effence and being, 
and were made good and perfect in their kind,have,fome more, 
fome fewer impreifions and refemblance ofGodinhis eflence 
and attributes: yet none can bee called the image of God anion* 
all vifible creatures but onely man; becauie, though God formed 
all things after his owne will, wiiedome, and goodnefle; yet 
hee made no vifible creature living or without life, fofarre re- 
fembling himfelfe in bit nature and ejfentiall properties , that it 
might juftly or with good reafon bee called hit image, but onely 
man. As man alone of all creatures under heaven was made 
in the image of God; fo man alone doth fo plaindy refemble God, 
isfo ftamped with the imprcflion of Gods properties, and in 
his whole nature and frame is made (oft a fubjett for God t& 
dwelling and to bee conformed to God; and wherein God may 
fieivhis wifedome, power, goodnefle, liberty of will, juftice, 
nurcy and other attributes, that hee onely of all vifible crea- 
tures can truely bee called the image of God* 
PartUulavs Let us now therefore, in the next place, come to the things 
wherein wherein this image of God did confift, and in refped of which 
the »" a S e things man is faid to bee created in the image of God , and to bee 

flood* tnc um 3 c °f ^oi n * s creatour. 

Conformi- Firft, it is a moft certainc truth that the image of God, in 
ty of Adam which man was created, is nothing elfe but the conformity of 
to Gpd. miin unto God; and man is truly called the image of God in reipect 
ofali thofe things wherein hee doth, more then any other vi- 
fible creatures, refemble God in his divine ejfence and properties. 
Now this conformity of man unto God is twofold, primary . 
ov ficondary, 


■ - 

Mans conformity to God in bis Settle* 2 6 J 

<Prwarie conformity, is fcated in the Soule of man, or in man In foul*, 
according to his fonle the cbiefe part of his fubftance. 

Secondary conformitie is that which is in man according to 
his bodie, and confifts in the body and in things which belong to 
his body. 

Conformitie of Man to God in his Soule, is either in the 
Nature of fttbftance or" his Soule, or m the naturall Faculties, 
properties, ar.d Endowments of it t 

Firft, conformity to God in the Sub fiance of his Soule, is the i t 
(imilitude which mans Soule hath unto the nature and fubftance In the i'ub- 
ofGod, in that mans Soule is not a CorporeaH fubfiance, asallfto^ofo 
vifibie Creatures are, nor a Material body created of any former 
matter, but it is apureSpirit^vcn a fpirituall, incorporea 11, in vi- 
fibie and living iubflance, and foit iscalied. 1 Cor. 2a 1. & Heb. 
12.13. and both here in my text; and 1 CV 15. 45. a Living 
Soule which lives and gives life t d the body • and in thefe things 
it [$ like unto god 'who in his nature and being is a Spirit,ora. fpi- 
riiuall fubflance,as our Saviour affirmes,/^. 4-2 4. & is called the 
Invijtblc God Colo ff. 1.15, &77«*. I. 17. and the Living god 
Pfit. 42.2. & ler. 10. 10. & I eh. 6. 96. and his Etc mail power 
and Godhead are called Invifible things , Rom. 1 . 20. yea as God 
iaith of himfclfe, If a. 40. 18. So wee may truely fay of mans 
Soule, that it cannot truely be likened to any vijible dr«g,ncithcr 
can any bodily fubftance refembic it. 

Conformity to God in the natural! j acuities, properties and in* z] 
dowments of his Soule is the likcneiTe, and (imilitude which man In th c na. 
inrefpe&ofhisr^/o*, under/landings liberty of will, deflres and tUY ^ fa * 
affeltions, ail upright and perfeel, had unto Gods wifedome,[" CIC 
knowledge, goodneffe,libertie, juftice,mercy,and the like . 

Firft, man in his perfeel under ft anding, naturall light, wife- U 
dome and knowledge,didrefemble Gods wifedome,and know- 
ledge of all things. For man in his creation, and naturall integritic 
did rightly know G od and himfelfe, and did perfectly under ft and 
alltheworkes, and the nature of all the creatures of God, and 
what was goad both for himfeif and them, {'0 far as was necdfull 
in his kind, and in that naturall cftatc, and what was juft for him 
to do: and howtobcare himlelf uprightly towards God and all 
his creatures. That he had the knowledge and undemanding of 

T all 

266 Adams natHrallm/dme-appeares byfonre things. 

all thefe things diffidently to make him perfcft and happie in 
that eflate; and that there was no errour or ignorance in him 
of any thiag which was meet for him to know , appears mod 
plaineiy by divers things. 

Firff^by Gods giving to man dominion and rule over all Uv in a 
creatures 9 and puting him m the garden to drejfe ir, and puting 
all the earth in Subjection to him ; which God would never have 
done, being infinitly wife snd/uft except he hadknoWne man to 
be one who undcrftood and knew the nature of the earth, and all 
Heroes, Plants, and Trees in it* and by hisreafon, wifdomc and 
knowledge was able to rule all Creatures with difcretion,and to 
order them according to their feverall natures, and to dreflfe the 
garden, and fubduethe earth. Adams naming of all the Creatures, every one by 
fuch a name as did fhew the nature of i>; fo that God did approve 
and confirme the names,Cy*». 2.19 and every Creature did in all 
likely hood come to Adam being called by that name. 

Thirdly, by the understanding which he had of the nature of 
the woman (when God mewed her to be formed of his Rib) and 
prefently giving her the name HEW, Wnan, or Jhee Mar p 
Gen, 2,il* 

Fourthly, by Adamshee, converging with God, and hearing of 
his voice without fear or dread ; which was a ilrong evidence of 
an upright heart and pure confeience, and that he knew God, and 
hisgoodneffe ; and that though God was greater then he could 
comprehend , yet God would not hurt him, Lutuphold himfo 
long as he did obey Gods will revealed to him. 
% - Secondly, man did referable God in theperfed liberty and 

freedome of his willy and in the perfect conformity of it to the re- 
vealed and knowne will of God, and in the readincfTe and natu • 
rallforwardnefleof it to will whatsoever good was within his 
power.and of himfelf to will nothing which was unjuft andevilh 
by theft things he rcfembled the free will and liberty of God, 
and his Jafticc and equine in all his doings. That mans will was 
moftfree to good, and that he had power of will to obey God 
Rem, 1 ^irft by this, that the Law of God was written in his hearts* 

the rule othis life andaftionsjaud thatfo deeply,thatic remaincs 


Mam ridlmojlfree before bis fall. 1&7 

in the heart of his corrupt feed in fom c meafure,& cannot be quite 
blotted out. Ashe knew by his understanding and in hismmde, 
io he was willing ia his hearr, to will and to do all accordingly ; 
& ofhimfelf would never have fallenjiftheDevill.that^V/^^ 
Tvtdie.Ufjft, had not by the Serpent teduccd and deceived him. 

Secondly, by the power and-D0#*'W^ which God gave to 
^him over all Creatures viiible ; which he would not have done, it 
man had not been as ready in mll > as perfect in knowledge to rule 
them aright. It is not knowledge alone,but uprightneffe of heart, 
and will, and power, and frcedome to will juft things juftly, 
which God requires to make an able and fufficient Rn/er, as < D*r> 1 sm % t±ii 
z>$d teftifieth in his /aft words. 

Thirdly, it is manifell by the commaundement which God 
gave to man to be obeyed under paine of death, which he being a 
good God would never have impofed on man, if mans will had 
not been free and upright ; for then he had laid a fnare which man 
could not have avoided; and had required more of man, then 
man by his natural 1 power was able to per for me. 

Thirdly, man was alfo conformable to God, and to his/ufi 
willj goodnefle, purity and happineffe, in all the defires andaffe- ■ * 
ttions of his heart and foule ♦ He ofhimfelf de fired no more but 
that which Godgavebim and allowed him 5 hee loved God zls 
his Crcatour, and the. author of all his good ; He did n?;^ in 
Gods favour, love, and bountie ; He ^<?//££f^himfelfinalItbe 
naturail gifts which God had given him,and in the good creatures 
of God ; there was perfect Harmenie undfweet csnfent between 
hisreafon, underftanding, will, and his dehres and affections : 
vvhatfoever he knew to be good and juft, that he freely mlled, 
defired and affe8ed> thcrc was nod//W^,difcord or repugnancy 
and difTention in any power or faculty of Soule, or Body ; no 
lead: caufe of griefe, but all joy \ nd content. And ofhimfelf he 
never would have deGred more then God had given, nor coveted 
an higher eftate, if Satan had not fitggefted fuch defire, and fedu- 

,* This, and indeed all the whole per feci: uprightneffe of man in 
all the powers and faculties of his Soule, in his underftanding., 
will, defires and affections is mod clearly confirmed by plain e 
tcftimonics of holy Scripture. 

- T* BG 

6 8 Mans conformity to (jod m his 'Body, 

"Firft, by theMverfe of this Chapter, where it is faid that 
when God had created man Male and Female, and fini&ed the 
Creation, he faw every thing -which he had made y and behold it 
was very good, If man was very good* then was he upright in all 
the faculties of the Soule, in his understanding, will, defires and 
affe&ions, and there could be no dif cord among them • for that is 

Secondly Ave have the teftimony of the wife Preacher Ecctef. 
7. 3 o. that God mode man upright , that is,in Originall rjghteouf* 
neffe, conformable in his upright rcafon, underftanding, will and 
affecljfons to the juft revealed will of God. 

Thirdly, experience teacheth that the things which make man 

afhamed, are ignorance anderrour in mind and underftanding, 

pervcrfnefe of willy diforderly Infts and affections, and deformity 

anddifiemper either in Soule or Body. Now Man and Woman 

had no caufe of fharnc in them, neither were they Afhamed when 

th«y were naked and went uncovered in all parts, as Wee reade 

Chap. 2. 25. and therefore in the ftate of innocencie all thefe 

caufes of frame were far from him, and he moft free from them. 

IaVo<fy« The Secondary conformity of man to God, which is in man 

'*• according to his Body y conCiiks in things which belongto the body 

and to the outward vifiblc man. 

Firft, wee mud not conceive, thatGodis any kind of body or 
bodily fub fiance (asblafphemous Vorftms and other Arminians 
have written) neither that God hatha forme andfliape like a 
mans body, as the Anthromorphites of old dreamed : For it is 
roanifeft , that in him, who is infinit, and fo prefent in all places, 
that he is in his whole edence in every place ; {hould have any 
difference, or limitation or dimenfion, or meafure of feverall 
parts, which is necefTarily required in the f orme,Qiapc and fub- 
tiance of mans body and every bodily thing, 
1, Eutyet, becauieinthemoft wife, and artificial! frame, and 

natural \temper of mans body ; and the mod fit dijpojitien, and 
order of all parrs, by which it is a fit fubietl for a reafonable 
Soule, and the principall parts of it fit inflruments fortheleve- 
rall faculties of the Soule, whereby to per forme their many and 
feverall workes and operation s the wifedome, power, and good- 
ie of God did ihiflc rlnhofmans body, more then inall vi- 

Mam bodily corf or inky to God. 169 

fible creatures ; and the Image of God appeared in it. Mans eyes, 
fight, and all outward fenfes did reprefentGods omniscience and 
knowledge of all things ; his hand* did (hew and represent Gods 
power to do and worke vvhatfoever he will ; his armes did repre- 
fent Gods flrcngth and power to fave his People, and to deftroy 
his enemies ; The beauty, comelinc(Te,& naturall ma/el ty which 
appeared in mans body & upright ftature, by which he did ovcr- 
looke all creatures, as one moll fit to rule them, did fhew forth 
and reprefent the glory and majeftte ofGod and his Lord^ip > 
dominton t providence and power, by vhich he governs all things. 
In a word though mans body was mutable in the Creation and 
ftate otinnocency, and might fall from that (late •* yet fo long as 
man didcontinuc in that date, and did not fin, he had that lively 
vigour ^ &perfetl temper ofbody,which did free him from deaths 
and all evills which tend to hurt and deltruftion ; which alfo was 
able to uphold him in life and fir ength fir ever, if fin had not en- 
tred, and fo in fome fort he was immortaU andimpa]fible y nor 
fubjeel to death or any pajfion and fuffering of hurt and evi/lin 
his body, and fo there was in his body feme Ukeneffe of gods im- 

For proofc of this wee have good arguments m Scripture t 
Firft God himfclffhewech that murthcr, andfhedding of mans 
bloud is a defacing of his Image in which he created man ; and 
for that caufe he threatens revenge of murther, and of violence 
offered to Mansbloud, Gen. 9. 5,6 Now murthcr and fhedding 
of mans bloud is a defacing of mans body ; therefore the body 
alfo is afccondarielmageofGod. 

Secondly, the Scriptures which fet forth Gods attributes and 
workini by feverall parts of mans body, as his omnifcience and 
providence by Eyes y Pfal.$ 3 , 1 S. a» C ron >i &> 9- ms ac ^vity and 
working Hartds, as Exod. 15* 1 <5. Pfal. 44. 3. If a, 5 I. 9. his 
love, and mercy by Bowclls as Ifa,6^. 1 5. }er, 3 1 . 20. his pu- 
ni/hing and revenging Iufiicc by breath of mouth and no firills 
Tfil. 38. 15. and If*. 1 1 ♦ 4. his fecret thoughts, counfells and 
purpofcs by Heart } Pfal. 33* 1 1. his utterance of his mind and 
will by Moutk^cr. 9. \%% thefc Metaphors do (hew that the 
body of roan and chiefe parts of it have fome fimilitude of Gods 
attributes and workcs,and fo mans body is fecondarily the Image 
andlikcncfle of od. T 3 Thirdly f 

27 o 

Cjods bounty infinite. 

Thirdly , the Scriptures (hew that death is the wages of 

Sin, and all mortality and fubjection to cvills and paflions, which 

tend to hurt and corruption came in by mans difobedience and 

fal!,asappears,^<?>#. 5. 12. and 6. 2 j. and by Gods, commina- 

tion,C?*«.3. 19. But in the Creation and (late oHnnocencie man 

had in him no Sin, nor any inclination of himfelf to any evillor 

Sin ; therefore he was after a fort tntmor tall and incorruptible 

in his body, and had even in it a fimilitudcof Gods immortality. 

F ourthly ,the body was in all things conformable to the Soule, 

fit and ready in all things to follow the motions of the Soule, to 

foe directed and moved by the upright reafon will and affections* 

and to doc all workes unto which they move it; and therefore 

as the Soule was made in the primary Image and likenefle ; (o ths 

body in the fecondary Image and likenefle of God. 

Laftly, to conclude this doctrine of Gods I mage in which man 
was created, wee may not unfitly affirme, and with good reafon 
hold ; that though man in the ftate of innocency .before the pro- 
mife of Chrift, had no Supernatural! gifts, nor any part of the 
Spirituall Image of the lecond Adam ; but was oncly a perfect: 
naturall man,and notimmediatly,e£* proximo, potenti a capable of 
fiipernaturall grace, nor of the Div ine nature: yet becaufe his na- 
ture and whole frame was fuchas had a poflibility, or remote 
power, to be made partaker of the Holy Gholt ; united to God in 
Chrifr, and made partaker of the Divine nature, and a new crea- 
ture,or new man framed after God ; therefore he in this refpect 
may be laid to be Qrctted in the Image ofQod ; that is in fuch a 
forme, and of fuch a nature, as had a poflibility to become like 
unto Chrifr, anda new creature made in the Spirituall Image of 
Vfc Now this Doctrine of Gods Image briefly and compendioufly 

proved in all parts , is of excellent ufe. 
I . F irft this difcovcrs the infinite riches of the bounty ofgodpzC- 

Rjchesof fi n g a n bounds ; and declares his goodneile to belike 2 great deep 
kfcunue to v/n * cn can never be founded, in that he hath overcome all our 
man, ev *^ an ^ malice towards him with his great goodnefle to us, and 
and when wee had forfeited our being, and his Image in which 
he created us good and perfect with all naturall perfections, and 
did jutlly deferve to degenerate and be turned into the Image 

(jods bounty infinite. 


efthcDivtll, and to become in the likenefTe of his malice, and 
andmifery ; he out of his owne meere mercy and free grace and 
bounty, did give his Sonne, and the Sonne did freely undertake 
to humble himfelf,to become a fecond zAd.imjmdc in a better 
Jmage t crcn an heavenly and fpirituall, that he might not onely 
fufpend the execution of Gods juft fentence upon mankind, and 
procure to the rird Adam and all his poilerity the continuance 
of their naturall being for a time, and of fome reliques of the 
Image which they had wholly forfeited : but alfo mightrcnuea 
great number chofen out of mankind, aadrcftore them to a better, 
even an heavenly Image-Joy transforming and changing them in- 
to his fpirituall ard fupernaturall fmige y and making them cQn&+ 
formable to it y and partakers of the Divine nature fry the myfti- 
call dwelling and powcrfull operation of his fpirit in them. Here 
is that which may dazle the eyes or men, and the fight of Angells, 
when they lookeintoit; and which may aftonimall hearts of 
men, and confound all humane reafon, when they thinkeofir, 
and heare it preached ; That God infinitely jufi and holy&o hate 
andpunifhSin, (hould, by ourevill, and Sin committed againft 
himandhis juft will and Law, take occasion to bemorc good, 
and to (hew greater goodneffe to us; and when wee deferved, 
to have no being but in Hell and eternail mifery; hath raifedus 
up to the fpirituall fiate of grace ,from which we cannot be hurled 
and caft downe by all the powers ofdarkeneffe, and by which 
wee fhall afcend to the bieffed Hate of Heavenly and Eternal! 
glory. Here is lovefurpajfing all knowledge y xhe depth whereof 
Wee may admire, and adore in filence ; but neither can our hearts 
conceive, nor our tongues exprefle the fulne.jfe thereof. 

Secondly, this former difcourfe frewes, what a vaine andfoo- 2 # 
U(h thing it is for Chriftian people, to be fo wedded to the opi- VJi 
nions or godly learned men in all points, which have bcene^ otto 
formerly received and commonly bcieeved ; or to be fo ^°ngty c ''.Ij 11 "* 
conceiptcd andperfwadedof their full undcrflaniing and pw^nionf,at" 
fed knowledge of all the Scriprures , and of all truth taught unema^. 
in the written word or G O D ; that whatfoever they have 
taught , and commonly held , they wiU cleave too till death ; 
and they will receive and embrace no truth , nor any ex- 
position of any Scripture, which hath not bcene before obicrved, 

T4 taught, 

ijz The Serf turn alow maw m ftife to/atVation. 


taught and pubhfhed in the Sermons and writings of the godly 
learned Ancient Fathers, and thxfoundett tfr/W^Armodcrne 
Divines I confefle the Scriptures alone, dayly read and heard 
by men of ordinary capacity and learning, are able to make them 
wi/e to Solvation ; for the way to life may eafily be difcerned 
by their guidance,and direction. But there are degrees of know- 
ledge, and divers mcalures of Guifts ; and when a manknoweth 
enough to bring him on inanordinaric way to life, yet there is 
Mi more knowledge to be learned, and a greater depth of knnv- 
led^e to be found in the Scriptures which are doubtfull, obfeure, 
nd more bard to be understood ; and many new expositions of 
livers places , which more plainly and fully confirme [olid 
truthes formerly beleeved - 7 which he that fearchethoutand dif- 
covereth, doth thereby get more ftrength in faith, and growth in 
grace, and more fpintuail joy and comfort, and runs on fatter and 
more fpeedily and fteadfalUy in the way to Salvation. Wee fee 
here for example, the common opinion ofAuncientand moderne 
writers togoc currant; that there is but one kind of Image of God 
in man ; and that the Image unto which Chrift reftoresus, is the 
very fame in which <Adam was Created ; that Adam had power 
by that Image to obtaine Heavenly glory, and to grow up to that 
eftate, which the eled Saints come to in Chrift; that Chrift rc« 
ftores no more but that which Adam lofi y and unto which he 
should have attained after fometime of continuance in innocen- 
cy ; that he was Created in holinefTe as well as Chrift, and true 
Christians are, and fo partaker of the HolyGhoft. And when 
any thing is taught out of the Scriptures to the contrary, many 
mouthcs,even cf more learned men, are opened togainfay and' 
oppofe : And yet you fee the Scriptures morenarrowly lifted do 
teach moO: plainely to the contrary, and have not any plaifle 
Ipecch tending to prove thefe common opinions : yea the Scrip- 
lures which arc alledged for them, & are fo applied & expoun- 
ded , do prove the contrary , if they be well weighed and conside- 
red with a cleare judgement, not forestalled with prejudice and 
partidlitie: wherefore Ictus wholly depend on Gods word, and 
not on mens reafon or /ugdement to fubjed cither the Scriptures 
or the kn(c of them thereunto; and let us flill more and more 
tlrirft after incrca.Ce of knowledge and understanding of Divine 


Man more exctlent then other creatures Jbcfo. 272 

truths hid in the harder placesof Gods written word, knowing 
that thefe arc the lad times wherein knowledge fballbe increafed, 
as wte read, Dan, 12 4, Let us nut confidcr the Perfon which 
preacheth and teacbeth ; but what is by him taught. If now expo- 
fitions and Do&rines, not formerly taught, y ea crofting the com- 
mon opinions, be proved by better grounds and clearer evidence 
of Scripture, and tend more to advance other laving truthes, to 
bcate dovvne errours, and to increafe Piety, and godly affection in 
men ; let men take heed,and beware of rafh opposition and gaine- 
laying, Uaft they be found to fight againft God, while they (land e/ $ft t * 
too much for the authority of men, though fuch as have beene 
holy and godly fervants or Chrift, and famous in their gene-* 

Thirdly, this doftrine of Gods Image in Adam doth both dif- yfe 3. 
cover and alfo minifter ft rong arguments whereby to confute Of confu* 
divers erroneous opinions much diffenti^fdW^diflbnant from ««° n of 
the folid truth and word of God, to wit, nor onely thofe mentio- ervoncGU * 
ned before , but others alfo ; as, that Gods Image was onely orU °P mions ' 
ginall righteoafneffe or juftice, and that the natur all faculties of 
Sonic and Body did not concurre to it; chat the whole Image of 
God in Adam vizsntterly lofiby his fall, and is quite abolifoed 
till it be repaired and reftored by Chrifl, with divers others of the 
fame ftampe ; concerning which I finde many hot difputations 
among the Learned; all which appearc fuperftuous, if this do- 
ctrine were well weighed, and made'a rule whereby to mcafurc 
them ; for it will, like a juft meafiirclhew which of them come 
(hort, and which goeto farre beyond the truth and true line of 
holy Scriptures. 

La(lly,inthis wee fee as in a cleare glaffe the dignity ancf ^ '\ A \ 
excellency of humane nature^ above the nature of all other vifible E * Ccllc » c y 
crcaturesjin that he was made completely in Gods Image ^x\& con- £. h Qncc 
formableto God, andliketo him inhis whole framcandinall noted, 
faculties ofSoule, and parts and members of body : And let this 
ftirrc us up to walks worthy, and befecming luch a nature and 
frame, and labour to keep both our whole Soule and Spirit, and 
all members of our bodies unfpatted and unftained with (inne, 
which is the defacing of Gods Image J and let us reverence Gods 
Image in other men, clpscially feeing it is repaired and made of a 


274 . Of QodsaSluall Providence. 

better kind by Chrift, and above all take heed of cruelty and op 
defacing Gods Image in any part, by cueing of members and 
mangling the bodies of men, especially of Gods Saintes whofe 
bodies are Temples and Tabernacles of God by his Spirit, 

Thus much concerning the firft extcrnall worke of God, the 
creation and the (hte wherein God created man, and wherein 
the ftate of Innoccncy did coniift. 

Chap. XVI. 

Of the aElaatl providence of god 4 The Obietl of it, what the 
wordfignifieth: in^. things. Proofs that there is & providences 
b] Texts , and Arguments. Defcriptionjhewing what tt isv de- 
mon ft rated™ lite^arts* and branches of it. ^Protiience gene- 
rall and fpeciall; Jttis of it. Spcciall providence in Javdng 
the cleEh by, Chrift : , what: and in what parts. Vfes* 

'He next great extcrnall workcof God after the creation^ 
is his afinall providence y by which hce doth rule and difpoje 
all things created, and doth order all actions which arc done, 
and all events which come to pafleinthe World, to the mani- 
feftationof his glorious gooJnefle. 
Obje& of This great Worke of God doth reach through all other ex- 
provi- ternail works, which arc done either by God himfelfe or any 
dence. other 5 and doth comprehend with in the compaffe of it all Gods 
works which hee doth in the World, whether they bee works 
of wifedome and power in ruling and prcferving his creatures, 
or workes ofiufkice in punifbing anddeftroying, or workes of 
mercy and grace in redeeming repairing and faving the World; 
and in bringing his chofen to eternall bieffednelTe* Yea there 
isnoworkc done, nor any event which comes to pafle at any 
time, or in any age of the World; which God doth not over- 
rule and order by his providence. For, as hee is infinite in wife- 
dome and power 3 able to decree and ordaine from all eternity 
all things mo(i wifely y and to create and bring to pajfe ail things 
according to the counfcllof his will by annghty handofpowcr^ 


Sewallaccepiiom of the word Providence. 2^5 

which cannot bee refuted. So alfo hee htvenderfult m goodnejfe 
tnd bounty ^o provide, mod carefully all things nee dfuilmaboun- 
dance, for thz being and we/being of his creatures, and to order 
governe and difpofe all things good and t evill, moft wifely to 
the good of his eicft, theiuft puniflament and dcftruclion of the 
wicked, and tohis owne glory, 

Wherefore that wee may better ondcrftand this point, 
and proceed profitably in the handling of it. We are firft to con- 
fidcr the fgnif cation of the name , and the true fenfe of the 
word; And after to infift upon the thing itfclfe, and to define 
and defcribe this actuall providence of God. 

The word providence is fometirnes taken in a Urgeicnfe, and vvhir the 
frgnifiesGods care and refpefi of all creatures; both in decreeing, WO rd fig, 
and ordaining their being and all things which befall them, and nifieth. 
in executing his eternali decree according to the couofell of his 
owne will; for in all theie things God did (hew a provident care 

Sometimes the word is «fcd more ftriUlj and that three U 

Firft, for the provident c^andrefpecl of God in decreeing 
things for the beft, that they (hould fo come to parte as they 
have done, or (Mi doe at any thnc hereafter, of this providence 
the Apollle fpeakes Hebr t 1 1. 40. where hee faith, Godhaving 
provided fome better thing for w p that they without m fhonld 
not bee made ptrfell , this may bee called Cjods prcvidencein 
Trilling and decreeing. 

Secondly, it (ignifies Gods provident care, which he« (lie wed %> 
•in the creation of the World , and all things therein. For hee 
firft created things above which could fubiift, and bee perfect 
by themfelves without the inferiour elements and the 'crea- 
tures in them, as thehigheft heavens, and their inhabitants the 
Angels; then hee created the vifi ble heavens, which might bee 
ready by their light to bee of ufe for other things below in mch 
meaiure as was needfull; then hee created the fpacious regions 
of the aire, through which that light might ftiine to other ele- 
ments, and all creatures which hee was about to create in thcrn; 
and before hee created any living creatures, which could not 
Well fubfift nor move themfelves without greater light then 


2/6 Sever til acceptiom of the word Pxo videncc. 

that of the naked heavens, hee created the San, Moone, and 
Starres, which might both give light fufficient to thofe creatures, 
and alio might cheerifa and comfort them and all other things, 
which were made to ferve for their ufe And before hee crea- 
ted mankind male and female in his owne image, fit to rtileun- 
der him in the inferiour World, hee prepared and made ready 
for them all creatures , which they might rule over; all kinds 
of delicate food in great variety and aboundancc., and a Lordly 
palace and place of pleafurc wherein to dwell, in which he put 
them fo foonc as they Were created* As God m all this (hewed 
his provident care for man and all creatures, to make them every 
oneperfed in their kind with naturall perfection in the creation: 
To I have noted this his all nail providence in thefeverall paf- 
fages of the creation and have unfolded it fo farrc as for the 
prefentwas neceflary. 
3. Thirdly, this word is frequently ufed to fignifie Goisprov i- 

dent care in ordering and governing the whole created }VorU 9 
and preferving all creatures therein,, and in difpofing every thing 
which doth befall them and come to pa(Tc in the World, to fome 
good end, according to the counfell of his owne will. This is 
the all nail providence which now comes to bee diftindlly 
handled>and unfolded in the next place after the creation* 
Froofe But before I come to defcribe this providence of God, and to 

that provi-i a y p ent h cnature> obje&,feverall parts and kinds of it, I hold 
denccu. j tnecC fl arv to prove clearly out ofthe holy Scriptures, that there 
is in God fuch a providence and provident carc y which hee doth 
fliew and excrcife in the ruling and governing ofthe whole 
World, and ordering, and difpofing all things to their feverall 
ends; And that God is not a carelcfle, flecpic and Numbering one, 
who doth neglect, and not fee, regard, and care for any things 
here below, as fome blind fooles , defperate Atheifts> and 
wicked Men have imagined and fpoken ,as the Vftlmift (he wcth, 
Pfalme 10. 1 1. I3. and 94*7. who fay y that the Lord doth nop 
fee, God hath forgotten^ bee hideth his face ', hee will never fee t 
nor regardjior require what is done amotg men in the World, 

For the raanifefl: proofe of Gods providence, I will firftre- 
rehearfe fome notable teflimomes^ even plaine texts of holy 
Scripture, which ifcjng laid together may miniftcr to us furfi- 


Of Qods attuafyroVJence . 1 277 

cicnt matter, andoccallon, to defcribe and fct forth the a<ftuall 
• providence of God, and all things wherein it doth confift, and 
which thereto belong. 

Pfalme 1 4, 3. The Lord hokethdoyone from heaven upon Texts of 
the Children of men to fee if there bee any that doe underhand Scripture 
and (echo after Cjod. "hie hf« 

Pfalme ;?. 15, i^IJ* The Lord loookjth from heave*, ^^j ° s 
hee beholdeth all the Sons of men, from the place of his habit a- pr OV1 . 
tion, hee looketh upon all the inhabitants of the Earth. Hee dence* 
fafhiorieth all their hearts alike y hee confidereth all their 


Pfalme 34. I5, 16. The eyes of the Lord are upon the righ- 
teous, and his eares are open unto their cry. The face of the Lord 
is againft them , that doe evill to cut off the remembrance of 
them from the E*rth. 

Pfalme 36. 6% Thy iudgments Lord are a gnat deepe, 
thou pre fervef wan and beafls, 

Pfacme 104. 27,28, 2$, 50. All living things wait upon 
the Lord , that hee may give them their meat indue feafen. Hee 
giveth to them, and they gather it ; hee openethhis hand, and 
they are filed with good, when he hideth his face they are trou- 
bled y when heetaketh away their breath they dye and returne to 
their dufti *hen hee fendeth forth his Spirit they are created, and 
hee renueth the face of the Earth* 

Pfalme 113.5. Who is liks ^nto the Lord our God, who dwel- 
lethonhigh 6+ Who humbleth himfelfe to behold the things that 
are in Heaven and in Earth* 7. Heraifeth the poore out of the. 
duft> and lifteth the needy out of the dunghill, that he may fet 
him with Princes* 

Pfalme 1 3 8 »6 .Though the Lord be high-.yet he hathrefpeft to 

Job 12. 7, But askenowthebeafts, and they Jh all teach - and 
thefowles-ofthe Aire, and they fhall tell thee. %*Or fpeake to the 
Earth, and it fhall teach thee; andthefifiesofthe Sea fhall de- 
clare unto thee* 9. Who knowethnotin all thefe, that the hand 
of the Lord hath wrought this* 10 In whofe hand is the 
fbule of every living thing and the breaPh of all mankind, 

2 Chron^\6* 9 .The eyes of the Lcrd run to and fro through- 

278. - Of (jods aStml! Providence. 

out the Earthy to fhew himfielfe firongfor themyhofe Heart* 
perfect < 

Ifa. 41, 22,and4i«8,9.ThcLori proveth himfelfc tobce 
the onely true God by bis provident care over all things, and bis 
forefoot and prediction of things which afterwards hee brin- 
gethto pafle; and that Idols are** Gods, bccaule they cannot 
do any luch things. 

Matth* 6.16- Behold the forties of the Aire, they fow not, 
neither doe the y reap, nor gather into bar nes\ yet your heavenly 
Father feedeth them, 

LMatth, 10. 29, 30. Arc not two fparrewcs fold for a 
farthing, and not one of them {kail fall on the ground without 
jour Father^ But the very haires of your head are allnumbred. 

Hebr. 4. 13. All things are nailed, and opened to hu eyes* 
neither it there any creature , which is not manifefi in hu 

I Vet, 5. 7. Cafi your care upon him for bee carcth for 

Thefe texts laid together doe aboundantly flicw Gods 
a&uali providence, and the extent of it to all things created, and 
doe Minifterto us every Doftrine which conccrnes the object, 
parts, and kinds of it. 

And befides thefe Scriptures, wee have ftrong Arguments 
to prove the a&uali providence of God. 
\Ar<r. If Firft, hee who is the Omnipotent Creatour, Lord , a nd Pof. 

f € Sf 0r of Heaven and Earth , and all things therein , infinite in 
wifedorne, knowledge, goodneiTe, mercy, jul1ice,mu ft needs 
have 4 provident care to order, rule, difpofe , and preferve ail 
things which belong to him: Now ftich a one is God, asl 
have aboundantly proved before in unfolding his attributes; 
hee is infinite in power, wifedorne, knowledge, goodnefle, 
and the like ; the Creatour and fupreme Lord of ail things. 
IThc whole World is hx, and all things therein belong^ to him* 
Pfalme 50. 12. Therefore, undoubtedly , hee hath a provi- 
dent care of ail , and an eye and hand in ordering all things. 
r Arg.2* Secondly, the workes which God doth, and the things 
which hee brings to paiTe in the World , doe ilicw his wife 
care and providence. Hee givethraine in due fea/on for a buf- 

Of Gods aSiuali 'Providence. % 7 p 

fmg to his obedient people •& he \v ithholdeth it from the wicked 
for <* tuft pHxiJhment y 8cm2Lkcsthe'\r heaven as braj] e ,&thcir Earth 
as iro*\ he blefleth men in their basket and ft ore fit inrhc increafe 
of their cattelland the fruite of their grcundjand he againe for Cm 
mak^th fruit full lands barren, and deltroyes their cattell with 
murrainc and with thunderbolts., Levit. 16. Dent. 2 8. lob 1 a. 
I 2. Tfalm. 107. 34. By him Kings are fet up to rule, and Prin- 
ces andludges to execute iuftice, and to judge, not for themfelvcs 
but for him, Trov. 8.15. 2 Chron. 19.6. He breaktth downe 
andfhuttethup, and none can refift him, hecleadcthcounfcllors 
away fpcilcd, and maketh Iudgcs fooles ; Hee loofeth the band 
of Kings, and poureth contempt upon Princes ; Hee increafeth 
he nations and deftroyeth them, hee en target h the nations and 
ftraiteneth them,^£ 12. i^> and all Kingdomes are difpofed 
by him, Ban. 2. 37. 

Thirdly , the miracles which God worketh by them who Arg, 3, 
call upon his name, and the extraordinary things which come 
to palTe, whereof there is no naturall caufe, nor any caufeac 
all but his owne will, andpleafure,and provident hand do prove 
the fame. The miracles and wonders which hee Chewed in 
Egypt andthe wildemelTe, fo often as Mofes called and prayed 
unto'him: His flaying of the Sun for a whole day at Iofrttatis 
prayer, /*/&. 10. His thundering on the Philiftinesat the prayer 
of Samuel, 1 Sam. 7. 10. His raifingof the dead at the prayer 
of his Prophets and Apoftles, 1 Ktng % \j< 2 King. 4. and All. 
p. His giving of heroic -all gifts, {trength, and couragebeyond 
all humane reafon to fome men for the deliverance of his op- 
prclTcd People, as to Samfon, 'David, and his worthies, and Gi- 
vers others. Ail thefe fheW Gods watchfull care over the 
World, and his aftuall providence, ordering and difpofing all 

This point thus proved, as it ierves to difcover the impiety, yr e 
profanenefte and delperatc blindneflc of 'Epicures, who utterly ot confu. 
reietl and deny the whole providence of God; and thofe deipe- tacion »«d 
rztzAtheifls 9 {u{.\\ as fotigula, Nero, and others , who fcof?cd vc F rocic ' 
and derided all them who taught and beleeved it; and thofe 
heathen ^hilofophers , who held that God had no care or refpeet 
of things u\der heaven , but blind fortune ruled here below; 


280 (jods aftttali providence defcribed. 

[andall things here arc cafuall and came by chance: Soitadmc- 
J nifiheth us & ail men to beware of giving way to fuch doubts and 
feares of infirmity which their owne corrupt flcfli, or.SWw*by 
imars thereof doth fuggeft into their hearts to weaken & deftroy 
their faith in Gods Providence : Let no man admit fuch a thought 
into his heart, That Godhath forgot ten to be gracious, and that 
it is in vaine to fervc God: there is no frofit in walking humbly 
before ^2*,in keeping his ordinancean mens purging their hearts, 
and wafting their hands in innocency ; becaufe they that worke 
wickedneiTe and tempt God doe profper, and they who dealc 
trccheronfly are fet up, and exalted. But above all, let usab- 
liorre all prefuming conceipts, that ail things come to paiTe by 
blind chance, and God doth not fee nor regard our wicked 
thoughts , purpofes, and pra&ifcs ; neither will hec call us to 
account for them. For what is this, but to deny the Lord to be 
God? It is even the way to pull fpeedy wrath, and vengeance on 
our owne heads. 

Gods providence being proved, that it is: I proceed to (1 ew 
by way of piaine defcript-on what it is- and wherein it doth ccn- 
Gft. The fumme of which defcription is this. 

Defcrioti- The attu&ll providence of Cjod is gods exercifeof his wife domt y 

on of Gods Power y goodnejfe 3 iu(ltce } and mercy in rulings ordering, and go. 

attuall verning the whole World>in watching over all his creatures with a. 

P rovl " c are f nil eye ^ in doing all good, and permitting all evill which are 
done in the World*, and indifpofingall things , good and evil/, to 
themdnifefiation of his glory, and the eternal/ fa/vation of his 
eletlin Cbrifl , according tv his owne eternall purpefe and the 
conn [el I of his will. 

This defcription confifts of two maine and principall parts. 
The firfl fheweth , what Gods a&uall providence is in generally 
in thefe words, Cods exerctfeofhis wifedome, power , goodnefe 9 
iuftice and mercy. The fecond flieweth the Jpeciall nature of 
it, and the fpeciall things wherein, it doth confift, and whereby 
it is diftinguifihed from all Gods other outward actions, and exer- 
cifes of his wifedotne, power, and goodnefle. This iscomprifed 
in the reft of the words. 

Parts I • £irft>it is Cjods exercife of his wifedome, power, goodnefe t m?rcy 
md inflict and inthis it agrceth with the creation, and all other 


(jod/omttimes permits evillto be done. 2 81 

outward avians of G od, for every fuch action is either an cxer- 
cit ofhis wifedome,orof his power, or of his goodnefle, or of 
his mercy, or of his juPtice,or ofa:l,orthe moltpartofthemaU 
together. And indeed Gods actuall providence bcareth fway 
in all hi? outward actions, which hee doth either immediatly 
by himfclfe, or mediatly by the miniftcry of his fubordinate 
inflruments; anditalfo ovcr-rdcth and dtfpofeth things which 
are evill, which are not done by Gad himfelfc moving the 
doers of them; but cometopaffeby the permifllon arjd furTcrancc 
of him, wittingly, and willingly fufrering his creatures toabufe 
the power which they have from him. This point is manifelt- 
by the Lords owne words, Ifa 4 45. 7. where hee faith , / 
forme the light and create darkgejfe ; I make peace > and create 
evilly [the Lord do all theft things: And by that fpcech of the 
Prophet <iAmos. Chap, 3, <5. Shall there be evil I in a. City, 
*nd tire Lordh 4th not done it k 

. The true fenfe and meaning of which words Saint Attguftwe Enchrd.itd 
doth notably expreffe; where he faith, nothing is done, uxleffe Ltmr % c»$fr 
(7 od omnipotent doth will that it be done ', cither by doing it him- 
fclfe y er fnffering it to be done ; fir it could not be done if he did 
zotjufftr it; neither vealy doth he unwillingly without or againfi 
his will: but willingly and with his will fuffer every thing to be* 
To which purpole hee hath divers other {pecches; as that GW 
bring good would not fuffer any evillto be don* , unlejfe as he is 
ommp>tent he could bring good out of them* neither isthatdonc 
without gods will which is done againfi his )W//,that is, his word 
and approbation. 

In the fecond mainc part there are divers fpcciall tranches 2 .. 
fliewing the fpcciall things whereby Gods acluall providence Branches 
29 ditlinguifhed from his other outward actions. The firfl is t in parti- 
that ltconfifts in Gods ruling ordering and governing the whole cu ar " 
World, and watching over his creatures with a carefull eye. 
Thefecond, that it comprehends in it Gods doing of all good,, 
and his permiiTion and fuffer ing of allevill* The third, that 
by it God difpofeth all things , which are dona in the World 
to tic manifeftatiou of his glory, and the eternall fclvation of 
his elect in ChriiU The fourth and kftis, that it is no other 
exercifc of wifedome , power, goodneffc, mercy, and juflice, 

V bat 

2 8z §od as ludgtand loiter dtyifeth alttbugu 

9 but in executing things which hec hath decreed from all eternity, 
even ruling, ordering, and dilpofing all things wifely after the 
connfeU of his ownc will. 
I. For the hrft poirt: to wit, that God cxercifc* his aduall 

providence in ruling , ordering, and difpojing, the whole World 
andalhhereinas fupremeLord, King, Iudge, and Ruler there- 
of; the Scriptures aboundantly teUific, as{y>». 18. 25. and 
P faint. 50. 6. Pfaim. 12, g. and 1 Chron. 19. 6, where God 
is faid to bee the Judge of ail the Earth ; yea the Judge bnh in 
Heaves and Earth , who fttteth chief e among ail Judges andis 
with them in the tndgement. Alfo in thole places w f here the 
lCingdoms y Domin ion, and 'Rule over all is faid to belong to God, 
and hCC is faid to bee the King which reigneth and ruleth ail 
to the utmoft ends of the Earthy yea tobe a great King above 
fill goJj' t and the oneiy potentate King of Kingf and Lord of 
I><nds,?iS 1 Chron. 19.10* n, Tfalm, 10. 1 6 and 1 9% 10, and 
4. 27. and 95 3. and his Kingdome is faid to rule over ally 
Pfaim. 103, 19, and that not for a time, but from generation 
to generation, Pfaim. 145, 1 *♦ It is he who fetteth- bounds to the 
tumultuous Sea* beyond which they cannot paffe , lob 38.8. 
Pfaim, 1 04. 9. and ruleth over the raging waves, Pfaim. 89, 9 ♦ 
andfttlktb dm nhen thy arife. And that hee hatha watchfull 
eye over all creatures, even to preferve man and beaft\i appeares 
Pfaim. ^6.6 2Lt\d that as his eyesore upon them that fear e him, 
and hope in bis mircy to deliver their foule from death, and to 
keepe them alive tn famine, Pfaim. J 3 . 1 8» 1 9 So his face is 
again ft them that do evilly to cutoff the remembrance ofthem 9 
Pfaim. 34. 1 6. 
s # The fecond pointis, that Gods providence isexercifedboth 

in the doing of all good, and in permitting, and fafFertng wittingly 
and willmgly all evill, which commeth topafle in the World, 
andfoit confifts of two parts, attiott, zxidptrmiffton. This alfo 
is fully prorcd and confirmed, Jfa. 41,23. and 45. 7. where 
the Lord proves himfeirc to bee the one ly true Gedbydifpofing 
all things, both forming the light, and ma^ng peace by his active 
handarhd power; and alio creating evill and darkpeffe, by per- 
mitting and giving up the Divell and his wicked instruments 
t to abufc h« power , which hee hath given them to doc crill and 


to workc wickcdncfle as wee fee mPharaeh whofe heart heeis %~~ 
lz\&to harden, yea and to rai/c him up, by giving him up to his ^ 

owne kills, ana into the hand of Satan who hardened him and 
made his heart obdurate ; Co that the more God plagued him 
with great plagues, which naturally tend to breake a ftouthearr 
and to pull dovvne pride; the more did his corruption rife up and 
rebell, and the more did Satan ilirrehimupagarhft God,andbis 
people, and made him rim defperady into the devouring gaUe 
of deftruttion. Wee fee this al Co in Gods permitth* Satan 
to afflict M, and to tempt him to blafphemy by ftrippinghkn 
naked of all that hee had; tormenting his body, and battering 
hisfoule with fore temptations of hi* wife and friends, and with 
sharing dreames and terribi: vifions as wee read, lob i. and 2. 
and 7. 14. Alfo the Apoftle in cxpreflfc words affirm eth, that 
God being provoked by mens wilful! (ins, doth in juil wrath 
give them t tunc leane(fs through the tufts of their owne hearts 
and to vile affections and areprobate minde toworke all iniquity 
withgreediveffe , Rom, I. 24,26, 28, and dothgive them t he- 
Spirit of [lumber y eyes that they fhonldnot fee ande. ites that they, 
fhonldnot heare. Rom, it . 8, not by putting Gich a Spirit into 
them, foashee (heddcth his Spirit on men through Chrift, bus 
by [afferiig Satan, xhz Spirit of lying , and of all bltn dn cflc 
and wickedneiTe to enter into them ( which hee woui i doc 
into all men, if God drdnotreftrainehim); and by cafting thctn 
out of his protection, aswes fee in the evill Spirit wlmh vexed 
Saul, and in the Iving Spirit which deceived Ahab by entering 
into his Prophets aud (peaking lyes by their mouths, 1 6am. 
1 6. 14. and a King, 22. 2 *. And thus wee fcc> that in all evils 
of fin Gods pruvidense is exercifed by way of voluntary per~ 
mijfion. But as for all good things which come to paflfe, God 
hath in t : em an approving will, and * forking hand, and vor- 
kcth in men 60th to wit/ and to doe- yea every thought and purpofe 
ofgood, 2 Cor, 3» 5, Philip. 2. 1 3. and without him. ??e can 
doe nothing, leh % \%* 5. So that in all morall duties, and inall 
good and godly workes , Gad worketh in men by his Spirit 
$mmediath 9 and giveth them, hearts will and p^wer to doe them, 
and they are but his internments to pcrforme thefe good things, 
as lofefk prjfeffcch alcnbiug. all his piety and cha r ity which 

V 2 hee 

284 W bat things good accidently. 

hee (hewed in nourishing his bretheren and their families to 
God. And all natural! good things, God worketh cither tmmc- 
diatly by his owne hand alone y as in the creation,wherein hee gave 
being to all things without any meanes at all .-or by inftrumer.ts 
and meanes which hee himlelfe hath firft created , hee giveth 
light by the Sun,Moone,andStarres,andby them, and the whole 
Heavens which are turned about by his counfels, and by their 
influence hee refrefheth and nourifheth all creatures on Earth; 
and alfo doth by them both ufe corrdhon and fliew mercy, lob 
37. 1 i y 1 3» and ' Matth.*).^. 

There are befides thefe other things, which are good and 
profitable, not firnplj in their owne nature, but by Accident and 
infomerefpecT, as for example, for men to abftaine from mar. 
riage and from begetting children for the increafeof mankind 
is not: a thing naturally or morally goodinitfelfe, being a re- 
fraining from the ufe of Gods ordinance ; but yet in cafe of 
tir gent necejjity y when Gods Minifters. and Servants doe live 
in times and places ot perfection , and are driven to flee and 
wander from place to place naked, and dcflitutc of meanes, 
whereby to maintaine Wives, and Children; Saint Paul tells 
us, it is good for a Cfrlan to live fingif j and not to touch a WomAn y 
i Cor, 7< 1 , 3 5 . for by this meanes he fliall avoid much difratlion % 
and more freely attend the fcrvice of God. Alfo for men to 
fa/I^nd a fflicl: their bodies by abftaining from comfortable nou- 
rimment, and neceffary food for a time is not fimply good in it 
felfe-.but yet it is profitable for taming the proud arid rebellious 
flefh, and for furthering of our humiliation in times of private 
and publike calamities, when Gods hand is heavy upon us, cr 
uponour Land, and the feareofhisthreatning judgments which 
hang over our heads dee terrifie us, thefe and inch like are called 
goodthingS) thar is, profitable, expedient, and by accident, and in 
ipmerefpeel and condition good. 

Other things there bee which in their owne nature are eviil 
AKdhurtfnll y and evils of affliction and punifhment, ascrofTes 
ofGods people, and plagues which though they hurt and detiroy 
the outward man and the flefh, yet by God grace they worke 
to the faving of their fouits, and the amendment of their lives 
as wee read Ffalme 1 \$ % 67,71. and 1 £^.5, 5. and II. 32. 


Qodfumflnthfin divtrs f»ayes. 2 8 y 

andinthatrcfpe<ft are called pod* And. the plagues and defini- 
tions which befall the wicked, which to them are dread full and 
wofuli evils and curfes 5 but as they tend to the deliverance of 
Gods Church from their perfections and oppreflions ; to the 
purging of his land; ana" the magnifying of Gods juflice and 
power ; fo they are good in the ifae and event ■, and in refped of 
Gods purpofe intending good by them* 

Now in all thefe , God hath an attive and working hand, as 
well as a permitting will; and his actuall providence ruleth in 
them. Hec gives men the gift of continency , and power over 
their oypHcwilstehve fwgle, and to make themlelves Euntfthes 
for his Kingdomes fake as our Saviours words fhew, Matth % 
194 II, ix. and the words of the Apoftle, 1 C' or * 7* 37- ^ cc 
cals upon men in his word , and by his grace ftirres them up to 
fading, weeping, mourning, and afflicting of their bodies for 
the greater humiliation of their foules. JoeL 1. 14. and 2. 12. 
and Zach. 1 2. 1 o* Hec doth fometinass by his ownc hand af- 
flict his people when hec feuds among them fore difeafes which 
are the ftroke of his hand* fob $6. 18, and Pfnlme ;p. 10. and 
by hi* ovtm immediate handhec ftnkes and CGn fumes ths wicked; 
Job 34.25,26% as wee fee in the drowning ofthe old World, 
in the dcftru&ion of Pharaoh, Anamas 9 mA Saphyra, and divers 
others. Sometimes hec doth by good inuruments afflict and 
punifti his people , and plague and confume the wicked; as by 
his Angell hee punifhed Ifraels fin and Davids pride. 2 Sam. 
24. 17. and deftroyed the hoftof Senacherib, 2 King. 19. and 
fmotte Herod, *Att. 12. And by fofittayMofes ,D avid } deftroycd 
the Canaanites and the Philiftines, and other enemies of his 
Church, Sometimes by evill inftruments hee affiicleth and pu- 
nifricth his ownc peoplc,and plagueth and deftroycth the wicked; 
by Abfalom and Shimn hee punifhcdZ)*^, and by wicked 
Jehfi hee deftroyed the wicked family of Ahab • by Satan and 
the wicked Sab&ans and (fhaldtans hee afflicted and tryed 
fob; and by the proud King of Afixrhcc punifhcd//^/and 
Jvdih, and deftroyed the Idolatrous nations as appearcs I fa. io. 
where hee is called the rod of Gods wrath, and proud Nebnchad^ 
ne^nr is called hts fervant in punifhing his people the Iewcs, 
and deftroying the obftinate among them, and in crushing the 

V 3 wicked 

1 8 6 C/Qd no author of tYtlL 

wicked nations, I*r< 15 .p. For he in when* all doe live move, and 
have all being, AH. 17* 28. gave to thole wicked Kings power 
and might; and though their owne lulls, and unfatiablc defire and 
ambition ftirred them up , nid fo the act was in the wicked 
themfelves, yet hee over-ruled and difpofed their malice to 
performc his purpofe , and to execute his moft juft judge* 

And thus wee fee , that Gods actions are mod wife and 
jaftin thofe evils which heeexecutcth by wicked instruments, 
and that which they doe with a wicked mind and for an evill 
end;Goddoth /atlly give them power to doe, and permits them 
to abufe his power, to their owne ends, when hee purpofeth to 
direct all to a good end, andfo doth. And therefore thoughno 
evill is done in the World, but by his providence ; yetishee^ 
author or efficient canfe of fin: the finfelnefle of the afrionisof 
the evill inftrutfnents and the power or it, and the difpoling of 
ii##.3.8. ictogood, thatonely is Gods. And although men who are li- 
mited by Gods law 9 may doe no lead (in or evill for a good end, 
that greateft good may come thereof, and if they doe , it is. fin in 
them; yetGod,whoisfupreme Lord of all, and whofe w/7/is 
the rule of all righteoufnelfe, and who by his omnipotency can 
raife out of the greateft evill a farrc greater good, andean make 
the Divals malic e«nd mans fall , the occafion of bringing Chrilt 
into the World, and a way to (hew his infinite goodnelTe and 
metcy in faving and redeeming his elect, and to magnifie his 
glorious power and juftice in their eyes \ by dcflroying th.2 
wicked with eternall definition , the fight whereof brings 
them to a more full fruition of his glory s and makes them farre 
more ienfible of his goodnelTe to them, and of their owne eter- 
nall bleflednefle ; hee may doe what leemes good to his hea- 
venly wifedomc* and evill fo farrc as he willeth it, and hath an 
band in the ordering of it, : s no fin, but doth more £he w his good- 
nefTe,and unlpottcd purity ,andholinefle» 
£ i he third rising is, that God by his actuall providence difpofeth 

all things which are done in the World, to the manifellationof 
his glory , and the eternall falvation of his elect in Chrilt* The 
glory of God is two wayes made manifelt by his actuall pro- 


§ ods general! and fpeciali providence. 2 87 

£irft, in a more generall\vay y by a more generall providence. Gods 
Secondly ,by a more ffec'xaUrvay^ which is called his fpeciall pro- a&uali 
vidence. piovitfence 

Tirft, by the general!, the whole World is ruled by an univer- o r ^cY-?f 
fail motion, and all things in the World, every one according to j ' 
the proper nature and naturalldifpofition and inclination of it. 
•For, as the Apoftle faith, Hee giveth to all Ufe^ and breath, and 
*tl things; and in him wee all live, wove and have our beings Act, 
17.25,28. Hee by hi* mighty word fufiweth all things, Be br<, 
X « 3 • His name it excellent in all the y/orld^ in which he fbewetb 
his glory , Pfalme 8. I. The Heavens declare his glory, and the 
firmament Jheweth kis.handy-werkc\ day unto day uttcrcth ffsceh, 
and mght unto niqhtfbewcth knowledge ; and that by the Sttns 
going round about the World, and discovering by his light all 
things from one end of Heaven "Jind Earth to another 9 Pfalme 

This general! providence appeals, Tirft,by his confederation 
of things. Secondly, by his delt&clion of io many as face in 
h;s ;u(t will and judgement thinks fit-. Thirdly, by his gover- 
ning of all tilings according to his eternall counfeil , and ju'.t 

Firft, hee doth univerfally conferve and uphold all things Gods cor: 
in the W orld, by the light , motion and influence which hee hath fervation 
given to the heavens in the creation ; which are continually ofhiscrca. 
turned about by his counfels , that they may doe whatfdever tur€8f 
hee commandeth them upon the face of the World in the Earth, 
leb 37» I2« Hee m<*keth his Sun to (Inn e on the evill and on 
t he good , and fendeth raine en theiuft and uniuft , CMatth. 5* 
45. Hee giveth food toalljhjb, Pfalme 136. 2J> Hee giveth 
meat to the bejfts, andfeedeth the young ravens which cnefpfalme 
J 47. p. He provideth for the foivlcs of the aire their food y though 
they neither fow , nor reape* f and aloatheth the grajfe of the'field 9 
Matth, 6, 26, 30. 

This confervation is, firfr, by fuccejjion. "For whenanycrea- i.bV$«c 
tures patle away, hee maketh others of ti.cLr race and kind to ccflioa'.: 
fuccced by a continuall generation and propagation, as it were 
by a continued creation. The forming and fafnomng of men 
tnthe womb* is afcribed to hicn,'M 10. 8 9, 10. and 3V/15. 

V 4 and 

God turnetb tvilimiggood. 

and Pfalme 139. 1 3. So chat a9 men and other living creatines 
dye; their off ipring and progeny fweceed in their place, andby 
this mcanes, he doth renue the face ej the €arth y Tfalme 104. 30* 
and not onely one generation of living creatures pajfeth away, 
and another commeth in the flace,{o that the earth is alwayes re- 
f Unified; but day and vight (xxccccd continually by the going and 
returning of the Sun; andthewinde whcrleth about continually 
going and returning according to his circuits; T&e waters doe all 
run into the Sea, and yet the j\tv-ers are fuffhed by (f rings which 
come from the Sea, by fecretfajfages under the Earth,as the wifc- 
Man fliewetb,£o7^. 1 . 4, 5 , 6, 7. 
1, By mu- Secondly, hee prcferveth all things univerfally by changing 
gauon* mutable things from an evill to a good, and from a lerfe good to 
a better condition* Hee girdetb the weake with ftrength, "fob 
IX. 18, I Sam 2.4. Heemaketh the barren womb 6 fruitful!, 
Pfalme 1 1 3. 9. Hee turneth thewilderneffe into ftanding fooles 
of water, and dry ground into water ff rings, andmaketh the barren 
defer t a fruitful I field, ^Pfalme 1 07. 3 5 . I fa. 41.18. and 5 1 . 3. 
Hee ratfeth the needy out of the dufi, and lift eth nfthe beggar 
from the dunghill, 1 Sam. 2. 8. and Pfalme 1 1 3. 7. Andbecaufc 
the univerfality of creatures cannot bee prelerved without 
Gods carefuil keeping and preferving every particular; there- 
fore God hath an eye to every (ingular thing , and Kis pro- 
vident hand is reached forth to every one of them, info much 
that our haires are numbred ; and not one fmall fp arrow can 
fall on the ground without him, CMatth. 10. 29, 30. Hee 
c loathed the grajfe of the field, ever* every Lillie , CMatth. 
6*. 30. Hee reckons up our teares , Pfalme 56. p. and rs 
with every one in his going out and comming in; in his 
downe fitting and Hfrifing, Pfalme I 39. 1. a. J fa. 27 2 8. 
c d Secondly, his general! providence appearcth, and is eacer- 

tkftroyin" c ^ cc * m tnc d e ft rft tt*° n which hee himfelfe according to 
of ccea- ° his juft will bringeth upon the whole Earth , or upon whole 
:rres. Nations and Cilies y or upon fome notable perfons. The de- 
(truclipn of the whole World in the dayes of Noah came 
by his hand and providence, for hee laid , Behold J will bring 
a fiooi cf waters and will defiroy all fiefi , Gen % 6. 13. and 

hee foretold bis purpofe foto doe an hundred yearcs beibre. 


i — 

Gods power manifefkd in defraying creatures, 289 

And the deftruftion of Sodome and Qomorrha was by fire 
which hec rained upon them, Gen. ip # Hee fmnte Egypt 
w ith plagues and deftroyed the firfi borne f and alfo Thar'aoh 
and his hoft,Exod. 12. and 14. Pfalme |jj, i . And the 
Canaanites by Jofhua and Ifrael \ ^>A ro. and 1 1. and «S>- 
ttacbertbs hofi. 2 King. 19. And the murmuring Ifraelttes 
together with Corah, Bat ban , and Abtram , iV#w. i5. 
Vnzah, 2. Sam, 6 6. Herod. Aft. 12. and many others. By 
this deftroying, and aboliftiing of men and other creatures, 
and by his confuming and wafting of them; by fmitting the 
earth with barrcnnclle., and fending peftilence ; and warre, 
hec makes men know , that hee is Jehovah the righteous 
Judge y and the Nations to fee and fie/e that they are, but 
mortal! men asxhc Pfalmift teftifieth , Pfalme p 2i 4 and 46.1 r* 

Thirdly this gencrall providence is feene in his government Gods go. 
of all things, according to his owne juft will and good plea- £ crn,n g of 
fare; Hee doth after a gencrall manner rule infenour things hiscrea " 
by the Hght and influence of the Heavens, and of the Sun, 
Moonc, and Starrest By the Sun hec rules the day , and 
by the Moone and Starres hee govcrncs the night , Tfalme 
13^. 8- 9 And as his eyes are'upon alt things , and upon all 
the w f ajes andnorks* of men; fo hee fajbionetb their hearts^ 
Pfalme 33. 15* Hee keepeth the waters of the Sea within 
their bounds beyond which they doe not pajfe, Pfalme 104, p. 
Hee hath * fit time and fiafon for every thing, and for eve- 
ry purpofe under Heaven, Ecclef 3. 1. And this govern- 
ment hee excrcifeth by motion and dtreftietof motion f$ and by 
co bib it ion, 

Firftjby motion^for hee movethali things,net onely the mindes I§ By mo 
& wtls of men by turning their hearts at his pleafure,/^. 12.24, tion, 
A ft, 17. 28. Pfalme 105,15. and Prov. a 1. 1. but alfo *£**£* 
without life by a naturall inclination, which hee giveth to every 
thing in his kind as the Pf-almift fhewethintheSun, Moone, and 
Starrcs,thcwindesandthewaters,P/d/Wio4. 19. 25, 

And as hee moveth every creature, fo hec dire&cth all their Andbydu 
motions as 2LppC2iics } Pfatme 37,2 $.Prov.2Q. 2$. Ier ,io. 23. Info rtdionof 
much, that what men do with a wicked mind : & for an evill end, all mo- 
God turns it to the contrary , & brings good out of it. Jo/ephs bre- tlGns < 

there n 

290 §od turnes ail to the be ft 

theren intended his hurt&deftruclion in felling feim for a flavejGod 
turaedit to bis honour, and to the faving or them and much peo- 
ple alive, Gen, 50. 20. Pbaroh rofe to magnific himfelfe agaiutt 
God, and his people : God fo ruled and diretlcd his rage and 
furie, that hce fhcwed his power in him, and magnified bis name 
tn all the Earthly turning P bar a&bs €\c to his owne 
praife and glory , and to Pharaoh's definition, Exed. p. i6 f 
The Iewes one of malice and envie crucified and murdered 
Chrift: God out of his death raifcd life y and made his death, 
which they devifed for his (hame and ignominy , a glorious 
triumph 01 er the Divell and all the powers of darkne{fe> and a 
way to exaltation , Aft. 2,23. They hardened their hearts to 
perfecutc trie Apoitles, and to drive the Preachers of the Gotpell 
out of their land, and to quench the light thereof: God turned 
this their hardnelTe and fall to the fahati on of the gentiles ; for 
by thismcanes the Go(pell cametobee preached in all nations, 
Rom, 11. it. Wicked heretiques raife up herefies to corrupc 
Gods Church, and God fo orders their doings, that they who are 
approved, arc thereby mademanifeft, and come to fhine as lights 
in the midft of dperverfe generation , 1* 19. Pauls trou- 
bles and perfections were intended for the overthrow of 
the Gofpell ; God made them fall out to the furtherance of it, 
Phil, i*i2# The Philifiines invaded the land of Ifraet y with 
purpole to doe mtfchiefe to Ifrael, and to wail: their land ; but 
God directed this motion of their hearts, and by his providence 
appointed it as a meanesto recall Saul from pur fang David, 
when hee had inclofed him on every fide; and fofavedhimto 
bee a Saviour oilfrael, and a deftroyer of the Philifiines^ 1 Sam. 
iBycohi- Secondly, God governs the World and all things therein by 
bition. cobibition, that is 9 refiraining, and hindering the actions and mo- 
tions ofcrcatures, in his wiiedomc and by his power, when hee 
thinks it fit Hee with- held Abimclech from touching Sarah 
Abrahams wife* that hee might not (in, and ftaine himfelfe igno- 
rantly, Gen, 20« 6. Hce juffered not the deftroyer of the rirffc 
fj borne in Eg] ft to enter into the houfe of any of the lfmcUtes % 
Exod K 1 *. 2 ?. Hfce kept backjht waters of : Jordan from running 
downward, fo that it was dry ed for Ifraelto paffe,over onfeote, 

by bisfpechll providence . 291 

Iojh. 3. Wzzreflraineth the influences of Heaven, and the clouds 
from raine, and makes the Heavens as brajfe, and the Earth as 
iron, for the pttnijhment of w^tranfgreflbrs, and rebellious 
people, Deitt<2$- il*Iob 26. 8«and38. gi. Hee bringeth the 
cditnfcll of the heathen to nought ^ani maketh the devices of the 
people of none effett,Tfalme 33. 10. Hee withheld Lab an from 
his evili purpofe of hurting Iacob, gen, 3 1. 42, And his t err our 
rcftraincdthe Cities round about, fo that rhey purfued not after 
Jacobs Sons to take revenge on them, for the flaying of the She- 
chemites f Gen. 35.5. And by his Spirit he forbad Paul and 
his companions to preach the Gofpcil in *Afi a , tAtt. \6. 6. 
In a word, as hee doth by agenerall governing order all things 
univerfally and all events, even the heavens, the Earth, the Seas, 
Winter, Summer, and ail feafons of theyeare, men and beafts^ 
and makes an harmofi^ 'and concord among things which are 
contrarie, tempering, moderatingand keeping them in their pro- 
per places, and doth fct up and pull downe Kingdomes & ftates, 
Dan. 2. 37.and4. 25. So hee rules every fingular creatureand 
every fmgular event, turning harveft dayes into a tempefiuous 
time of thunder and 'raine; as when hee terrified Ifrael tofhew 
them their fin in asking a King, 1 Sam, 12. \6. So that Wee 
need no further proofe of this point* Let that which is before 
faid and proved, fufficc to fhew how God by a generall way 
of providence actually difpofeth all things to the rranifeftation 
of his glory. 

The fpeeiall way by which God 'manirefleth his glory is by Gods fpc 
working things, and by ordering, ruling and difpofing them to ciallprori. 
the revealing of his glory, more fpeeially in the falvation ^dencc. 
s hw elect in fflriJPj which divines doe call his fpeeiall pro- 

This providence God exercileth by his Son Chrift, as hee 
is the Mcdiatour, Redeemer, Saviour, King, and Head of the 
Church univerfail ; and by his Spirit fent forth in the name of 
Chrift, and fhed on the elccl aboundantly through him in their 
regeneration. This conftfts and flbeweth it felfe in ail the gra- 
cious benefits ani buffings- which God' t>eftoweth upon men 
£er falvation ; and in the judgements which hee executeth on 
his enemies, the wkfccd, by which hee dclivcreth his Church out 


2 9 * Ibe Vefcription ofQods aEiuaU^rovUence. 

of their cruell, bloody perfecuting and opprefling hands • and 
doth magnifie and declare his juftice and power, and more fully 
reveale and communicate himfelfe to them for their greater 
Defctibcd. ^hc bride Defcrjption of this fpeciall providence which I 
conceive to bee mod plaine is. That it is Gods cxercife ef his mfe- 
dome 7 power> iuftice 9 mercy, and all his goodneffc in executing his 
fpeciall decree ofprcdeftination y by which hee ordained all the 
eleel both Angels and men to eternal 7 blejfedneffe . and all the 
reft to etcrnatl deftru&ion, and withal did decree all the meanes 
which ferve and tend to bring every one of them to their fevrcall 
snds^ and hy which in the time appointed they are all brought to 
their decreed erd according to his jetern*H purpofe, and the counfeU 
of his iviH, 

In the large profecutkm of this point of Gods fpeciall pro- 
vidence, wee have juft occafion offered to lay open all the reft 
ofthc great works of God, which fall within the compallc of the 
Divine art of facred Divinity. For they ail are contained under 
thefetwomainc heads, to wit: i The meanes which ferve for 
the effecting, and obtaining of. the utmofl: end of reafonablc 
creatures unto which God hath ordained them. 2. The end 
it felfe the manifeftation of his glory more fpecially in the eter- 
pail blejfedneffe of his eleel:, which blcffednefle doth confKtin the 
eternal! fruition of God in all his glory; and the fenfe thereof 
is exceedingly increafed by their beholding of theetcrnall mifery 
and deftruc~tion of the ungodly , their efcapc and deliverance, 
from which whole they condder and remember their joy and 
.rcjoycing (hall bee doubled. 

For in all wife -providence there is a good endpurpofed, in- 
tended and decreed, and a provident ordaining, ordering and 
acluall difpoling of the meanes which areneceflary for the ob- 
taining and effecting of that end, and therefore the fpeciall pro- 
vidence of God who is moll: wife and provident; infinite in 
goodnclle and power, mud needs bee exercifed in doiug the 
tnoft excel lent workes, and in ordering and difpofing themac- 
cording to his cternall counfell and decree, to the belt, and moft 
excellent end of all, which is the fourth and laft point in the 
Description of Gods acluall providence* 


I iVe things' tonfaer able in Miu-s fall. %nj 

Now the meanes which God hath ordained for. the manifefia* 
tion tf the glory of his grace and goodnejfe in the eternal! blef- 
fedneiTe of his elect they goebefo/e in execution- though the end 
is firfl: in Gods intention. And therefore they come to bee 
handledin the firfl: place. And they all maybe reduced totffro 
maine heads. The firftis marts fall; Thcfccond is mature/law*^ 

In the fall of man, five things come to bee confidered: Fir(r t " 
the Commandement of God at which man Humbled and which 
the Divcll made the occafijn of mans fall, The fecond is the 
faftitfeIfe y vthax,VL was, and wherein it did conlift. The third 
is the y?**' of rebellion, into which man did fall. The fourth is 
the multitude of evils y which did accompany and follow man* 
fin and fall. The fifth is xhzfmallreliquesofgeod, which remai- 
ned in mans nature after his fall. 

The Commandement of God is plainely laid downe, <7«*. 2. 
16, 17 And therefore I will firfl: infill upon that portion of 
Scripture^nd after will proceed to the defcription of the fall, as ic 
is laid downe in the third Chapter. 

But before I proceed further, let me conclude this DocTrine 
of Gods acluall providence with fome ufc and application. 

Firft, it is matter of admirable comfort to all true Chriftians yr e lft 
andfaithfull people of God, in that the Lord whom they have Comforr 
chofenfor their God, their rocke and confidence, is (0 wife and to the 
ptovident above all; ordering and difpofingali things which come k"^" 11 : 
topafle in the World inwonderfull wiledome and by an om- 
nipotent hand to Lisowne glory and tha falvation of- his cleft 
mChrift. Whatfoever good commeth at any time, it is the gift: 
ofGod ; and all goodblefilngs and benefits which they receive 
and enjoy from any band or by any meanes, they are fo many 
tokens and pledges ofhis love and fatherly care , and of his eye 
of providence watching over them for good. And whatfoevcr 
evils of any kind breakc into the World by the malice of the 
Divcll, and the outrage of wicked men • they are no other, rxr 
no more,but fuchas God in his wiledome and goodneffc is plea- 
fed willingly to permit andfuffer fo; a far greater good to his own 
pcope ; and as he over-rule them ail 'and kzth fet them their 
hounds beyond which they cannot pa jfe; fohedifpofeth and tur- 


294 The u/e of the Doilrme of C/ods aft Hall providence. 

neth them allto hisownc glory, and the manifeftation of his 
juftiee and power infaving of his Church and people, and in 
confounding and deftroy ing all his and their enemies^wherefore 
in times of peace, plenty and profperity, when all good things 
and bletfings of all forts abound; Let us re Joyce and glory in the 
Lord and give him thepraifcofall 3 and offer up daiJy and con- 
Who itinuall Jkcrifiw tf tbankfrfotJIewithchccTcfull hearts and wil- 
Icamc alio [ing minds; itudying and ftriving with allour might, and to the 
to bec . ,. utmoftofour power* to ufe and employ all his blcfiings to the 
;hankhiii. ^q. ac j vanta g C for his glory, the good of his Church, and the 
profit of our ownefoules; being well adured, that thefc are his 
talents committed to our truft, which if wee by our faith fulneflc 
doe increafc, wee fhall in the day of account and reckoning, re- 
ceive the reward of^goad Rewards and faithfullfervants^adbcc 
received into the joy of our Lord. 

Sut on the contrary, in evi!Iandperillou9time; when iniquity 
ahoundcrth iinnes of all forts are increafed; piety and charity are 
waxen cold,religionis skomed, the godly perfecuted and oppref- 
fed, juftice judgement and truth troden downe and trampled: 
Let us not faint nor feare nor bee de jetted as men without hope; 
Lor the Lord our God,and our keeper is aprovidcntGodJiiseyes 
^ neither Cumber nor fleep$ hee feeth and obferveth all thefe things, 

and without his will and knowledge no eviilcan come to parte. 
As the Scripture faith of Tharaoh, lo may wee fay in this cafe; 
thut even for this fame pnrpofe God hath ralfed up thefe i*>ickjd 
perfecmors and otttrageom finneri\ that ts in his jail Wrath 
hath given them up to Satan and their owne luftsto multiply 
fin and opprefli on, that he m.iyfhevc his power in them, and make 
ins juftice glorious , and name famous throughout all the earth; 
When the nations rage yW&thcY^iaUy&omzs&xc moved, God can 
give his voice , and the earth {kfiWwelt and all the works of the 
wicked (hall bee dtjfolvtd. 
V&2 Secondly, here is matrer of terrour to the wicked, both them 
Tcrrcurto wno commit (Ins in fecret, and prefume to gocon in their lewd 
the wicked, courfes with a conceipt ; that none feeth nor takcth notice of 
their abominations^ and alfo them who multiply their fins openly, 
and without fears incrcafe their persecutions and opptelh'Ons, 
and vex an J affTift ths meeke of the Ezrth , and breake Gods 


7 he ufe of the DoBrine of Gods athuA protldmce. ip e. 

people in pieces • thinking that they fhall never bee called to 
account, and patting farre from them the day of reckoning: Be- 
hold here, the Lord who is the judge all the earth .is a moft provi- 
dent Qod;all their doings are naked and opened to hu eyes , and he 
obferves all their wayes and wicked workesithcir power ftrength 
and grcatneflc is from him, and he wittingly and willingly f offers 
ihem to abufc them to fin 3 and to oppreflion and wrong, and 
onely Co Jong as he pleafeth, that when they have fitted up their 
meafnre , hce may bring them to judgement, and may 
make them a skorne,dcrifion, and footeltolc to 
the righteous whom they have slc,or. 
ncd , hated and opprefled. 

7hu$ much for the o^udll providence of God. 





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